竹島問題の歴史

8.10.07

British Publication "China Sea Directory," 1st Edition, Vol. 4 (1873)

The following are excerpts from the 1th edition of the China Sea Directory, Vol. 4, which was published by Hydrographic Office of the British Admiralty in 1873:

Table of Contents

Chapter I. General Remarks. Climate, Prevailing Winds and Weather, Fogs, Storms, Gales, Typhoons, and Currents; and Remarks on making Passages. (1-30). Chapter II. West, South-West, and South Coasts of Korea; and Korea Strait. (31-74). Chapter III. Sea of Japan. East Coast of Korea and Russian Tartary. Gulf of Tartary and River Amur. Tartary Strait. Sea of Okhotsk, and Kamchatka. (75-115). Chapter IV. Mariana or Ladrone Islands; Islands South-East of Japan; Meiaco Sima, Liu-Kiu, and Linschoten Groups. (116-158). Chapter V. The Japan Islands, Comprising the South and East Coasts of Kiusiu, Sikok, and Nipon, and the Islands lying South of Yedo Gulf. (160-200). Chapter VI. The Seto Uchi, or Inland Sea, and its Approaches. (201-265). Chapter VII. Japan Islands. The Goto Islands, and the West Coasts of Kiusiu and Nipon. (266-324). Chapter VIII. Japan Islands. Tsugar Strait, North Coast of Nipon, Yezo Island; Saghalin and Kuril Islands.

In Chapter 1

On the east coast of Korea and in the Japan Sea, from January to March, inclusive, northerly winds prevail on the Korean coast, hauling to the westward, in the middle of the Japan sea; on the coast of Tartary southerly and south-westerly winds prevail, and on the East coast of the Japan sea westerly and north-westerly winds and calms are experienced. From April to June, inclusive, the winds are variable, but light southerly winds prevail with frequent calms, and fine weather, especially between the parallels of 40° and 45°N.; the wind hauls to the eastward on the coast of Japan, and is accompanied by mist, it, however, sometimes freshens to a stormy breeze, with squalls, from the north-eastward; the weather however is generally fine. Fogs prevail during the whole of this season (April to June inclusive) all over the sea of Japan, especially on the northern coast of Korea and coast of Tartary, and are most dense in June; they are however generally dispersed by S.W. winds. Rain falls in May and June on the Japan coast. From July to September, inclusive, on the Korean coast moderate northerly winds prevail, with fine weather, in September; on the coast of Tartary southerly and easterly winds with calms are experienced and during the whole of this season, between the parallels of 40° and 45°N., calms are most frequent. In the northern part of the sea, fogs and rain last until August, the former generally being dispersed by S.W. winds, and decrease in density as the summer advances. Gales occur at the equinoxes, generally commencing at S.E. on the coast of Japan, and veering to the southward and westward, excepting when they are associated with a Typhoon, the centers of which as a rule pass south of Japan, when the wind veers from South to S.E., East, and North, generally clearing up at N.W. These latter gales are generally very heavy, and have been known to last three days; these however are rare. From October to December, inclusive, north-westerly winds prevail, and heavy gales are sometimes experienced, generally commencing at South, veering to West, and ceasing at N.W., they are fierce and short duration; the weather is generally fine, but easterly wind brings rain and snow; gales of the same description as those occurring from July to September, being the outer limit of a Typhoon, sometimes occur in October, but they are apparently rare.

In Chapter 2

Korea Strait divides the south-east coast of Korea from the south-west coasts of the Japan islands; it is split into two channels by Tsu sima. The Western Channel is 34 miles wide, between Sentinel island and the south point of Tsu sima, narrowing to 25 miles between the north point of that island and Tsau-liang-hai; its greatest depth is 90 fathoms near the west coast of Tsu sima. H.M.S. Dove in crossing the Korea strait from the Goto islands in 1861, after decreasing the soundings from 83 to 53 fathoms in 15 miles on the parallel of 33°N., obtaining a sounding of 23 fathoms in long. 127°38′E. On sounding again one mile N.N.E. of this position, there were 56 fathoms, deepening again to 81 fathoms at 11 miles in the same direction. The Eastern Channel is 25 miles wide at its narrowest part, between the south point of Tsu sima and Iki island; its greatest depth is 65 fathoms.

In Chapter 3

The SEA of JAPAN, bounded on the east and south by the Japan islands, and on the west and north-west by the coasts of Korea and Russian Tartary, is about 900 miles long, N.N.E. and S.S.W., and 600 miles East and West, at its broadest part. Surrounded by land on all sides, this sea is only accessible by the following narrow passages: To the south by the Korea Strait, which connects it with the China Sea; to the east by La Perouse and Tsugar straits, by which it communicates with the Pacific; and to the north by the Gulf of Tartary, through which it communicates with the Sea of Okhotsk by the Gulf of Amur; this sea is, as far as is known, clear of rocks or dangers with the following exceptions: Liancourt Rocks, Matusima (Dagelet Island) and Waywoda Rock. GULF of TARTARY. From Cape Disappointment, in lat. 45°40.5′N., the coast of Manchuria trends to the north-east, and forms with the west coast of Saghalin island a long channel named the Gulf of Tartary, which communicates with the Gulf of Amur to the northward by Tartar Strait.

LIANCOURT ROCKS are named after the French ship Liancourt, which discovered them in 1849; they were also called Menalai and Olivutsa rocks by the Russian frigate Pallas in 1854, and Hornet islands by H.M.S. Hornet in 1855. Captain Forsyth, of the latter vessel, gives their position as lat. 37°14′N. long. 131°55′E., and describes them as being two barren rocky islets, covered with guano, which makes them appear white; they are about a mile in extent N.W. by W. and S.E. by E., a quarter of a mile apart, and apparently joined together by a reef. The western islet, elevated about 410 feet above the sea, has a sugar-loaf form; the easternmost is much lower and flat-topped. The water appeared deep close-to, but they are dangerous from their position, being directly in the track of vessels steering up the Sea of Japan for Hakodate.

MATU SIMA, or Dagelet island, is a collection of sharp conical hills, well clothed with wood, supporting an imposing peak in the centre, in lat. 37°30′N., long. 130°53′E. It is 18 miles in circumference, and in shape approximates a semicircle, the northern side, its diameter, running nearly E. by N. and W. by S. 6.25 miles. From each end the coast trends rather abruptly to the southward, curving gradually to the east and west, with several slight sinuosities until meeting at Seal Point, the south extreme of the island, off which is a small rock. There are several detached rocks along its shores, principally, however, on the north and east sides, some reaching an elevation of 400 to 500 feet. They are all, like the island, steep-to, and the lead affords no warning, but none of them are more than a quarter of a mile from the cliffs, except the Boussole rock, the largest, which is 7 cables from the east shore of the island. Hole rock on the north shore is remarkable, from having a large hole, or rather a natural archway through it, while nearly abreast it on the shore is a smooth but very steep sugar-loaf hill, apparently of bare granite, about 800 feet high. The sides of the island are so steep, that soundings could only be obtained by the Actaeon's boats, almost at the base of the cliffs, while in the ship at 4 miles to the southward no bottom could be found at 400 fathoms, and 2.25 miles north none at 366 fathoms. Landing may be effected in fine weather, with difficulty, on some small shingly beaches, which occur at intervals, but the greater part of the island is quite inaccessible. During the spring and summer months some Koreans reside on the island, and build junks which they take across to the mainland; they also collect and dry large quantities of shell-fish. Except a few iron clamps, their boats are all wood-fastened, and they do not appear to appreciate the value of seasoned timber, as they invariably use quite green wood.

9 comments:

  1. Do they mention about the longitude and latitude of Korea? Especially, the eastern limit of Korea in Chapter II.? 

    Japanese "Sea directory of Choson" in 1899 looks like the edited version of 1894's.

    By the way, "Sea directory of Choson" in 1894 is very interesting since it clearly states the eastern limit of Choson (130°35′) and it excludes Liancourt Rocks. I keep telling that Kimotsuki Kaneyuki from Navy must have known the Liancourt Rocks is outside of Korean eastern limit, because of this description.

    I copy and paste the related part of both books. It's in Japanese, but the description of Liancourt Rocks is almost identical. One more thing interesting in 1894 version is that it even mentioned Eastern waterway(東水道) between Tsushima and Iki which cannot be a Korean territory. There is some more evidence that proves the place names in the sea directory don’t mean they are inside the territory.

    1894 「朝鮮水路誌」
    第一篇 総記 形勢 海軍海図第二一号第九五号を見よ
    朝鮮国は亜細亜の東部にあり 其地勢たる狭長なる一大半島を成し 数多の島嶼 之を圍繞す 其位置は北緯三三度一五分より同四二度二五分 東経一二四度三〇分より同一三〇度三五分に至る全国の廣袤南北大約五〇〇里東西一八〇里乃至九十里にして面積約八〇、〇〇〇平方里岸線の長、一、七〇〇里東は日本海西は黄海南は太平洋に臨み我九州及び五島と朝鮮海峡を成し南東は我對馬と海水を隔て、西水道を成す對馬及九州間の水道を東水道と曰ふ
    (途中略)
    第三編 朝鮮南東岸 朝鮮海峡
    東水道 此水道は対馬島の南角と壱岐島との間にして其最狭部の濶(ひろ)さ凡廿五里其最深処を凡六十五尋とす

    (255~257ページ)リアンコールト列岩
    此列岩は洋紀一八四九年佛国船「リアンコールト」号初て之を発見し船名を取てリアンコート列岩と名つく 其後一八五四年露国「フレガット」形艦「パラス」号は此列岩をメナライ及ヲリヴツァ列岩と称し一八五五年英艦「ホル子ット」号は此列岩を探検して「ホル子ット」列島と名つけり 該艦長フォルシィスの言に據れば此列岩は北緯三七度一四分東経一三一度五五分の所に位する二坐の不毛岩嶼にして鳥糞常に嶼上に堆積し嶼色為めに白し而して北西彳西至南東彳東の長さ凡一里二嶼の間距離1/4里にして見たる所一礁脈ありて之を連結す○西嶼は海面上高さ凡そ四一〇呎にして形ち糖塔の如し東嶼は較々低くして平なり○此列岩附近水頗る深きか如しと雖も其位置は實に函館に向て日本海を航行する船舶の直水道に當れるを以て頗る危険なりとす


    1899 「朝鮮水路誌」
    (263-264ページ)リアンコ-ルト列岩
    此列岩ハ洋紀一八四九年仏国船「リアンコ-ルト」初テ之ヲ発見シ称呼ヲ其船名ニ取ル其後一八五四年露国「フレガット」形艦「パラス」ハ此列岩ヲメナライ及ヲリヴツァ列岩ト名ツケ一八五五年英艦「ホル子ット」ハ此列岩ヲ探険シテ「ホル子ット」列島ト名ツケリ該艦長フォルシィスノ言ニ拠レハ此列岩ハ北緯三七度一四分東経一三一度五五 分ノ処ニ位スル二座ノ不毛岩嶼ニシテ鳥糞常ニ嶼上ニ堆積シ嶼色為メニ白シ而シテ北西?西至南東?東ノ長サ約一里二嶼ノ間距離約二?半ニシテ見タル所一礁脈アリテ之ヲ連結ス○西嶼ハ海面上高サ約四一〇呎ニシテ其形棒糖ノ如シ東嶼ハ較低クシテ平頂ナリ○此列岩附近ハ水頗深キカ如シト雖其位置ハ実ニ函館ニ向テ日本海ヲ航行スル船舶ノ直水道ニ当レルヲ以テ頗危険ナリトス

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  2. By the way, sorry for posting too many comments at one time. I just came back from holiday and was happily surprised to find many exciting posts.

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  3. not anonymous9/10/07 15:27

    Kaneganese, apparently the China Sea directory doesn't include Ulleungdo Island.

    This can't be said to be an accurate guideline for Chosun's boundary islands inclusive.

    Ulleungdo is about at 130.55.

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  4. toadface,

    Matushima (Matsushima) or Dagelet in the text is apparently Ulleungdo, although the location is slightly different (only 2 minutes difference) from today's location.

    If you think it strictly, Ulleungdo today was out of Korean territory (wow! Is it Japan's teritory?). But we admit Ullengdo and Jukdo are Korrean territory, so it's no problem. It was due to the immature measurement technique.

    I can't understand for what you are frustrating.

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  5. Toadface,

    Western limit of Ulleundo is about 130°48′E" and Eastern limit of it is 130°55′E" . Thus the longitude of 130°53′E" is pretty accurate and it is clearly within the area of Ulleudo, especially. 130°53′E is only 1′30″(1.85km) east from the centre of Ulleundo(130°51′30″E). Not being the latitude of the eastern limit doesn't mean inaccurate at all.

    "China Sea Directory" clearly include Ulleundo, since as pacifist said, the description of Matushima (Matsushima) or Dagelet in the text is apparently Ulleungdo. Nothing complicated.

    I don't know why you are so upset about this "China Sea Directory," 1st Edition, Vol. 4 (1873), but it smells.

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  6. Kaneganese,

    I do not have access to the "China Sea Directory," but only copied the portions that I could find on the Net. No, I did not see anything describing Korea's eastern limit.

    Actually, I do not think the purpose of the directory was to determine political boundaries. Ulleungdo and Liancourt Rocks were simply described under the section describing the Sea of Japan.

    Besides giving us good descriptions of Ulleungdo and Liancourt Rocks, the authors of the book made it pretty clear what they thought the sea between Korea and Japan should be called. And the "China Pilot" directory was printed in the 1850s, before Japan became an influential country, which kills the Korean argument that Japan somehow influenced the name change of the sea.

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  7. Gerry,
    "Actually, I do not think the purpose of the directory was to determine political boundaries."

    I can't agree more. And I also think that we have to study them to scrutineze pro-Korean theory that those place names in "Choson Sea Directory"by Japanese Navy is a evidence that Japanese recognized Takeshima/Liancourt Rocks as Korean territorry. But thanks to you, the more the background and the contents of those sea directory get revealed, the more we know that the names appeared in those directory has nothing to do with territorial recognition. But I still think it is worth to consider as a evidence for territorial recognition if the limit of country with the longitude and latitude was printed. Especially important for a director of the department of surveyrance(水路部長) of the Japanese Imperial Navy in the early 1900's.

    By the way I googled and found that it looks like 1886 version of sea directory by Japanese Navy was from British 1884 China Sea Directory 2nd Edition, Vol. 4 and the "General" articles in 1894 version of Choson sea directory by Japanese Navy was from British 1894 China Sea Directory 3rd Edition, Vol 4. So, though I am not perfectly sure, it seems that there is also the description of Korean boundry in 1894 China Sea Directory 3rd Edition, Vol 4. either. Gerry, if you have a chance to read the "General" part, please let me know.

    "the "China Pilot" directory was printed in the 1850s, before Japan became an influential country, which kills the Korean argument that Japan somehow influenced the name change of the sea."
    It's a good point.

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  8. Now I realized that Jaapn hadn't recognized Dagelet as "Joseon-Ulluengdo" before 1880. They seems to recognize Takeshima-Argonaut as Joseon Ulleungdo. Aafter 1873, Japan had started doubt Argonaut-Takeshima, which they consider Joseon's Ulluengdo, is not exist and start consider Dagelet-Matsushima is Joseon Ulluengdo because attached map of China directry 1st/vol4, Takeshima-Argonaut is "Position Doubtful" and Directory itself there are no description of Takeshima Argonaut". Anyway, After Amagi's survey most of Japanese Govemental map, Argonaut-Takeshima disappeared and they start wrote "Matsushima-Ulluengdo"

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  9. They draw Matsushima on Dagelet position and design, width, so Japanese thought they want to develop the "unknown" big island, actually it is Ulluengdo, it is not liancourt rocks.

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