Table of Contents
Chapter I. Monsoons, Typhoons, Gales, Currents, and Tides in the China Sea, and on the East Coast of China; and General Remarks on Making Passages. Chapter II. Approaches to Canton River, including Hong Kong. The Chu Kiang or Canton River; the Si Kiang or West River; and the Western Channels of Canton River. Chapter III. East Coast of China. Hong Kong to Amoy. Chapter IV. East Coast of China. Amoy to the White Dog Islands, including the Pescadores Islands. Chapter V. East Coast of China. White Dog Islands to Nimrod Sound. Chapter VI. East Coast of China. Nimrod Sound to the Yang-tse Kiang, including the Chusan Archipelago. Chapter VII. East Coast of China. The Yang-tse Kiang Chapter VIII. East Coast of China. From the Yang-tse Kiang to Pe-chili Strait. The North Coast of the Yellow Sea. Chapter IX. Gulfs of Pe-chili and Liau-tung. Chapter X. West, South-West, and South Coasts of Korea. Chapter XI. Pratas Island and Reef. North Coast of Luzon. Babuyan, Bashi, Formosa, Meiaco-sima, and Lu-chu Islands; and Islands S.E., East, and North of the Lu-chu Group. Chapter XII. Japan Islands; Comprising the South Coasts of Kiusiu and Sikok; the South-East and East Coasts of Nipon; and the Seto Uchi or Inland Sea. Chapter XIII. Japan Islands. The West Coasts of Nipon and Kiusiu; and Directions from the Yang-tse Kiang to Nagasaki, &c. Chapter XIV. Japan Islands. Tsugar Strait, and South Coast of Yezo. The Kuril Islands, and South-East Coast of Kamchatka. Chapter XV. Sea of Japan; Gulf of Tartary; Gulf and River of Amur; Saghlin Island; La Perouse Strait; and Sea of Okhotsk.
In Chapter 15, Pages 590 - 591
The SEA of JAPAN, bounded on the east and south by the Japan islands, and on the west and north-west by the coasts of Korea and Manchuria, is about 900 miles long, N.N.E. and S.S.W., and 600 miles East and West, at its broadest part. Surrounded by land on all sides, this sea is only accessible by the following narrow passages: To the south by the Korea Strait, which connects it with the China Sea; to the east by Laperouse and Tsugar straits, by which it communicates with the Pacific; and to the north by the Gulf of Tartary, through which it communicates with the Sea of Okhotsk by the Gulf of Amur(page 556).
GULF of TARTARY. From Cape Disappointment, in lat. 45°40.5′N., the coast of Manchuria trends to the north-east, and forms with the west coast of Saghalin island a long channel named the Gulf of Tartary, which communicates with the Gulf of Amur to the northward by Tartar Strait. This strait may be considered to begin on the parallel of about 51°N.; on the parallel of Castries bay the coasts of Manchuria and Saghalin converge rapidly; and abreast of Cape Catherine, in 51°57′N., they are only 7 miles apart; 17 miles farther north, between Capes Lazaref and Pogobi, they approach to within 3.5 miles; and this is the gorge of the strait, and the entrance into the Gulf of Amur.
LIANCOURT ROCKS are named after the French ship Liancourt, which discovered them in 1849; they were also called Menalai and Olivutsa rocks by the Russian frigate Pallas in 1854, and Hornet islands by H.M.S. Hornet in 1855. Captain Forsyth, of the latter vessel, gives their position as lat. 37°14′N., long. 131°55′E., and describes them as being two barren rocky islets, about a mile in extent N.W. by W. and S.E. by E., and a quarter of a mile apart, and apparently joined together by a reef. The western islet, elevated about 410 feet above the sea, has a sugar-loaf form; the easternmost is much lower and flat-topped. The water appeared deep close-to, but they are dangerous from their position, being directly in the track of vessels steering up the Sea of Japan for Hakodadi.
MATSU SIMA, or Dagelet island, is a collection of sharp conical hills, well clothed with wood, supporting an imposing peak in the centre, in lat. 37°30′N., long. 130°53′E. It is 18 miles in circumference, and in shape approximates a semicircle, the northern side, its diameter, running nearly E. by N. and W. by S. 6.25 miles. From each end the coast trends rather abruptly to the southward, curving gradually to the east and west, with several slight sinuosities until meeting at Seal Point, the south extreme of the island, off which is a small rock. There are several detached rocks along its shores, principally, however, on the north and east sides, some reaching an elevation of 400 to 500 feet. They are all, like the island, steep-to, and the lead affords no warning, but none of them are more than a quarter of a mile from the cliffs, except the Boussole rock, the largest, which is 7 cables from the east shore of the island. Hole rock on the north shore is remarkable, from having a large hole, or rather a natural archway through it, while nearly abreast it on the shore is a smooth but very steep sugar-loaf, apparently of bare granite, about 800 feet high. The sides of the island are so steep, that soundings could only be obtained by the Actaeon's boats, almost at the base of the cliffs, while in the ship at 4 miles to the southward no bottom could be found at 400 fathoms, and 2.25 miles north none at 366 fathoms. Landing may be effected in fine weather, with difficulty, on some small shingly beaches, which occur at intervals, but the greater part of the island is quite inaccessible. During the spring and summer months some Koreans reside on the island, and build junks which they take across to the mainland; they also collect and dry large quantities of shell-fish. Except a few iron clamps, their boats are all wood-fastened, and they do not appear to appreciate the value of seasoned timber, as they were using quite green wood.
ARGONAUT ISLAND. H.M.S. Actaeon in June 1859 passed over the position given to Argonaut as nearly as, from the want of observations, it was possible to judge; the weather was rather thick, but a radius of 5 miles, at least, could be commanded, and nothing was seen. This island has been searched for by both French and Russian ships of war, but has not been found; whalers also ignore its existence; it may therefore with confidence be expunged from the charts. Its supposed discoverers, probably, owing to current, were much out in their reckoning, and sighting Dagelet re-named it. The Actaeon experienced a weak current setting to the northward. A Russian gunboat at an earlier period of the year visited Dagelet, and after obtaining observations left, under sail, in a light breeze, to pass over the supposed position of Argonaut. A dense fog ensued, and about the time when, if Argonaut existed, it might have been expected to be seen, land was made; fortunately an opportunity offered of obtaining observations, when it was discovered that the island was still Dagelet, a proof of her having experienced a strong south-westerly current.
British Publication "China Pilot," 4th Edition, 1864
The following is an excerpt from the 4th edition of the China Pilot, which was published by Hydrographic Office of the British Admiralty in 1864: