Ika-shima (イガ島) and Mano-shima (まの島 or マノ島) were old Japanese names for Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo (竹島), which is about 2.2 kilometers off of Ulleungdo's east shore. Though Koreans now call the small island "Jukdo," which means "Bamboo Island," during the Joseon Dynasty (1392 - 1910) it was generally known as Usando (于山島), as the following old Korean maps of Ulleungdo clearly show:
Why did Koreans decided to change the name of Ulleungdo's neighboring island from "Usando" to "Jukdo"? Maybe the Japanese names for the small island influenced the Koreans in some way or maybe Koreans just felt that "Bamboo Island" ("Jukdo" in Korean and "Takeshima" in Takeshima) was more descriptive?
In the Japanese/Korean territorial dispute over Ulleungdo in the 1690s, the Korean side claimed that Korean fishermen also used the word "Jukdo" (竹島) to refer to Ulleungdo, though there are no Korean maps to support that claim. Whether the claim was true or not, by the 1800s, Koreans were using both Usando and Jukdo to refer to Ulleungdo's neighboring island. Again, why did Koreans start using "Jukdo" to refer to Ulleungdo's neighboring island?
"There is a small island about five ri (two kilometers) to the east (of Ulleungdo) that is not very high and not very big and has thickly growing haejang bamboo on one side.”
The above maps show that Usando was Ulleungdo's present-day neighboring island of Jukdo and that bamboo grew there. Usando could not have been Liancourt Rocks (Dokdo), as Koreans claim, since Liancourt Rocks does not have the soil needed to grow bamboo. Nevertheless, the question still remains, "Why did Koreans change the name of Ulleungdo's neighboring island from Usando to Jukdo?
In the 1800s, Korean maps were still showing Ulleungdo's neighboring island to be Usando, but the name Jukdo was showing up in Ulleungdo inspection reports, which suggests that Korean squatters on Ulleungdo were using the name Jukdo instead of Usando for the neighboring island. By 1882, Koreans seem to have lost track of Usando, even though Korean maps were still showing it to be a neighboring island of Ulleungdo. The following is an 1882 conversation between King Kojong and Ulleungdo inspector Lee Gyu-won:
The king called Lee Gyu-won forward to give his pre-departure greeting.
The king said, “It is said that these days there is the evil practice of foreigners freely coming and going to Ulleungdo and doing as they please. Also, Songjukdo (松竹島 – 송죽도) and Usando (于山島 – 우산도) are next to Ulleungdo, but there are still no details on the distance between them and what products they have. You were chosen especially for this trip, so pay particular attention to your inspection. Also, we have plans to establish a settlement there, so be sure to prepare a detailed map with your report.”
Lee Gyu-won replied, Usando is just Ulleungdo. Usan was the name of the ancient country’s capital. Songjukdo is a small island about thirty ri offshore (相距爲三數十里). The products there are rosewood trees and pipestem bamboo.”
The king said, “It is called either Usando or Songjukdo (敎曰 或稱芋山島 或稱松竹島), which are both written in the Yeojiseungram (輿地勝覽 – 여지승람). It is also called Songdo (松島 – 송도) and Jukdo (竹島 – 죽도). Together with Usando, there are three islands that make up what is called Ulleungdo. Inspect the situation on all of them. Originally, the Samcheok commander (三陟營將 – 삼척 영장) and the Wolsong commander (越松萬戶 – 월송 만호) took turns searching Ulleungdo, but they were all careless, inspecting only the exterior of the island. This has led to these evil practices.
Lee Gyu-won said, “I will go deep inside and conduct my inspection. Some say that Songdo and Jukdo are east of Ulleungdo, but there is only Songjukdo, no separate Songdo and Jukdo.”
The king asked, “Did you possibly hear that from previous inspectors?”
Lee Gyu-won said, “I have not yet talked with previous inspectors, but that is the gist of what I have heard.”
In spite of Lee's report, Korean maps continued to show Usando as Ulleungdo's neighboring island, as the Korean map to the right clearly does. The map comes from an 1899 Korean geography textbook and was made by what was considered to be Korea's Ministry of Education at the time. Moreover, an 1899 article from the Korean newspaper, "Hwangseong Shinmun," described Ulleungdo as follows:
In the sea east of Uljin is an island named Ulleung. Of its six, small neighboring islands, Usando/Jukdo (于山島竹島) are/is the most prominent (崔著者). The Daehanjiji says that Ulleungdo is the old Country of Usan. It has an area of 100 ri. Three peaks stand out (律兀).
鬱島郡 西面居 金元俊은 鬱島 東北方 4, 50里에 位置하는 于山嶋(無人島)에 移住코자 移住民을 募集하고 探索키로 決定하였으나 10數年前 同地 韓國人이 聯合 探索하였어도 發見치 못하고 海圖에도 없으며 現時 航海路가 頻繁한데도 이를 現認하였다는 일이 없다하여 中止하다.
Kim Won-jun, a resident of Seo-myeon (西面) in Uldo County (鬱島郡), wanted to gather people to migrate to Usando (an uninhabited island), which was supposedly forty to fifty ri northeast of Uldo [Ulleungdo], and decided to search for the island. However, he said that Koreans on the island [Ulleungdo] had tried conducting a joint search for the island [Usando] ten or more years earlier, but were unable to find it. He also said that the island was uncharted, and that even after several trips in search of it, he could notfind it, so he gave up.
Maeil Sinbo, June 22, 1913
As regards the island of Dokdo, otherwise known as Takeshima or Liancourt Rocks, this normally uninhabited rock formation was according to our information never treated as part of Korea and, since about 1905, has been under the jurisdiction of the Oki Islands Branch Office of Shimane Prefecture of Japan. The island does not appear to ever before to have been claimed by Korea.
"When the Treaty of Peace with Japan was being drafted, the Republic of Korea asserted its claims to Dokto but the United States concluded that they remained under Japanese sovereignty and the Island was not included among the Islands that Japan released from its ownership under the Peace Treaty."