If you look at Ulleungdo (鬱陵島) on the map, you will notice a small neighboring island off its east shore labeled as "于山" (Usan). Korean historians claim that Usando (于山島) was the old Korean name for "Dokdo" (Liancourt Rocks), but the map below shows that "Usan" was just a neighboring island of Ulleungdo. The lines of longitude on the map show Ulleungdo and its neighboring island of Usan to be between the 130 (三十) and 131 degree lines of east longitude. That would exclude the island labeled as "Usan" on the map from being Liancourt Rocks (Dokdo) since Liancourt Rocks is located east of the 131 degree longitude line at 131 degrees 52 minutes. There are sixty minutes in a degree of longitude, which means that Liancourt Rocks are located very close to the 132 degree line.
The following is a map from the chapter on Gangwon Province from the 1901 edition of the "Daehanjiji (大韓地誌). Ulleungdo (鬱陵島) appears on the map because it was considered a part of Gangwon Province in 1901. If you look at Ulleungdo on the map, you should notice that this map also shows "于山" (Usan) as a neighboring island of Ulleungdo, not as Liancourt Rocks (Dokdo). In fact, Usando (于山島) was never shown as Liancourt Rocks (Dokdo) on any map, Korean or Japanese.
The "Cheonggudo" map is 8.7 meters tall and 4.62 meters wide and is the largest of Korea's old maps still in existence. The map is made up of hundreds of ruled paper panels. It is twenty-nine panels high and twenty-two panels wide. The height of each panel represents a measure of 100 ri (40 kilometers), and the width represents a measure of seventy ri (28 kilometers). The rule along the edge of each panel are measured in segments of ten ri (4 kilometers). That means the map shows the length of the Korean peninsula to be about 3,000 ri, and its width to be about 1,500 ri. The scale of the map is about 1/216,000th of actual size.
In one of the scans belows, you can see that two panels were used to represent Ulleungdo. Usan (于山) was drawn about one 10 ri (4 kilometers) segment off the east coast of Ulleungdo. Koreans claim that Usando (于山島) was the old name for "Dokdo" (Liancourt Rocks), but this 1834 map shows that Usando was almost certainly Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo (竹島), which is about 2.2 kilometers off of Ulleungdo's east shore. The islands to the south of Ulleungdo were probably misdrawn since they most likely were supposed to represent the rocks off the northern shore of Ulleungdo, not the southern shore.
By the way, the Chinese text under the island labeled as "Usan" on the Ulleungdo map reads as follows:
“In the 11th year of Yeongjo (1735), Gangwon Provincial Governor Jo Choi-su reported to the king, ‘A survey of Ulleungdo has found that the land is wide and fertile, and there are signs that people have lived there. Also, to its west is Usando, which is also wide and spacious.’ The so-called “west” character is different on this map, where (Usando) is to the east.”
The Korean island of Ulleungdo is labeled on the map as "울릉도" (Ulleungdo) and "울도" (Uldo). "Dokdo" (Liancourt Rocks) was not shown on the map. In fact, the border of the map stops at 130 degrees E. longitude, which means that since "Dokdo" (Liancourt Rocks) is located beyond 130 degrees at 131.52 degrees E. longitude, the independence-minded Koreans who made the map apparently did not consider it to be a part of Korean territory or, at best, not important enough to show on the map. The map also shows the Sea of Japan labeled as "대한해" (Sea of Korea). The map is stored in Korea's "Independence Hall Museum."
辰巳伯州赤崎浦へ四十里 未申至石州温ノ津五十八里 自子至卯無可往地 戌亥間行フ二日一有松嶋 又一日程有竹嶋 （俗言磯竹嶋多竹魚海鹿） 此二嶋無人之地 見高麗如自雲州望隠州 然則日本乾地以 此州為限矣
I will show my translation first:
…named “Oki no kuni” (Country of
Its center is Saigo Toyosaki, south bank of Suki-gun（周吉郡）.
If you go 35-ri south you will get to Miho-no-seki of Unshu.
If you go 40-ri Southeast you’ll get to Akasaki of Hakushu (mid-west
of Tottori prefecture).
If you go 58-ri Southwest you’ll get to Yu-no-tsu of Sekisyu (west of Shimane prefecture).
From north to east there is no place to go.
If you go to northwest you will get to Matsushima in 2 days, and you’ll get
to Takeshima in one more day. (This is so-called Iso-takeshima. Rich in bamboo,
fish and sealions)
These two are uninhibited islands. From there you can view Korea, it is just
like you view Onshu (Oki island) from Unshu (east of Shimane prefecture, mainland of Japan). So then,
the northwest of Japan, we make this place to be the boundary.
The words in green mean the part I added for people who may be not familiar to Japanese names.
Then, please look at the translation from a pro-Korean's site below:
(Notice: The Chinese characters are scrambled and changed to other characters, but I won't touch them.)
Oki Province is in the middle of the North Sea, so it
is also called Oki Island.
To the South lies a land called Do-Jeon (囑鉐), to
which Ji-bu-gun and Hae-bu-gun belong.
To the East lies a land called Do-Hu
(囑・), to which Ju-gil-gun and On-ji-gun belong.
To the Southeast it is 35 ri to Onshu (Province).
To the Southwest it is 40 ri to the territories of
To the Northeast it is 58 ri to On-sein-jin of Seok-ju
(Province) and beyond there is no land.
Going further from there for two
days and one night in the direction of Northwest one reaches Matsushima (Dokdo).
Also there is Takeshima (Ulleungdo) at another day's travel distance.
It is so called Isotakeshima, rich in bamboo,fish, and sealion.
These two islands are uninhabited and getting a sight of Koryo (from there) is like
viewing Oki (Province) from Onshu (Province).
Thus, this "餠" (Oki Province) marks the northwestern boundary of Japan.
The words in red was added by the site owner.
Please take a look sentence by sentence. (I abbreviated the first one or two lines because they were translated from different texts.)
The second sentences in green are from my translation, the third sentences in blue are from the pro-Korean's site.
If you go 35-ri south you will get to Miho-no-seki of Unshu.
To the Southeast it is 35 ri to Onshu (Province).
The pro-Korean site owner's sentence has two errors. 南 means south, not southeast. And Miho-no-seki is in Unshu, not Onshu. (Onshu is Oki.)
If you go 40-ri Southeast you’ll get to Akasaki of Hakushu (mid-west of Tottori prefecture).
To the Southwest it is 40 ri to the territories of Baek-ju (Province)
The pro-Korean site owner's sentence has an error, 辰巳 means southeast, not southwest.
If you go 58-ri Southwest you’ll get to Yu-no-tsu of Sekisyu (west of Shimane prefecture).
To the Northeast it is 58 ri to On-sein-jin of Seok-ju (Province)
The pro-Korean site owner's sentence has an error, 未申 means southwest, not northeast.
From north to east there is no place to go.
and beyond there is no land.
The pro-Korean site owner's sentence has an error. 自(from) 子 means "from north" and 至 (to)卯 means "to east", so the author wrote about from north to east, not "beyond there".
If you go to northwest you will get to Matsushima in 2 days
Going further from there for two days and one night in the direction of Northwest one reaches Matsushima (Dokdo).
(6) 又一日程有竹嶋 （俗言磯竹嶋多竹魚海鹿）
and you’ll get to Takeshima in one more day. (This is so-called Iso-takeshima. Rich in bamboo, fish and sealions)
Also there is Takeshima (Ulleungdo) at another day's travel distance.
It is so called Isotakeshima, rich in bamboo,fish, and sealion.
These two are uninhabited islands.
These two islands are uninhabited
From there you can view Korea, it is just like you view Onshu (Oki island) from Unshu (east of Shimane prefecture, mainland of Japan).
and getting a sight of Koryo (from there) is like viewing Oki (Province) from Onshu (Province).
The pro-Korean site owner's sentence has an error here again. Onshu is Oki, so viewing Oki from Oki doesn't have a meaning. The author is putting emphasis here about viewing Korea (Koryo). He illustrated it as it was seen very near, just like viewing Oki island from mainland of Japan (Unshu).
So then, the northwest of Japan, we make this place to be the boundary.
Thus, this "餠" (Oki Province) marks the northwestern boundary of Japan.
The word in red is added by the pro-Korean site owner. You may notice how arbitrary the added word is. And the translation of this sentence by the pro-Korean site owner is slightly lack in accuracy. The direct translation is: So then （然則), the northwest land of Japan (日本乾地), with this place (以此州),
(we) make it the boundary (為限). The author didn't say "the northwestern boundary".
The author Saito Hosen put emphasis on "viewing Korea" and it was "just like" viewing Oki from mainland of Japan. So the boundary in the last sentence should be the place where the author saw Korea. It can't be Oki because Saito wrote that it was "just like" viewing Oki, which means it was not Oki he saw. The author only wrote "此州" (this place, or this state, or this island) but the pro-Korean site owner added "Oki Province" intentionally.
So everyone should be alert when you read translated texts. I recommend you to read translated texts from reliable sources and when you read them you should also take a look at the original documents.
Addendum: Saito Hosen wrote that the place of "Northwest" should be the boundary. The pro-Korean owner insists that he meant Oki island, but Oki is located just north of mainland of Japan. Please take a look at the map of Japan. The place of "Northwest" of Japan is definitely Takeshima (Ulleungdo).
Japan and Korea are no longer disputing each other's claim to Ulleungdo since Japan conceded Ulleungdo to Korea in the 1690s, but the two countries are disputing over Liancourt Rocks, which are a small group of rock islets about ninety-two kilometers southeast of Korea's Ulleungdo and about 160 kilometers northwest of Japan's Oki Islands. Koreans call the rocks "Dokdo," and Japanese call them Takeshima (竹島), which was also the former Japanese name for Ulleungdo. The Jang Han-sang expedition to Ulleungdo in 1694 is significant in the Dokdo/Takeshima debate for a few reasons. One reason is that it seems to be the only time that Liancourt Rocks (Dokdo/Takeshima) was mentioned in Korean records. In the record, no name was given for Liancourt Rocks, but Jang Han-sang said that he saw, from a peak on Ulleungdo, an island in the distance, about 300 ri (120 kilometers) southeast of Ulleungdo. We know that he did not travel to Liancourt Rocks because he estimated the size of the island to be about one third the size of Ulleungdo; however, Ulleungdo is actually about 391 times bigger than Liancourt Rocks.
Another reason the Jang Han-sang expedition to Ulleungdo is significant in the Dokdo/Takeshima debate is that Jang Han-sang said that Ulleungdo was "the so-called Sambong" (此所謂 三峯), which was a reference to Sambongdo (三峯島). "Sambongdo" means "Island of Three Peaks." Koreans say that Sambongdo was one of the old names for "Dokdo" (Liancourt Rocks), but Jang Han-sang's report and other references to Sambongdo in Korean documents show that Sambongdo was just another name for Ulleungdo.
A third reason that the Jang Han-sang expedition is significant is that he reported seeing a small island about five ri (2 kilometers) off the east coast of Ulleungdo. He said that the island had groves of haejang bamboo (海長竹) on one side. The island he was talking about was almost certainly Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo, which is about 2.2 kilometers off Ulleungdo's east shore. The fact that he said the island had groves of haejang bamboo (海長竹 or 海藏竹) on it is also significant because haejang bamboo is a particular type of bamboo that can grow seven meters tall. On a 1711 map of Ulleungdo, made by Ulleungdo Inspector Bak Chang-seok (朴昌錫), there is a small island off the east coast of Ulleungdo labeled "Groves of Haejang Bamboo, the so-called Usando" (海長竹田, 所謂于山島). Koreans claim that Usando was the old Korean name for "Dokdo" (Liancourt Rocks), but Jang's 1711 maps shows that Usando could not have been Dokdo because Dokdo does not have the soil to grow "groves of haejang bamboo." Besides, Dokdo is ninety-two kilometers southeast of Ulleungdo, but Jang's map shows Usando just offshore of Ulleungdo.
Considered together, Jang Han-sang's 1694 expedition report and Bak Chang-seok's 1711 map make it quite clear that "Usando" was not Liancourt Rocks, but was, instead, an old name for Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo (竹島), which, by the way, does have bamboo growing on it.
Here is the relevant portion of Jang Han-sang's 1694 report (蔚陵島事蹟) and scans of Bak Chang-seok's 1711 map of Ulleungdo. Notice that in the center of the island on Bak's map, he drew three peaks (三峯) in a way that they stood out from the surrounding peaks. This is more evidence that Sambongdo (三峯島 - "Island of Three Peaks") was just another name for Ulleungdo.
Excerpt form the 1694 "Ulleungdo Sajeok" (蔚陵島事蹟)
About five ri to the east is one small island. It is not very big or very high, and it has a grove of haejang bamboo (海長竹) growing thickly on one side. On a day the rain clouds cleared and the fog settled, we went into the mountains and climbed the central peak. Two tall mountains to the north and south were facing us. This was the so-called Sambong (三峯 - "Three Peaks"). The winding shape of Daegwanryeon (大關嶺 - mountain range on the east coast of the Korean peninsula) was visible to the west. Looking toward the east, there was one island far off to the southeast. The size was only about one-third of Ulleungdo. It was only about 300 ri [120 kilometers] away.
동쪽으로 5리 (2킬로) 쯤에 한 작은 섬이 있는데, 고대(高大)하지 않으며 해장죽 (海長竹)이 한쪽면에 무더기로 자라고 있다. 비 개고 안개 가라앉는 날 산으로 들어가 중봉에 오르면 남북 양봉(兩峯)이 높다랗게 마주보고 있는데 이를 삼봉(三峯)이라고 한다. 서쪽을 바라보면 대관령의 구불구불한 모습이 보이고 동쪽을 바라보면 바다 가운데 한 섬이 보이는데 아득히 진방(辰方)에 위치하며 그 크기는 울도의 3분의 1 미만이고 (거리는) 삼백여 리에 불과하다.
東方五里許 有一小島 不甚高大 海長竹叢生於一面 霽雨?捲之日 入山登中峯 則南北兩峯 岌崇相面 此所謂三峯也 西望大關嶺逶迤之狀 東望海中有一島 杳在辰方 而其大滿蔚島三分之一 不過三百餘里.
혐한 외국인, 게리베버가 독도 사이트 개설
가천길대학에서 영어강사하다 짤린 게리 베버라는 녀석이 만든,독도는 일본 영토라는 사이트,
이 자의 주장은, 우산도가 죽도나 관음도라고 주장하는 쪽임.
지도를 가지고 그럴듯하게 논리를 꾸며대는데 능하므로 이 사이트의 주장을 논파하는 논리 구축과, 대응되는 영어판 독도 사이트의 개설이 시급함.그 사이트에 직접 코멘트를 달지 말것! 일부러 혐한 사이트를 유명하게 만들뿐이므로!
추천 : 0, 조회 : 38
그 사람 짤렸는지 모르지만, 어디에선가 또 영어강사를 하고 있습니다. 참...댁이 써주신 웹사이트는 그냥 혐한사이트가 아니라 일본인전용 독도전문자료사이트입니다.그 외의 주장은 무시되는 곳이죠.유명한 사이트도 아닙니다. 독도에 대한 일본측의 주장이 어떤 것인가 보려면 방문해보는 것도 좋습니다.
이 사이트 방문한 적이 있습니다.Gerry-Bevers는 일본 극우의 하수인이죠. 그가 접하는 자료 거의 대부분이 혐한 일본인에게 받은 겁니다. 물론 그 자신이 찾은 자료나 새로운 소설을 쓴 것도 있죠. 그러나 큰 틀에서의 주장은 일본 극우학자들의 논리를 그대로 카피한 것입니다. 혐한들의 주장과 다를 것이 하나도 없어요. 이젠 자신을 위해서라도 그만할 때가 됐는데.... 뭐, 자신의 무덤을 스스로 파는 행위는 어쩔 수 없죠. 또 모르죠? 생계를 걱정하지 않아도 될, 누군가의 지원이 있을지도....전, 그가 왜 아직도 한국에 남아 있기를 고집하는지 이해할 수 없습니다.한국을 떠나 자신의 고국에서 독도에 대한 글을 올려도 좋을 텐데.... 이건, 실례가 되는 발언인가요? 여하튼 전, 그 부분에 의구심을 가지고 있어요. 아무래도 한국을 떠나면, 그의 주장이 빛을 잃게 될 가능성이 큽니다. 한국에 살고 있는 전직 교수 외국인과 한국과는 아무 관련이 없는 외국인은 그 어감이 크게 다르죠.
일단, 제 사이트를 영문화하기 위해서는 현재의 글을 좀더 다듬고, 오류나 오기를 시정하여, 지금껏 모아둔 새자료를 업데이트하고 구성하는 작업이 우선 되어야 합니다. 지금 예정으로는 11월달은 그러한 작업을 하고, 12월부터는 본격적으로 영문화를 시도할 생각입니다. 그런데, 모든 것이 제 뜻대로만 이루어지는 것은 아니더군요. 적어도 최선을 다하겠다는 약속은 드릴 수 있습니다.
한마음씨가, 왜 독도 자료를 모으고 토론하세요? 역사 공부는 재미가 있어서 그러시는 거지요? 저도 재미 있어서 하는 거에요. 한국을 욕하려고 하는 것이 아니고 그냥 역사 진실를 알고 싶어서 하는 거에요. 한국 독도 주장에 대하여 그 반론을 하려며는 왜 한국을 먼저 떠나야 할 수 있다고 생각하세요? 한국 영토 안에서 이견이 있으면 안 되는 법이 있어요? 한국에서는 독도에 대한 이견자유가 정말 없으세요? 독도이견을 가진 사람은 왜 생계 협박을 받게 되는 건가요?
일본 극우학자들이 독도에 대하여 무슨 생각, 무슨 말하는지 모르겠어요. 제가 일본어로 쓴 책이 없고 있어도 못 읽는 무식한 사람이에요. 제가 가지고 있는 책은 하나 빼고 다 한국 사람들이 쓴 책이에요. 그리고 한국 사람이 안 쓴 그 한 권은 나이토세이쮸우씨가 쓴 책을 번역한 "獨島와 竹島"인 거예요. 제가 알기로는 그 분은 일본극우가 아닌 사람이에요.
그리고 아무한테서 지원을 받는 것이 없어요. 한마음씨가 왜 그런 생각을 하는 지 모르겠어요. 제가 영어 강사로 일하는 것 뿐이에요.제가 한국을 좋아해서 한국에서 사는 거에요. 한국사람의 역사절대주의 빼고는 모든 한국 문화가 좋아요.
감정이 아니고, 과학적으로 이성적인 눈으로 한번 더 재검토해 보세요.
이하가 지금까지 우리가 조사하고 사실이라고 생각한 항목입니다.
(1) 우야마시마는 독도(Liancourt rocks)는 아니다.
이하의 투고를 봐 주세요.(영어로 써 있습니다만, 여러분에게는 읽을 수 있을 것입니다.)
(2) 대한제국(1897-1910)에서는 조선의 동쪽의 국경은 울능도라고 생각하고 있었다.
따라서 1900년의 칙령 41호에 쓰여진 이시지마는 독도는 아니다.
이하의 투고를 봐 주세요.
(3) 안용복은 「일본의 마츠시마는 우야마시마다」라고 주장했지만, 안용복자신이 우야마시마가 어디에 있는지, 어떤 섬인가 이해하고 있지 않다.안용복의 진술은 2전재역전 하고 있고, 신뢰를 둘 수 없다.이러한 인물의 진술이 한 명 걷고 , 우야마시마=일본의 마츠시마(독도)라면 한국에서는 오해 받고 있지만, 근거가 없는 설이다.
그 밖에도 일본에는 17 세기부터 독도에 건너고 있던 역사가 있어, 독도의 정확한 지도가 많이 남아 있는 것, 17 세기의 한일의 교섭으로 타케시마(울능도)는 한국령과 결정했지만 마츠시마(독도)는 한국에 건네주지 않았던 것, 유감스럽지만 한국에는 독도의 정확한 지도가 한 장도 없었던 것이나 독도라는 이름도 1900년대가 되고 처음으로 문헌(게다가 일본의 문헌)에 등장하는 것부터 한국은 독도를 근년까지 몰랐던 가능성이 높은 일, 등등 많은 사실이 이 사이트에서 다루어지고 있습니다.부디 이성적인 눈으로 읽혀지고, 반론이 있으면 투고해 주세요.(할 수 있으면 간단한 영어로 좋기 때문에, 영어로의 투고를 부탁합니다.그러면 여러분의 의견이 온 세상의 사람에게 읽혀지게 되고, 공평한 의견교환을 할 수 있다고 생각합니다.)
KBS Documentary (August 16 ~ 19, 2004)
- The Father-Son Island, Part 1 (父子의 섬 1부)
- The Father-Son Island, Part 2 (父子의 섬 2부)
- The Father-Son Island, Part 3 (父子의 섬 3부)
- The Father-Son Island, Part 4 (父子의 섬 4부)
At the time of the following entry, Ulleungdo, the "main island" (本島), was called "Yusan-gukdo" (流山國島 = 유산국도), and its smaller, neighboring island was called "Muleungdo" (武陵島), which was an alternate spelling of "Ulleungdo" (鬱陵島). The entry says that more than sixty people grew up on "Muleungdo," but that they later moved to the "main island" (本島), which was "Yusan-gukdo."
1412 Entry from the Annals of King Taejong (1412年 4月 15日 - 太宗 23卷)
Ulleungdo Map from a 1750's Atlas:
"강원도 관찰사가 울릉도 유산국의 섬 사람에 대해 보고하다"
의정부(議政府)에 명하여 유산국도(流山國島) 사람을 처치하는 방법을 의논하였다. 강원도 관찰사가 보고하였다.
“유산국도(流山國島) 사람 백가물(百加勿) 등 12명이 고성(高城) 어라진(於羅津)에 와서 정박하여 말하기를, ‘우리들은 무릉도(武陵島)2128) 에서 생장하였는데, 그 섬 안의 인호(人戶)가 11호이고, 남녀가 모두 60여 명인데, 지금은 본도(本島)로 옮겨 와 살고 있습니다. 이 섬이 동에서 서까지 남에서 북까지가 모두 2식(息) 거리이고, 둘레가 8식(息) 거리입니다. 우마(牛馬)와 논이 없으나, 오직 콩 한 말만 심으면 20석 혹은 30석이 나고, 보리 1석을 심으면 50여 석이 납니다. 대[竹]가 큰 서까래 같고, 해착(海錯)2129) 과 과목(果木)이 모두 있습니다.’고 하였습니다. 이 사람들이 도망하여 갈까 염려하여, 아직 통주(通州)·고성(高城)·간성(杆城)에 나누어 두었습니다.”
○命議政府議處流山國島人。 江原道觀察使報云: “流山國島人白加勿等十二名, 求泊高城於羅津, 言曰: ‘予等生長武陵, 其島內人戶十一, 男女共六十餘, 今移居本島。 是島自東至西自南至北, 皆二息, 周回八息。 無牛馬水田, 唯種豆一斗出二十石或三十石, 麥一石出五十餘石; 竹如大椽; 海錯果木皆在焉。’ 竊慮此人等逃還, 姑分置于通州、高城、杆城。”
Sambongdo's Neighboring Island (Jukdo)
Koreans also claim that Sambongdo (三峯島) was an old name for "Dokdo," but Sambongdo was just another name for Ulleungdo, which has three prominent peaks that are mentioned quite often in old Korean documents. "Sambongdo" means "Island of Three Peaks."
The following is from an August 30, 1479 entry from the Annals of King Seongjong. In the entry, Korean officials are discussing how to remove illegal squatters on Sambongdo. The officials mention a small island next to Sambongdo where two families are living. It is suggested that the small island be captured first, which would give the soldiers time to assess the situation on Sambongdo before trying to capture that island's people. It was first suggested that 1,500 soldiers be used to take the island of Sambongdo, but one of the officials felt that was too many and said that 300 or 400 could do it. Of course, the Sambongdo being referred to was Ulleungdo, and the small neighboring island was almost certainly Jukdo, not Liancourt Rocks.
1479 Entry from the Annals of King Seongjong (1479年 8月 30日 - 成宗 107券)
"영안도 경차관 신중거와 삼봉도 토벌·초무를 의논하다"
명하여 증경 정승(曾經政丞)과 부원군(府院君) 등을 불러 선정전(宣政殿)에 나아가 인견(引見)하고, 또 영안도 경차관(永安道敬差官) 신중거(辛仲琚)를 불러 들였다. 임금이 말하기를,
하니, 좌승지(左承旨) 김승경(金升卿)이 아뢰기를,
하고, 정창손(鄭昌孫)은 말하기를,“삼봉도 사람이 알고서 내습(來襲)하면 어찌하겠습니까?”
하니, 임금이 말하기를,
“만약에 그렇다면 관군(官軍)이 욕(辱)을 볼까 두렵다.”
하였다. 도승지(都承旨) 홍귀달(洪貴達)이 아뢰기를,“
5진(鎭)9884) 의 인성(人性)은 본래 공(功)을 탐(貪)하므로 적(賊)이 만약 범경(犯境)하면, 타경(他境)으로 하여금 알지 못하게 하고서 스스로 그 공(功)을 독차지하려고 할 것이니, 만약 중한 상(賞)으로써 모집하면 반드시 취하는 자가 있을 것입니다.”
하고, 신중거(辛仲琚)는 말하기를,
“삼봉(三峯)의 수로(水路)는 5월·9월은 바람이 순조롭고 바다가 맑으니, 이 때라야 갈 만합니다. 만약 그렇다면 영안도(永安道)는 도로(道路)가 아득하게 막혔으니, 금년 9월에 미처 가지 못할 것 같습니다.”
하고, 정창손은 말하기를,
“반드시 들어가 토벌해야 한다면 늦출 수 없습니다. 만약 저 사람들로 하여금 우리가 장차 토벌할 것을 알게 하여서 방비가 있으면 크게 불가합니다.”
하니, 임금이 말하기를,
“대거(大擧)하여 속히 토벌함이 마땅하니, 전졸(戰卒) 1천 5백을 씀이 어떻겠는가?”
하였다. 우부승지(右副承旨) 채수(蔡壽)가 아뢰기를,
“이 정도의 수(數)는 필요가 없습니다. 비록 3,4백이라도 가(可)할 것입니다. 그러나 북쪽 사람은 모두 마상선(麻尙船)9885) 을 사용하는데, 창망(蒼茫)한 큰 바다를 어찌 마상선으로써 군사를 건널 수 있겠습니까? 또 저 섬[島]의 지세(地勢)가 험하고 평이한 것과 사는 사람의 많고 적음도 알지 못하니, 대군(大軍)을 함부로 동원하여 불측(不測)한 모험을 무릅쓰는 것은 옳지 못할 것 같습니다.”
하고, 신중거가 아뢰기를,
“들으니, 어명산(魚命山)이 도망하여 들어갔을 때에 남의 초마선(哨麻船)을 훔쳐타고 갔다고 합니다.”하니, 임금이 말하기를,“
수로(水路)는 며칠 길이 되며 그 섬에 배를 정박할 곳은 몇 군데나 있는가?”하였다. 신중거가 대답하기를,“
사람이 말하기를, ‘이틀 길이고, 배를 정박할 곳도 많이 있다.’고 합니다.”
하고, 우승지(右承旨) 이경동(李瓊仝)이 아뢰기를,“
저들도 우리 나라 사람이니, 어찌 관병(官兵)에게 저항 할 리가 있겠습니까? 사람을 보내어 초무(招撫)함이 어떻겠습니까?”
하니, 임금이 말하기를,
“그 사람들이 관역(官役)을 일삼지 않고 안업(安業)하면서 사는데, 그들이 즐겨 오겠는가?”
하였다. 홍귀달이 말하기를,
“만약에 초무(招撫)하려면 한 가지 방법이 아니고, 반드시 이해(利害)를 개진(開陣)하여 다방면으로 유도해야 할 것입니다. 다만 이제 9월이 이미 박두하였으므로, 전함(戰艦)의 모든 일은 반드시 미처 판비하지 못할 것이니, 명년(明年) 2,3월을 기다려 보내는 것이 어떻겠습니까?”
하니, 임금이 말하기를,
“도승지(都承旨)가 말한 것은 마땅하다. 이 일은 끝내 비밀히 할 수가 없으니, 이제 감사(監司)와 절도사(節度使)에게 유시하여 전함(戰艦)을 준비하게 하고, 군사를 크게 동원한다고 소문을 내면 저들이 혹 귀복(歸服)할 이치도 있을 것이다.”
하자, 모두 말하기를,
“상교(上敎)가 진실로 지당합니다.”
○命召曾經政丞及府院君等, 御宣政殿, 引見, 又召永安道敬差官辛仲琚以入。 上曰: 三峯島人, 有拒敵官軍之勢, 欲與卿等議處置。” 左承旨金升卿啓曰: “三峯島旁有小島, 全君子等二戶, 逃居其中。 若募本道之人, 出其不意而往, 則可及三峯島人未覺之時, 取小島兩家矣。 然後審其形勢, 遣人討之何如? 鄭昌孫曰: “三峯島人, 無乃覺而來襲乎?” 上曰: “若然則官軍恐受辱矣。” 都承旨洪貴達啓曰: “五鎭人性, 本貪功, 賊若犯境, 欲使他境不知, 而自專其功, 若募以重賞, 必有取之者。” 辛仲琚言: “三峯水路, 五月九月風便海淸, 獨於此時可往。 若然則永安道, 道路遙隔, 今年九月, 似未及往也。” 昌孫曰: “若必入討, 則不可緩也。 若使彼人, 知我將討, 而有備, 則大不可也。” 上曰: “當大擧速討, 用戰卒一千五百若何?” 右副承旨蔡壽啓曰: “不須此數。 雖三四百可矣。 然北人皆用麻尙船, 蒼茫大海, 安可以麻尙船濟師哉? 且不識彼島地勢險夷, 居人多寡, 輕擧大軍, 以冒不測之險, 似未便。” 辛仲琚啓曰: “聞魚命山逃入時, 竊人哨麻船騎去矣。” 上曰: “水路幾日程, 其島泊船處有幾?” 仲琚對曰: “人言可二日程, 泊船處, 亦多有之。” 右承旨李瓊仝啓曰: “彼亦我國人, 安有拒敵官兵之理乎? 遣人招撫何如?” 上曰: “其人不事官役, 安業而居, 其肯來乎?” 洪貴達曰: “若招撫, 則非一端, 必開陳利害, 多方以誘之矣。 但今九月已迫, 戰艦諸事, 必不及辦, 待明年二三月遣之何如?” 上曰: “都承旨所言當矣。 此事終不可密, 今諭監司及節度使, 使備戰艦, 聲言大擧, 則彼或有歸服之理。” 僉曰: “上敎允當。”
1904 Sep 25 - First Record of "Dokdo" for Liancourt Rocks
1904年9月、日本帝国海軍は軍艦新高を、鬱陵島と朝鮮半島蔚珍近くの竹邊の間に電信ケーブルを敷設する為に鬱陵島に派遣しました。9月25日の航海日誌に、鬱陵島の日本人が個人的に竹島/Liancourt Rocksを訪れ、さらにその島を韓国人は"獨島"と書き、日本人漁民はリャンコ島と呼んでいる、と話していたことが記録されています。彼は又、竹島/Liancourt Rocksにはある程度真水が湧いていると述べています。さらに、松島（鬱陵島）からアシカ猟にやってくる人々は、日本の舟を使用した、と述べており、それは例え韓国人がこの猟に参加していたとしても、それは日本人の配下の元で雇われて働いていた事を示しています。
韓国側のウェブサイトが何を言おうと、又何をほのめかしても、"獨島"が竹島/Liancourt Rocksを指す言葉としてはこれが初出の記録なのです。この前年の1903年には、日本の文書（訳注：『韓海通漁指針』葛生修吉著。）の中で、韓国人漁民は、日本人と同じ名称（ヤンコ）を竹島/Liancourt Rocksを指すのに使っていたと書かれています。それはつまり、韓国人が直近に、この岩（竹島）について日本人から教えてもらったという事を示唆しています。1903年以前に、韓国人が竹島/Liancourt Rocksへ行った事を示す地図も古文書さえも何一つ無いのです。
1901 "Daehanjiji" (大韓地誌) Map of Korea's Gangwon Province
1901年に発行された大韓帝国の地理書「大韓地誌」とそのの附属の江原道地図です。著者は玄采、発行は廣文社です。地図では"于山"が鬱陵島の隣接島として描かれており、さらにその位置から言って鬱陵島の隣接島である竹嶼であることは間違いないでしょう。韓国側は于山島が"獨島（独島）（竹島/Liancourt Rocks）"の古名である、と主張しますが、この地図も、そしてその他の多くの地図も 、それが真実ではない事を示す証拠になっています。
1899年の大韓帝国皇城新聞の記事 によると、于山島竹島が鬱陵島の最も顕著な島である、とあります。韓国の歴史学者は、"于山島竹島"を二つの別々の島である、と解釈していますが、韓国の古文献や古地図の例では、こうした場合はむしろ一つの島が、二つの異なる名前を持っていた、と考えるのがより適切だと思われます。"于山島竹島"と、"于山島"が"竹島"の前に来ていますよね?この事は、たとええこれが二つの島を指していたとしても、于山島の方が先に来ていることからより大きな島である事を示しています。鬱陵島の隣接島の竹嶼は竹島/Liancourt Rocksより遥かに大きいので、やはりこの竹嶼が"于山島"と呼ばれていた事を示しているのです。それに、鬱陵島から92ｋｍも離れた竹島/Liancourt Rocks/独島が、本当に鬱陵島の隣接島として認識されていたのでしょうか？
Ulleungdo Inspector Bak Chang-seok's (朴昌錫) 1711 Inscription
朴昌錫は、この竹島問題にあっては大変重要な人物です。というのも、1711年の検察の際に鬱稜島の地図を書き残しており、その地図に描かれた于山島が、鬱稜島の隣接島である竹嶼を示しているからなのです。実際、他の多くの韓国の古地図でも、于山島は、ほぼ間違いなく鬱稜島の隣接島である竹嶼として描いているのですが、韓国人はいつも、これらの地図にある于山島は、現在の竹島（韓国名独島=ドクト）で、単に便宜所上鬱稜島の隣に描かれているに過ぎない、と主張します。実際、Steve Barber(Toadface)氏はこうした主張を以前は繰り広げていました。（最近はそうした主張をすることがありませんが。）朴昌錫の地図がその他の地図とは異なっている点は、于山島の上に"所謂于山島"だけではなく、"海長竹田"とも書かれていることにあります。海長竹は、7メートル近くにも成長するある特定の種類の竹であるため、韓国人が自信を持ってこの地図に描かれた于山島が"独島"だ、などと言い張ることが出来ないのです。というのも、竹島(Liancourt Rocks)というのは、竹が生育するのに必要な土壌が存在しない不毛の岩に過ぎないからです。
幸いなことに、独島博物館の館長を含む韓国人の中に、これらの古地図に描かれた于山島は竹嶼である、と認める人々が出始めました 。その代わり、彼らは今度はこう主張し始めています。こうした古地図は不正確であるので、むしろ(1690年後半に2度日本へやって来た)安龍福という水夫の”倭の松島は于山島”という証言に注目すべきである、と言う訳です。言い替えれば、朝鮮政府の高官である人物の描いた地図を無視し、代わりに皆が認める偽証だらけの罪人の言う言葉だけを信じるべきである、といっている事になるのですが、韓国人は不思議とこれを疑問に思わないようです。彼らは又、安龍福が「松島（現在の竹島=Liancourt Rocks）と鬱陵島の距離は朝鮮半島の海岸から鬱陵島間での距離より遠い」「鬱稜島よりずっと大きい」などの、不正確な証言を行っていることも、別に気にならないようです。実際、安の証言には辻褄が合わないことが大変多いのですが、他に竹島に対する領有権の主張を支えるような地図は全く無く、古文書についてもほぼ無きに等しいため、安龍福のこの証言が最大の望みであることから、そうした矛盾点は気にしないようです。
Inspector's Map of Ulleungdo Shows Jasando (子山嶋)?
左の写真は、朝鮮時代の鬱陵島検察使の一人がが描いた鬱陵島の地図です。 制作年は不明ですが、韓国の放送局であるKBSが放送した李奎遠の特集番組に出て来たものです。KBSのウェブサイトに登録していれば、視聴が可能です 。大変面白いものでした。17分38秒当たりにこの地図がでてきます。
Japan's 1907 "Joseon Seaways Directory" (朝鮮水路誌)
「朝鮮水路誌」（第二改版）は、明治政府の帝国海軍によって明治四十年（1907年）3月刊行されました。竹島（Liancourt Rocks）の記載のある部分です。興味深いのは、日本の漁民達は竹島を"リャンコ島"と呼び、韓国人は"獨島"と書いたと記されている事です。これは、1904年の戦艦新高の報告に始めてでてきました。しかし、1903年発行の文書（訳注：『韓海通漁指針』葛生修吉著 。大韓帝国の漁業規則や漁業組合、沿海地理などの漁業に関する書籍。）では、韓国人漁民は、日本人と同じ名称（ヤンコ）を竹島/Liancourt Rocksを指すのに使っていたと書かれています。それはつまり、韓国人が直近にこの岩（竹島）について日本人から教えてもらったと言う事を示唆しています。1903年以前に、韓国人が竹島/Liancourt Rocksへ行った事を示す地図も古文書さえも何一つ無いのです。
ところで、獨島（独島）と言う名前は、そもそも"独立した島"と言う意味で、この名称自体は韓国の古い文献によく使用されているのが見受けられます。事実、鬱陵島自体も"獨島（独島）"として記述されたことがあるのです。韓国人は、後にその名称を竹島/Liancourt Rocksを呼ぶのに採用しました。韓国漁民が竹島/Liancourt Rocksを呼ぶのに"于山島"と言う名称を一度も使ったことが無い、と言う事実は、韓国側の于山島が竹島/Liancourt Rocksの昔の呼び名である、という主張を崩す更なる証拠と言えます。
1905 June - Japanese Cruiser Surveys Takeshima (Liancourt Rocks)
Japan & Korea Argue Their Claims in 1950s Letters
1953年7月13日 -- 日本政府による竹島についての説明 (英文) (pp. 15 - 20)
1953年9月09日 -- 韓国政府による返答 (英文) (pp. 31 - 40)
1954年2月10日 -- 日本政府による返答 (英文) (pp. 44 - 58 )
1954年9月25日 -- 韓国政府による返答 (韓国語) (pp. 78 - 93)
1956年7月20日 -- 日本政府による返答 (日本語) (pp. 139 - 153)
1954年9月25日 -- 日本政府による国際司法裁判所(ICJ)への付託の提案 (pp. 74 - 75)
1954年10月26日 -- 韓国政府が日本のICJ付託の提案を拒否 (pp. 119 - 121)
1882 April 7 - King Kojong says Usando Neighboring Island of Ulleungdo
高宗 19卷, 19年( 1882 壬午 / 청 광서(光緖) 8年) 4月 7日 壬戌
辭陛也。 敎曰: “鬱陵島, 近有他國人物之無常往來, 任自占便之弊云矣。 且松竹島、芋山島, 在於鬱陵島之傍, 而其相距遠近何如, 亦月何物與否未能詳知。
今番爾行, 特爲擇差者, 各別檢察。 且將設邑爲計, 必以圖形與別單, 詳細錄達也。” 奎遠曰: “芋山島卽鬱陵島, 而芋山古之國都名也。 松竹島卽一小島,
而與鬱陵島, 相距爲三數十里。 其所産卽檀香與簡竹云矣。” 敎曰: “或稱芋山島, 或稱松竹島, 皆《輿地勝覽》所載也。 而又稱松島、竹島,
與芋山島爲三島統稱鬱陵島矣。 其形便一體檢察。 鬱陵島本以三陟營將、越松萬戶, 輪回搜檢者, 而擧皆未免疎忽。 只以外面探來, 故致有此弊。
爾則必詳細察得也。” 奎遠曰: “謹當深入檢察矣。 或稱松島、竹島, 在於鬱陵島之東, 而此非松竹島以外, 別有松島、竹島也。” 敎曰:
“或有所得聞於曾往搜檢人之說耶?” 奎遠曰: “曾往搜檢之人, 未得逢著。 而轉聞其梗槪矣。”
鬱陵島の隣接島の数について、二人の意見が食い違っていることがお分かりでしょうか。高宗は「二つある」と言い、李は「一つしかない」と言っています。また、王は「"松竹島"と "芋山島" は鬱陵島の隣接島である」と言い、一方李は「"于山島"は鬱陵島の別名に過ぎず、"松竹島"が鬱陵島の唯一の隣接島である」と答えています。王はそれでもまだ自説にこだわり、"松島"と"竹島"と言う名が"于山島"とともに使われており、三島で所謂鬱陵島を形成している、と述べています。李はしかしそれに同意せず、「松島と竹島が鬱陵島の東にある」と言う者はいるが、実際は松竹島と言う一つの島があるのみで、松島と竹島と言う別々の島があるわけではない、と答えています。
李は、松竹島までの距離は、鬱陵島の岸から"三数十里"である、と述べています。それ早く、8-12ｋｍ（当時の韓国の一里は約0.4ｋｍ）で、実際の鬱陵島の隣どの隣接島よりも遠いことになります。ドクト論者の中には、この"松竹島"が独島（竹島/Liancourt Rocks）の可能性がある、と言う人もいますが、竹島/Liancourt Rocksは鬱陵島から8-12ｋｍではなく、92ｋｍも離れており、しかも、檀香と簡竹が生えている、と述べている事から、そんな可能性はまったくありません。松竹島は、鬱陵島の隣接島である竹島（現在の韓国名：本サイトでは現竹島と区別する為に竹嶼と言う名称で統一しています。）であることは、ほぼ間違いありません。この竹島（竹嶼）は高宗と李のそれぞれが松竹島の別名としてあげた二つの名前の内の一つでもある事も鑑みて、確実です。
名前の混乱 : 于山島，松竹島，松島と竹島
On the Korean Web site "Daum," there is a post urging Koreans to come to this blog and vote for "Dokdo." Looking at the post, it seems to be part of a "signature drive" service offered by Daum.
Maybe some of the Koreans who come here to vote will read some of the posts on our site, but I am afraid that most will just come and mindlessly vote "Dokdo."
The post says that by voting for "Dokdo" and posting the link to other sites, Koreans can tell the world that "Dokdo" belongs to them. However, yelling that something is yours and proving that something is yours are two different things. Yelling may work in Korea, but it does not work very well in the US or other countries.
Here is my translation of the conversation between King Kojong and Lee Gyu-won, as reported HERE in the Records of King Kojong (高宗 19卷, 19年 4月 7日 壬戌):
The 7th Day
Inspector Lee Gyu-won was called before the king to give his farewell greeting.
The king says, “It is reported that these days there is the evil practice of foreigners freely travelling to and from Ulleungdo and doing as they please. Also, Songjukdo (松竹島) and Usando (于山島) are next to Ulleungdo, but there are no details of their distance and what resources they have. You were chosen especially for this trip, so carry out your inspection with particular attention. We also have plans to establish a settlement there, so be sure to prepare a detailed map and report.”
Lee Gyu-won replied, “Usando is just Ulleungdo. Usan was the name of the ancient country’s capital. Songjukdo is a small island about three to ten ri offshore (相距爲三數十里). The products there are juniper (檀香) and pipestem bamboo (簡竹).”
The king said, “Both Usando or Songjukdo (敎曰 或稱芋山島 或稱松竹島) are written in the Yeojiseungram (輿地勝覽). Songdo (松島) and Jukdo (竹島) are also used [for Songjukdo], and together with Usando, three islands combine to make up what is called Ulleungdo (而又稱松島竹島與芋山島爲三島統稱鬱陵島矣). Inspect the situation on all of them. Originally, the Samcheok commander (三陟營將) and the Wolsong commander (越松萬戶) have taken turns surveying Ulleungdo, but almost all of them have been careless. They inspected only the exterior of the island, which has led to these evil practices.
Lee Gyu-won said, “I will go deep inside and conduct my inspection. Even though some say that Songdo and Jukdo are east of Ulleungdo, there is only Songjukdo, no separate Songdo and Jukdo.”
The king asked, “Did you possibly hear that from previous inspectors?”
Lee Gyu-won said, “I have not met previous inspectors, but that is the general information I have heard.”--------------------------------
初七日。 召見檢察使李奎遠。 辭陛也。 敎曰: “鬱陵島, 近有他國人物之無常往來, 任自占便之弊云矣。 且松竹島、芋山島, 在於鬱陵島之傍, 而其相距遠近何如, 亦月何物與否未能詳知。 今番爾行, 特爲擇差者, 各別檢察。 且將設邑爲計, 必以圖形與別單, 詳細錄達也。” 奎遠曰: “芋山島卽鬱陵島, 而芋山古之國都名也。 松竹島卽一小島, 而與鬱陵島, 相距爲三數十里。 其所産卽檀香與簡竹云矣。” 敎曰: “或稱芋山島, 或稱松竹島, 皆《輿地勝覽》所載也。 而又稱松島、竹島, 與芋山島爲三島統稱鬱陵島矣。 其形便一體檢察。 鬱陵島本以三陟營將、越松萬戶, 輪回搜檢者, 而擧皆未免疎忽。 只以外面探來, 故致有此弊。 爾則必詳細察得也。” 奎遠曰: “謹當深入檢察矣。 或稱松島、竹島, 在於鬱陵島之東, 而此非松竹島以外, 別有松島、竹島也。” 敎曰: “或有所得聞於曾往搜檢人之說耶?” 奎遠曰: “曾往搜檢之人, 未得逢著。 而轉聞其梗槪矣。”Disagreement on the Number of Neighboring Islands
Notice that King Kojong and Lee Gyu-won disagreed on the number of Ulleungdo's neighboring islands. King Kojong said there were two, but Lee said there was only one. The king said "Songjukdo" (松竹島) and "Usando" (芋山島) were neighboring islands of Ulleungdo, but Lee said that Usando was just another name for Ulleungdo and that Songjukdo was the only neighboring island. King Kojong persisted and said that the names "Songdo" (松島) and "Jukdo" (竹島) were also used and that together with Usando, three islands made up what was called Ulleungdo. Lee Gyu-won, however, did not concede to the king and said that even though some people had said that "Songdo" and "Jukdo" were east of Ulleungdo, there was only one island, Songjukdo, not a separate Songdo and Jukdo.
Even though he seemed unsure of their names, King Kojong seemed sure that three islands made up Ulleungdo. When Lee Gyu-won said that Songjukdo was Ulleungdo's only neighboring island and that Usando was just the old name for Ulleungdo, the king seemed to suggest that Songjukdo (松竹島) could be two separate islands, Songdo (松島) and Jukdo (竹島), and that if Usando (芋山島) were just another name for Ulleungdo, then that would still mean that Ulleungdo was made up of three islands. Lee Gyu-won, however, rejected that theory and said that Ulleungdo had only one neighboring island, "Songjukdo."
Distance to Songjukdo
Lee Gyu-won said that Songjukdo was "three to ten ri" (三數十里) offshore of Ulleungdo, which is 1.2 to 4 kilometers (1 Korean ri = 0.4 km). Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo (竹島) is approximately 2 kilometers off Ulleungdo's northeast shore and 4 kilomethers off its southeast shore. That means that in 1882 Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo was being referred to as "Songjukdo" (松竹島), "Songdo" (松島), and "Jukdo" (竹島).
Some "Dokdo" advocates have suggested that Songjukdo was "Dokdo" (Liancourt Rocks), but ; Liancourt Rocks is approximately ninety kilometers southeast of Ulleungdo, not 1.2 to 4 kilometers. Also, Lee said Songjukdo had juniper and pipestem bamboo on it, which would eliminate any possibility that Songjukdo was Liancourt Rocks since Liancourt Rocks were just barren rocks with no soil to grow juniper or bamboo.
Name Confusion: Usando, Songjukdo, Songdo, & Jukdo
The conversation between King Kojong and Inspector Lee Gyu-won shows quite clearly that, in 1882, even Korea's king and his advisors were unsure of the geography of Ulleungdo. Korea's maps showed Usando to be Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo, but Korean documents, including the Yeojiseungram (輿地勝覽) mentioned above, apparently also showed Songjukdo (松竹島) as a neighboring island. Also, a secret Japanese mission to Korean in 1869 reported in an 1870 document HERE that Ulleungdo had a neighboring island called "Matsushima" (松島 = Songdo), which was an island the Japanese had no record of. Before that, in 1794, Ulleungdo Inspector Sim Jin-hyeon (沈晉賢) reported that Ulleungdo had a neighboring island called Jukdo (竹島), but did not mention either Usando or Songdo in his report.
When Lee Gyu-won conducted his inspection of Ulleungdo in 1882, he found two islands: Jukdo (竹島) and Dohang (島項). His map of Ulleungdo showed that Jukdo was almost certainly Ulleungdo's present-day neighboring island of Jukdo (竹島), and Dohang was Ulleungdo's Gwaneumdo (觀音島). He reported that he could find no islands named "Songjukdo" or "Usando" and concluded that Usando was just another name from Ulleungdo. Neither King Kojong nor Lee Gyu-won showed any clue that they knew Liancourt Rocks even existed.
Why aren't there any Korean maps that show either Usando, Songjukdo, Songdo, or Jukdo together? The most logical explanation is that they were four different names for the same island. "Songjukdo" (松竹島) was obviously a combination of two names--"Songdo" (松島) and "Jukdo" (竹島)--both of which were names that were mentioned during the territorial dispute between Korea and Japan in the 1690s. Then, Korea claimed that Jukdo (竹島) was an alternate name for Ulleungdo that Korean fishermen used, and An Yong-bok had claimed that the Japanese name for Usando was "Matsushima" (松島 = Songdo). Since Korean maps showed Usando to be Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo, it was almost inevitable that some would start using Songdo (松島) to refer to Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo. Even in 1899, the Korean newspaper Hwangseong Sinmun (皇城新聞) reported that Ulleungdo's most prominent neighboring island was "Usando/Jukdo" (于山島竹島), which was most likely written to show that there were two names for the same island. If the "Usando/Jukdo" in the 1899 article meant two separate islands, as some claim, then why was only Jukdo, not Usando, mentioned one year later in Korea's Imperial Edict 41, which upgraded Ulleungdo's status to a county?
1904 Sep 25 - Log Entry from Japanese Naval Vessal "Niitaka (新高丸). First Mention of "Dokdo" for Liancourt Rocks
Regardless of what Korean Web sites may say or imply, this was the first time that the name "Dokdo" (獨島) had ever been used to refer to Liancourt Rocks. The year before, in 1903, it was recorded that Korean fishermen were using the Japanese name to refer to Liancourt Rocks, which suggests that Koreans had just recently learned of the rocks. There are no maps or reliable records to suggest that Koreans ever traveled to Liancourt Rocks before 1903.
Here is the relevant section from the Niitaka's September 25, 1904 log entry:
Information gathered from the oral testimony of a person on Matsushima [Ulleungdo] who has seen Liancourt Rocks
Liancourt Rocks is written as "Dokdo" (獨島) by Koreans and is called "Riangko-shima" by the fishermen of our country. As can be seen on the attached map, it is made up of two rock islets. The west islet is about 400 feet high and has a slope so steep that it would be difficult to climb; however, the east island is relatively low and has weeds growing on it. He said that the land on top is a little flat, so it would be suitable for buidling two or three small huts.
A small amount of fresh water can be gotten from a hollow on the east shore of the east island. On the south side of this island, at point "B," there is a spring about three ken (5.5 meters) above sea level where water flows down toward the west. There is so much of it that it flows throughout the year. On the west side of the west island, at point "C," there is also clear water.
The scattered rocks around the islets are generally flat, and the larger ones are big enough to spread out dozens of tattami. They are always above the surface of the water, and sea lions gather there. The space between the two islets is suitable for sheltering a boat, but it is common to bring small boats up onto the shore. He said that when the wind and waves get so strong that it is difficult to shelter on the island, boats generally seek shelter on Matsushima [Ulleungdo] and wait for fair winds.
The people who travel from Matsushima [Ulleungdo] to hunt sea lions use Japanese boats that are sixty to seventy seok in size. They build temporary shelters on the island and stay there about ten days each trip. He said he heard that they make a lot of money. Also, the number of people sometimes exceeds forty or fifty, but a shortage of water is not being reported. There have also been a number of trips this year. And he said that on June 17, he personally saw three Russian ships appear in the vicinity of the island. After drifting offshore for a while, the ships sailed off to the northwest.
Sketch of Liancourt Rocks
45 Japanese ri from Oki Island
25 Japanese ri from Matushima (Ulleungdo)
1 ri in circumference
Number of sea lions: Tens of thousands. Breeding season: June
JAPANESE TRANSLATION from Mr. Tanaka's site HERE
There seem to be pages from a couple of different issues on that linked page, but the first three pages of the open book are from the 16th issue.
In an 1899 article, HERE, from the Korean newspaper, Hwangseong Sinmun (皇城新聞), "Usando/Jukdo" (于山島竹島) was described as being Ulleungdo's most prominent neighboring island. Korean historians interpret the name Usando/Jukdo (于山島竹島) as being two separate islands, but based on old Korean maps and documents, it is much more likely that the name 于山島竹島 was meant to show that the one island had two names. Notice that "Usando" (于山島) came before "Jukdo" (竹島) in the word combination, which suggests that even if the word combination had been referring to two separate islands, then Usando would have been the larger since it was named first; however, since Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo is larger than Liancourt Rocks, that still would have implied that Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo was called "Usando." Besides, can Liancourt Rocks (Takeshima/Dokdo) really be considered a neighboring island of Ulleungdo considering that it is ninety-two kilometers away from Ulleungdo?
In 1900, the Korean government upgraded Ulleungdo's status to a county of Gangwon Province. In the royal edict (#41) that announced the upgrade, Ulleungdo (鬱陵島), Jukdo (竹島), and Seokdo (石島) were described as making up the county. Usando was not mentioned in the edict, in spite of being described as Ulleungdo's most prominent neighboring island in the Hwangseong Sinmun article just a year earlier. The only possible explanation is that "Jukdo" and "Usando" were two names for the same island, and the Korean government decided to make "Jukdo" the official name instead of "Usando." Koreans claim that the "Seokdo" (石島) mentioned in the 1900 royal edict was a reference to "Dokdo" (Liancourt Rocks), but there are no Korean maps or documents to support that claim. "Seokdo" (石島) means "Rock Island," so it is much more likely that it was used as a catchall word to include in the county all the other "rocky islets" that surround Ulleungdo.
Map of Gangwon Province from the 1901 edition of Daehanjiji (大韓地誌)
By the way, the name "Dokdo" (獨島) literally means "Solitary Island," and was a name regularly used to describe such islands in old Korean documents. In fact, Ulleungdo had also been described as a "Dokdo." Therefore, it is quite possible that "Dokdo" was first used as a descriptive term by Korean fishermen, who later adopted it as their name for Liancourt Rocks. The fact that Korean fishermen never used "Usando" to refer to Liancourt Rocks is more evidence against Korea's claim that Usando was the old name for the rocks.
Here are the English translation for the Sea of Japan and the Takeshima section (Liancourt Rocks) and the Korean translation for the Takeshima section in Japan's 1907 Joseon Seaways Directory:
The SEA of JAPAN
The Sea is bounded on the east and south by the Japan islands, and on the west and north-west by the coasts of Korea and Russian Tartary is about 900 miles long, NNE and SSW, and 600 miles East and West, at its broadest part. Surrounded by land on all sides, this sea is only accessible by the following narrow passages:- To the south by the Korea strait, which connects it with the China sea; to the east by La Perouse and Tsugar straits, by which it communicates with the Pacific; and to the north by the gulf of Tartary, through which it communicates with the sea of Okhotsk by the gulf of Amur; this sea is, as far as is known, clear of rocks or dangers with the following exceptions: Liancourt Rocks, Matsu Sima (Dagelet island) and Waywoda Rock.
The island was named after the French ship Liancourt, which discovered them in 1849; they were also called "Menalai and Olivutsa rocks" by the Russian frigate Pallas in 1854, and Hornet islands by H.M.S. Hornet in 1855. Koreans write them as "獨島," and Japanese fishermen call them "Yangko." They are a small group of islets located about eighty nautical ri from Oki Island and fifty nautical ri from Ulleungdo. They are made up of two islands and several small islets. The two islands are separated by a narrow waterway that is about a quarter ri wide and face each other from east and west. The west island, elevated about 410 feet above the sea, has a sugar-loaf form. The east island is relatively low and flat-topped. Most of the many small islets that surround them are flat rocks that bearly break the surface of the water. Most are big enough that a tatami of tens of jang could be laid out on them. Both islands are desolate and bare and are completely exposed to the wind and sea. There is not even one tree, only a little grass growing on the east island. The slopes of the islands are sheer precipices with some layering of rocks. There are many strange-looking caves, but they cannot be reached. These caves and the small islets are the breeding grounds for sea lions. The naval vessel Tsushima measured the depth of the waters around this island and said that it measured the depth at about fifty-eight fathoms at a spot about nine ryeon (0.9 nautical ri) from the southern tip of the east island. The island is a little dangerous because it is near navigation routes in the Sea of Japan.
Level Ground on the Island
There is no level ground on the island. Even though the waterway between the two islands is narrow, there are two or three flat, gravel patches there, but it would be difficult to avoid the assault of the waves. There is some flat land at the summit of the East Island, but there is no path leading up there. There is only a small patch of about three or four pyeong on the southern tip that blocks the northwesterly wind. The ridge spine of the West Island runs east to west. The slope of the upper half of the ridge is almost vertical, but the slope of the lower half is fairly gentle, so the cliffs can be reached. Therefore, if the hard rocks of this section can be excavated, then there would seem to be access to flat land sheltered from all wind except that from the east. As per above, there is absolutely no land on this island suitable for building a house. In November of the 37th year of Meiji (1904), it was said that the naval ship Tsushima found a small thatched hut for fishermen on the east island, but it was badly damaged by the wind and waves. It is said that each summer dozens of people come from Ulleungdo to this island to catch sea lions, and that they build a shelter and stay for about ten days each trip.
There is a cave on the southwest corner of the west island where a fair amount of water falls from the ceiling rocks, but it falls like rain, so it would be difficult to gather. There are a few springs along the midway section from the summit where water comes out, but they are so polluted by the excrement of the sea lions that they give off an odor, so they are absolutely not suitable for drinking. It is said that the fisherman who come here to catch sea lions use the water on this island for cooking, but the water they use for their tea is brought from somewhere else.
Location: According to the results of a survey by the American naval vessel New York in 1902, Takeshima is at a northern latitude of 37 degrees 9 minutes 30 seconds and an eastern longitude of 131 degrees 55 minutes.
ULLEUNGDO or MATSUSHIMA (Dagelet island)
It is semicircular island with a circumfererence of 18 nautical ri (浬 = nautical miles). The whole island is a collection of sharp conical hills, densely covered with trees, and supports an imposing peak in the center, at latitude 37° 30′ N. and longitude 130° 53′ E, that rises 3,208 shaku [feet]. Jukdo (Boussole Rock) is off the northeast shore, and about two and three-quarter nautical ri (浬) west-southwest of there is a rock where the water is two to three shaku (feet) deep. There are several rock islets offshore, especially, on the north and east sides. Some reach a height of 400 to 500 shaku (feet). They are all, like the island, steep, and the lead affords no warning, but none of them are more than a quarter of a mile from the cliffs, except for Boussole Rock, the largest, which is seven ren (cables) off the northeast shore. Hole Rock, off the north shore, is remarkable in that it has a large hole, or rather a natural archway, through it. On shore almost facing the rock is a smooth but very steep, sugar-loaf-shaped, bare granite rock that is about 800 shaku [feet] high. There is also a rock off Seal Point, at the southern tip. The sides of the island are so steep that soundings could only be obtained by going up almost to the base of the cliffs. Landing may be effected in fine weather, with difficulty, on some small gravel beaches, which occur at intervals, but the greater part of the island is quite inaccessible.
Korean residents were eight-five families with 260 people (175 men and 85 women), according to a survey at the end of December 1904. However, they increased to 110 families with 366 people (219 men and 147 women) by the end of June 1905. However, because these residents live next to the land they cultivate, their houses lie scattered, and there are only eight villages. The island has an island chief living there. The Japanese on the island are mainly woodcutters, carpenters, fishermen, sailors, and brokers. There are few other professionals. The Japanese population was 230 at the end of June 1905.
The hot and cold temperature differences on the island are not extreme. Southerly winds prevail from April to September while northerly winds prevail from October to March, with an especially strong northwest wind in November. They have snow from the end of October to the end of March. Sometimes there is still snow on the top of the mountain in May. The place is very healthy. There have been no epidemics, such as smallpox. The islanders attribute it to the good quality of the water.
The island's main product is soybeans. Others include barley, millet, barnyard grass, and potatoes. The average soybean yield is 3,000 to 4,000 koku annually, while the other grains are raised for the consumption of the residents. There is usually no shortage of food. The fishing on the island is mainly for abalone. Each year a great deal of dried abalone is exported. A sea animal called a sea lion lives on an island called Takeshima (Liancourt rocks), which is located southeast of the island. The people on this island (Ulleungdo) began to catch them sometime about 1904. The hunting season is six months, from April to September. There are three boats that hunt for sea lions, and each boat catches an average of five. The abalone which the Japanese catch are caught by using two diving apparatuses and two steamships, and they say that the average catch per day is 1,130 kin. There are no wild animals on the island, but wildcats and pigeons are sometimes visible. As to the wood available, there are lots of zelkova and pine.
Exports and Imports
The island's exports include soybean, zelkova wood, dried abalone, sea lion skins, sea lion oil, and the squeezed dregs of sea lions. Its imports include polished rice, rice, sake (rice wine), shochu (clear distilled liquor), petroleum, sugar, cotton, cotton yarn, cotton fabrics, iron, straw bags, matches, ceramic ware, tableware, soy sauce, and somen (thin wheat noodles). The total export revenue from April to June in 1905 was 12,075 yen, and the total imports was 3,116 yen.
In each village, a few chickens and eggs are available at cheap prices. Clear water is available at various places and and is said to be of good quality.
Korean Translation for the Takeshima Section
竹島(다께시마)(Liancourt rocks): 1849년 프랑스 선박 <리앙꼬르>가 이를 발견하여 라 칭하고 있으며, 1854년 러시아 함대 [팔라스]는 라고 하였다. 1855년 영국 함정 <호네트>는 이를 라고 부른다. 한인(韓人)들은 [獨島]라 쓰고, 일본어부들은 [リアンコ(리앙꼬)]島라고 한다. 이 섬은 일본해에 있는 하나의 작은 군도로 오끼국 섬에서 약 80해리, 울릉도에서 약 50해리 떨어진 곳에 위치하며 폭 4분지 1해리의 좁은 수도를 사이에 두고 동서로 대응하는 두 개의 섬과 그 주위에 있는 여러 작은 섬들로 구성된다. 서도(西島)는 해면상 높이가 약 410척이고 봉당(棒糖) 모양을 이루고 있고, 동도(東島)는 비교적 낮고 정상에 평탄한 땅이 있으며, 주위의 여러 조그만 섬들은 대개 편편한 암석으로 약간 수면에 노출되어 있고 그 크기는 대부분 수십 장의 다다미를 깔기에 충분하다. 두 섬 모두 황폐한 민둥산으로 해풍에 완전히 노출되어 있어서 한 그루의 수목도 없으며, 동도에 약간의 풀이 자랄 뿐이다. 섬 기슭은 단애절벽이고 약한 석층을 이루어 기이한 모양의 동굴이 많지만 오를 수가 없다. 이러한 동굴이나 조그만 섬들은 바다사자들의 서식지가 된다. 이 섬 부근 수심은 군함 對馬호가 동도 남단으로부터 북서방 약 9련(0.9해리) 떨어진 곳에서 58패텀의 수심을 얻었다고 한다. 이 섬은 그 위치상 일본해를 항해하는 선박의 항로에 가까워서 야간에 위험하다.
島上의 平地: 섬의 평지는 없고, 수도의 양측에 협소하지만 평탄한 자갈밭이 두 세 군데 있지만 모두 파도의 침습을 면하기 어렵다. 동도(東島)는 그 정상에 평탄한 땅이 있긴 하지만 이곳에 오르는 길이 없고, 오직 섬의 남단에 북서풍을 막아주는 3-4평의 작은 평지가 있을 뿐이다. 서도(西島)는 그 동서에 산등성이가 있는데, 그 상반부는 거의 직립해 있으나, 하반부는 경사가 꽤 완만해서 그 절반 부분까지 도달할 수 있고, 이 부근의 견암을 개착하면 동풍을 제외한 외풍을 막을만한 평지를 얻을 수 있을 것으로 보였다. 섬에는 위와 같이 가옥을 지을만한 땅이 전혀 없었고, 明治 37년(1904) 11월 군함 對馬호가 이 섬을 실사했을 때 동도에 어부용 작은 초가집이 있었으나 풍랑으로 심히 파괴되어 있었다고 한다. 매년 여름철이 되면 바다사자를 잡기 위해서 울릉도에서 넘어오는 사람이 수 십 명에 이르며, 그들은 섬에 조그만 거처를 만들어 매회 약 10일간 임시로 거주한다고 한다.
담수(淡水): 서도(西島)의 남서쪽 구석에 하나의 동굴이 있고, 그 천정 부분 암석에서 떨어지는 물의 양이 상당히 많지만, 빗물이 떨어지는 것 같아서 이를 받는데 어려움이 있다. 산 정상에서 중턱을 따라 몇 군데 물이 나오는 샘이 있으나 바다사자들의 분뇨로 오염되어 악취를 풍겨서 도저히 음료용으로는 적합하지 않다. 바다사자를 잡기 위해 오는 어부들은 이 섬에서 나는 물을 받아서 취사용으로는 쓰지만, 차로 마시는 물은 다른 곳에서 가지고 온 물을 사용한다고 한다.
위치(位置): 竹島(다께시마)는 1902년 실시한 미국 함정 <뉴욕>호의 검측에 의하면 북위 37도 9분 30초, 동경 131도 55분에 있다.