竹島問題の歴史

20.10.07

1882 April 7 - King Kojong says Usando Neighboring Island of Ulleungdo

In the Annals of King Kojong, it is written that on April 7, 1882, King Kojong met with Inspector Lee Gyu-won (李奎遠), who was the official specially selected to travel to Ulleungdo to confirm reports that "foreigners" were visiting the island and removing its natural resources. This conversation between King Kojong and his Ulleungdo inspector is more evidence that Usando was not "Dokdo" (Liancourt Rocks), as Dokdo advocates claim.

Here is my translation of the conversation between King Kojong and Lee Gyu-won, as reported HERE in the Records of King Kojong (高宗 19卷, 19年 4月 7日 壬戌):
The 7th Day

Inspector Lee Gyu-won was called before the king to give his farewell greeting.

The king says, “It is reported that these days there is the evil practice of foreigners freely travelling to and from Ulleungdo and doing as they please. Also, Songjukdo (松竹島) and Usando (于山島) are next to Ulleungdo, but there are no details of their distance and what resources they have. You were chosen especially for this trip, so carry out your inspection with particular attention. We also have plans to establish a settlement there, so be sure to prepare a detailed map and report.”

Lee Gyu-won replied, “Usando is just Ulleungdo. Usan was the name of the ancient country’s capital. Songjukdo is a small island about three to ten ri offshore (相距爲三數十里). The products there are juniper (檀香) and pipestem bamboo (簡竹).”

The king said, “Both Usando or Songjukdo (敎曰 或稱芋山島 或稱松竹島) are written in the Yeojiseungram (輿地勝覽). Songdo (松島) and Jukdo (竹島) are also used [for Songjukdo], and together with Usando, three islands combine to make up what is called Ulleungdo (而又稱松島竹島與芋山島爲三島統稱鬱陵島矣). Inspect the situation on all of them. Originally, the Samcheok commander (三陟營將) and the Wolsong commander (越松萬戶) have taken turns surveying Ulleungdo, but almost all of them have been careless. They inspected only the exterior of the island, which has led to these evil practices. 
 Lee Gyu-won said, “I will go deep inside and conduct my inspection. Even though some say that Songdo and Jukdo are east of Ulleungdo, there is only Songjukdo, no separate Songdo and Jukdo.”

The king asked, “Did you possibly hear that from previous inspectors?”
Lee Gyu-won said, “I have not met previous inspectors, but that is the general information I have heard.”-------------------------------- 
初七日。 召見檢察使李奎遠。 辭陛也。 敎曰: “鬱陵島, 近有他國人物之無常往來, 任自占便之弊云矣。 且松竹島、芋山島, 在於鬱陵島之傍, 而其相距遠近何如, 亦月何物與否未能詳知。 今番爾行, 特爲擇差者, 各別檢察。 且將設邑爲計, 必以圖形與別單, 詳細錄達也。” 奎遠曰: “芋山島卽鬱陵島, 而芋山古之國都名也。 松竹島卽一小島, 而與鬱陵島, 相距爲三數十里。 其所産卽檀香與簡竹云矣。” 敎曰: “或稱芋山島, 或稱松竹島, 皆《輿地勝覽》所載也。 而又稱松島、竹島, 與芋山島爲三島統稱鬱陵島矣。 其形便一體檢察。 鬱陵島本以三陟營將、越松萬戶, 輪回搜檢者, 而擧皆未免疎忽。 只以外面探來, 故致有此弊。 爾則必詳細察得也。” 奎遠曰: “謹當深入檢察矣。 或稱松島、竹島, 在於鬱陵島之東, 而此非松竹島以外, 別有松島、竹島也。” 敎曰: “或有所得聞於曾往搜檢人之說耶?” 奎遠曰: “曾往搜檢之人, 未得逢著。 而轉聞其梗槪矣。”
Disagreement on the Number of Neighboring Islands

Notice that King Kojong and Lee Gyu-won disagreed on the number of Ulleungdo's neighboring islands. King Kojong said there were two, but Lee said there was only one. The king said "Songjukdo" (松竹島) and "Usando" (芋山島) were neighboring islands of Ulleungdo, but Lee said that Usando was just another name for Ulleungdo and that Songjukdo was the only neighboring island. King Kojong persisted and said that the names "Songdo" (松島) and "Jukdo" (竹島) were also used and that together with Usando, three islands made up what was called Ulleungdo. Lee Gyu-won, however, did not concede to the king and said that even though some people had said that "Songdo" and "Jukdo" were east of Ulleungdo, there was only one island, Songjukdo, not a separate Songdo and Jukdo.

Even though he seemed unsure of their names, King Kojong seemed sure that three islands made up Ulleungdo. When Lee Gyu-won said that Songjukdo was Ulleungdo's only neighboring island and that Usando was just the old name for Ulleungdo, the king seemed to suggest that Songjukdo (松竹島) could be two separate islands, Songdo (松島) and Jukdo (竹島), and that if Usando (芋山島) were just another name for Ulleungdo, then that would still mean that Ulleungdo was made up of three islands. Lee Gyu-won, however, rejected that theory and said that Ulleungdo had only one neighboring island, "Songjukdo."
Distance to Songjukdo

Lee Gyu-won said that Songjukdo was "three to ten ri" (三數十里) offshore of Ulleungdo, which is 1.2 to 4 kilometers (1 Korean ri = 0.4 km). Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo (竹島) is approximately 2 kilometers off Ulleungdo's northeast shore and 4 kilomethers off its southeast shore. That means that in 1882 Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo was being referred to as "Songjukdo" (松竹島), "Songdo" (松島), and "Jukdo" (竹島).

Some "Dokdo" advocates have suggested that Songjukdo was "Dokdo" (Liancourt Rocks), but ; Liancourt Rocks is approximately ninety kilometers southeast of Ulleungdo, not 1.2 to 4 kilometers. Also, Lee said Songjukdo had juniper and pipestem bamboo on it, which would eliminate any possibility that Songjukdo was Liancourt Rocks since Liancourt Rocks were just barren rocks with no soil to grow juniper or bamboo.

Name Confusion: Usando, Songjukdo, Songdo, & Jukdo

The conversation between King Kojong and Inspector Lee Gyu-won shows quite clearly that, in 1882, even Korea's king and his advisors were unsure of the geography of Ulleungdo. Korea's maps showed Usando to be Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo, but Korean documents, including the Yeojiseungram (輿地勝覽) mentioned above, apparently also showed Songjukdo (松竹島) as a neighboring island. Also, a secret Japanese mission to Korean in 1869 reported in an 1870 document HERE that Ulleungdo had a neighboring island called "Matsushima" (松島 = Songdo), which was an island the Japanese had no record of. Before that, in 1794, Ulleungdo Inspector Sim Jin-hyeon (沈晉賢) reported that Ulleungdo had a neighboring island called Jukdo (竹島), but did not mention either Usando or Songdo in his report.

When Lee Gyu-won conducted his inspection of Ulleungdo in 1882, he found two islands: Jukdo (竹島) and Dohang (島項). His map of Ulleungdo showed that Jukdo was almost certainly Ulleungdo's present-day neighboring island of Jukdo (竹島), and Dohang was Ulleungdo's Gwaneumdo (觀音島). He reported that he could find no islands named "Songjukdo" or "Usando" and concluded that Usando was just another name from Ulleungdo. Neither King Kojong nor Lee Gyu-won showed any clue that they knew Liancourt Rocks even existed.

Why aren't there any Korean maps that show either Usando, Songjukdo, Songdo, or Jukdo together? The most logical explanation is that they were four different names for the same island. "Songjukdo" (松竹島) was obviously a combination of two names--"Songdo" (松島) and "Jukdo" (竹島)--both of which were names that were mentioned during the territorial dispute between Korea and Japan in the 1690s. Then, Korea claimed that Jukdo (竹島) was an alternate name for Ulleungdo that Korean fishermen used, and An Yong-bok had claimed that the Japanese name for Usando was "Matsushima" (松島 = Songdo). Since Korean maps showed Usando to be Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo, it was almost inevitable that some would start using Songdo (松島) to refer to Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo. Even in 1899, the Korean newspaper Hwangseong Sinmun (皇城新聞) reported that Ulleungdo's most prominent neighboring island was "Usando/Jukdo" (于山島竹島), which was most likely written to show that there were two names for the same island. If the "Usando/Jukdo" in the 1899 article meant two separate islands, as some claim, then why was only Jukdo, not Usando, mentioned one year later in Korea's Imperial Edict 41, which upgraded Ulleungdo's status to a county?

14 comments:

  1. not anonymous21/10/07 22:39

    Gerry, Lee Gyuwon said pipestems came from this region not from Songdo. It's not clear if he was referring to Ulleungdo, Usando or Songjukdo in this document.

    The king asked Lee Gyuwon.
    Have you ever met anyone of the inspectors who surveyed the island?

    Lee Gyuwon answered.
    No I've just heard this information though the grapevine (secondhand)

    Lee Gyuwon was looking for Usando, Songdo and Jukdo. He only found Jukdo. It makes more sense Songdo and Usando were the same island. (Dokdo).

    The publication I have also lists the distance given as 30ri used in the Lee Gyuwon document. This book was translated by a historical committee.

    Either way it is very doubtful 5 ri could be confused for 30 or even 20 ri. That would be like confusing 2km for 12 kms wish is pretty unlikely. Even an amatuer could eyeball Jukdo islet and see the rock is not 12 or even 8kms away.
    Jukdo 12 kms away??

    Lee Gyuwon uses the phrase "三數十里" this can also be translated as 20~30 ri as a range in distance. Using this translation is makes no sense that such a close island's distance (2.2kms) would need to be "ballparked" like Lee Gyuwon did.

    However, Dokdo being about 90kms away is a more likely candidate. Remember about 30 percent of Ulleungdo's residents at this time were illegal Japanese squatters. It's more plausible for this information Japanese ri were used to describe Dokdo Island and this information passed on to other Ulleungdo residents and Chosun inspectors. A range of 20~30 Japanese ri is about 80 to 120 kms away and fits Dokdo exactly.

    In fact the Japanese Black Dragon Fishing guide of 1902 also described the distance from Ulleungdo to Dokdo as 30ri. You can see the document here.

    Dokdo is 30 ri away

    This 19th Century map's legend shows the three systems in use during this era.
    Japanese ri = .4kms
    Chosun ri= 4 kms
    Kilometers

    Distance Scales

    Gerry, don't mislead, or be misled by the term "neighbour island" the usage of this character cannot be said to mean directly beside as you imply. It is a relative term meaning adjacent to or beside and isn't indicative of distance.

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  2. Non-Anonymous (Steve Barber),

    Ulleungdo inspectors did not use Japanese "ri" for measurement. Not even Korea's historians make such a ridiculous claim.

    The record said "三數十里," not "三十里. Read it for yourself. If your historians are translating 三數十里 as "30 ri" instead of "20 to 30 ri," then you need to start referencing better historians. Even the KBS video I linked to in my latest post translates it as "20 to 30 ri."

    Lee Gyu-won did not say anything about "a grapevine." I am sure he had access to the maps and documents made by previous inspectors. And remember, he inspected Ulleungdo, himself, so he had firsthand experience, and he said after his inspection that he could find no Usando.

    King Kojong said islands "next to" Ulleungdo. I am not misleading anyone. You are.

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  3. Non-Anonymous (Steve Barber),

    By the way, the Korean "ri" was 0.4 kilometers, not the 4 kilometers you wrote. Four kilometers was the Japanese "ri."

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  4. It seems that the 三数十里 (around 12km) be is the distance from Jukdo to 台霞洞.just presumption from his map in 1882.

    李奎遠 landing on the Ullungdo of 小黄土邱尾 near by 台霞洞,there is the "Wind waiting area(near by 香木亭)" to return mainland.

    I forgot which articles I read, that when Korean started immigration policy
    on Ullungdo in 1882, they set headquarter on 台霞洞,even thuogh 芋道/道洞 harbour is useful to anchor the boats.In 1903,headquarter moved from 台霞洞 to 道洞.

    Is it before his inspection to Ullungdo that Lee answered to the king kojong about 三十数里?

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  5. not anonymous22/10/07 22:50

    Gmtor, when Lee Gyuwon gave this 30ri data he hadn't even been to Ulleungdo nor even met someone who been there first hand. That is why Gerry trying to draw conclusions from this converstion is such a farce.

    Gerry, read my post again, I said my translation said 20~30 ri. Never once did I say Korean inspectors used Japanese ri to measure distances. I'm just offering a plausible explanation for the distance given of 20~30ri. There is no way 2.2kms could be mistaken for 8~12kms Gerry.

    Saying the Koreans obtained data from Japanese residents on Ulleungdo is not at all a ridiculous claim Gerry. In 1881 Im Han Su talked to some Japanese who were illegally felling trees on Ulleungdo. This was about a year before Lee Gyu Won's inspection. So it could be the distance to Songdo of 30ri was given at that time.

    Japanese Residents

    While you are using images from my website be sure to read the data Gerry. BTW feel free to keep posting my name!!

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  6. This comment has been removed by the author.

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  7. They wrote 松竹島卽一(one)小島(See in the link Mr Gerry posted(高宗 19卷, 19年 4月 7日 壬戌)

    奎遠曰: “芋山島卽鬱陵島, 而芋山古之國都名也。 松竹島卽一小島, 而與鬱陵島,

    If 松竹島 be Liancourt Rocks, they would have written that 松竹島卽二小島.(Sonjukdo is two small islands)

    Im not sure it has some relation or not, I remember that 海東輿地図-江原道圖(early in 19C) has three island in the east of 江原道,one is 鬱陵島、second is 于山島 third is 竹島 on the north.Im not sure it is related with King's misunderstanding about Ulleungdo area.

    In addition ,Japan called Ullelungdo as Matsushima松島 after Philipp van sevold's map on 1840's.

    If I were king Kojong and I saw the 海東輿地図 at that time, I would think there are three islands, 鬱陵島=松島 and 竹島on north and 芋山島(于山島) 

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  8. dokdo-takeshima.com26/12/07 21:02

    GMTOR you shouldn't say Japan called Ulleungdo (松島) after Seibold. Seibold's maps were drawn in 1840

    Japanese maps and docs continued to show Ulleungdo as 竹島 on many maps afterward.

    For example Kashihara's map it labelled the island in Argonaut's location as both Ulleungdo and Jukdo.
    Kashihara 1876

    Another prime example is Uchida's map of 1870 it also labels the island in Argonauts position as 竹島. This map also has Saito Hosen's 見高麗如雲州望州 next to Ulleungdo.

    Uchida

    You can see Saito Hosen's quote next to pre-Seibold maps of 竹島 and 松島 such as this map.

    Saito Quote

    GMTOR, the Japanese theory is after 1840 they knowingly drew a phantom island (Argonaut 竹島) and Ulleungdo (松島) on their maps. They say co-incidently Japanese cartographers omitted Dokdo (松島) at the same time. This is not plausible.

    There are two kinds of maps of this era.

    One type of map is those showing 2 islands in the East Sea. One is Ulleungdo the other is Dokdo, this can be proven by the maps above.

    The other type has three islands. On almost all of these maps 竹島 is drawn in a dotted line meaning the existence of the island (Argonaut) was doubful or as P.D. written on the British maps the Japanese copied such as the map below.

    Argonaut is P.D.

    These maps have to be studied on a case by case basis. Don't let Mr Tanaka lead you into false theories on the basis of the oddball three island maps. The Japanese had hundreds of maps to draw from.

    BTW. Lee Gyuwon and Kojong knew little or nothing about the situation on Ulleungdo in their pre-survey conversation. Otherwise they wouldn't have needed to survey the island to begin with. After the inspection Leegyuwon it mentioned Jukdo and Usando are different islands even though there is a word ‘松竹于山等島 (Islands of SongJukUsan and so on)’.

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  9. Im not sure Korean knows Japanese call Ulleungdo as Matsushima松島 on 1882.But actually Japan call Ulleungdo as Matsushima松島.

    And Im not sure Korean had Maps produced by Japanese.

    But, at least , Korea has 海東輿地図 and it write 竹島 on north of Ulleungdo. The map has three islands.

    I don't know what is this 竹島. Steve barver-toadface, what do you think this 竹島 on north of Ulleungdo???

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  10. Lee Gyuwon's records reported on 1882.05.23 have those description;

    松竹于山等島 僑寓諸人 皆以傍近小島 當之 然旣無圖籍之可據 又無鄕導之指的 晴明之日 登高遠眺 則千里可窺 而更無一拳石一撮土 則于山之稱鬱陵 卽如耽羅之稱濟州是白如乎
    臣於着島之後 旣步履其高顚 复舟駛其山麓 包日之間 足跡無所不到 全島形勝 暸然在目 而惟其拙於文辭 尙多掛漏是白乎 緣由馳啓爲白臥乎事云云

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  11. 相距爲三數十里

    I think 三數十里 means,

    3~some 10 ri or more.

    It is because Lee Gyuwon's recogization before departure is based on Local officer's information.
    But big scaled Ulluengdo map e.g. Joseon Jido Usando is off about 30里 on the map, and 東與図 and other inspector's map Usando is just off from Ulluengdo.

    https://sites.google.com/site/takeshimaliancourt/Home/report-by-ulleungdo-inspector-team/imo-yamashima-shouchiku-tou

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  12. Although It seems to be very close distance "2km" from Ulluengod , I felt It have more distant feeling because Jukdo is completely isolated from Ulluengdo and the existence is promintent.
    If someone knows 烏帽子岩 in 茅ヶ崎 imagine it. it is just 1.6km off shore but go there and checking by yourself it seems more distant feelings. I felt same feeling like this case.

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  13. GTOMR,

    You are exactly right. 三數十里 should be read as if there were a comma between 三數 and 十里. It means "from 3 to 10 ri." 三數 translates as "3 or 4," and 十里 translates as simply "10 ri," so together they mean "3 or 4 to 10 ri." To Jukdo from the nearest point on the main island is "3 or 4 ri" and from Dodong, the main port on the eastern shore of Ulleungdo, it is about 10 ri.

    Many Koreans translate 三數十里 as "20 to 30 ri," which means they are ignoring the 三 in front of 數 and are just translating 數十里. They do that because they do not want to admit that an island named 松竹島 was exactly where Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo (竹島) is today.

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  14. GTOMR,

    If you are seeing this blog, please come back!
    I am always checking your site.

    ReplyDelete