Uldo is Ulleungdo, which is in the middle of the sea about 400 ri away from Pyeonghae County’s Weolsong-po. In the third year of Gwangmu (1900), Uldo County was established and a magistrate was assigned. Its northern latitude is from 130 degrees 45 minutes to 53 minutes. Its eastern longitude is from 37 degrees 34 minutes to 31 minutes [The names for "latitude" and "longitude" are reversed.] The area is about 504 square ri. A tall mountain stands out in the center of the island. Its height is 4,000 cheok. There are no harbors on the shoreline, so it is extremely difficult for ships to tie up.
Flat ground is scarce on the whole island, but layers of fallen leaves and dried grass have accumulated and decomposed into dark, fertile soil, making it possible to have an abundant harvest without fertilizing. The annual output of soybeans, which is the island’s main product, is as much as 400 to 500 seok. The wood products include oak, paulownia, pine, and sandalwood. Grapes are also produced. On the shores, there is good production of sedum, which is clearly big. In the autumn, there are many flocks of woodcocks that are used as supplemental food. The fat is dissolved and supplied as lamp oil.
The residents of the island total about 500 families. About 300 Japanese families come to live on the island temporarily, which has caused the government to issue a standing order for them all to vacate and return home. There is a spring on the island that gushes out water that tastes slightly sour, but the island residents call it mineral water. They drink it when they are sick and it seems to have a good effect. This is the source of carbonated water.
About 300 ri to the southeast of this island is an island commonly called “Yang-ko” Island. It has an area of about thirty ri. The shoreline is indented, so it is good for anchoring fishing boats, but there is still no firewood or drinking water available, so it is uninhabited. There are many sea lions and various sea products.
鬱島는 平海郡 越松浦 四百餘里海中에 在한 鬱陵島니 光武三年에 鬱島郡을 設하고 守를 寘하니 北緯 百三十度 四十五分乃至 五十三分. 東徑三十七度 三十四分乃至 三十一分 間에 在하야. 面積이 五百四 方里許며 中央에 高山이 屹立하야 고 – 四千 尺이며 沿岸의 港灣이 無하야 船舶의 碇繫가 甚難하니라
全島에 平地가 稀少하나 其地質은 落葉枯草가 堆積腐化한 黑土를 成함으로 膏腴하야 肥料를 不施하야도 農物이 豊碩하야 主産物의 大豆는 每年産額이 四五百石에 至하며 林産에는 欅, 桐, 松, 白檀香等이 有하며 또 葡萄가 産出하며 沿海에 良好한 石菜의 産額이 亦 大하니라. 秋季에 山鷸類가 多하야 副食物을 作하며 脂肪은 溶解하야 燈油에 供給하나니라.
本島住民은 五百餘戶며 日本人 三百餘戶가 一時에 來住함으로 政府에서 退去하란 命令이 有하야 至今에 盡歸하니라 島中의 一泉이 湧出하야 其味가 微酸하나 島民이 藥水라 稱하야 疾病時에 藥餌로 服用하면 効驗이 著見하니 此는 炭酸水의 源流니라.
本島東南約三百里에 一島가 유하야 俗稱 “양고”島라 云하니 長이 三十餘里오 沿岸이 屈曲하야 漁船의 碇泊이 便宜하나 薪材及 飮料水를 아즉 不得함으로 居人이 無하며 海馬와 各種海産이 多하니라.
1907 June - "Sinpyeon Daehan Jiri" (新編 大韓地理)
The book pictured on the left is entitled "Sinpyeon Daehan Jiri" (新編 大韓地理 - 신편 대한지리), which translates as "New Edition - Geography of the Korean Empire." It was printed in June 1907 and used as a middle school geography book. The book is stored in the National Library of Korea.
The book has 176 pages, and the main text is divided into three sections: Physical Geography, Cultural Landscape, and Regional Information. The book was largely a translation of the Japanese book "Korea's New Geography" (韓國新地理), which was written by Tabuchi Tomohiko (田淵友彦) and published in September 1905. However, revisions were made in the Korean text, including the renaming of the "Sea of Japan" (日本海) to the "Chosun Sea" (朝鮮海).
Other revisions included updated provincial information. For example, the Japanese text simply described the geography of the Korean island of Ulleungdo (鬱陵島), but the Korean version added the fact that Ulleungdo was made a county in 1900 and renamed "Uldo County" (鬱島郡).
One interesting thing about the Korean text is that it seems to have used the Japanese description of Liancourt Rocks without making any revisions. It even used the Japanese name of "Yang-ko" Island ("양고"島) to refer to the rocks. Koreans claim that Liancourt Rocks were made a part of Uldo County in 1900 and were called "Seokdo" (石島 - 석도), but they have no evidence to support their claim. Instead, the evidence suggests that "Seokdo" was just a catchall word used to include all the neighboring rock islets (石島) around Ulleungdo, including five small islets mentioned in old Korean texts and frequently shown on old Korean maps of Ulleungdo.
The fact that the 1907 Korean geography book did not refer to Liancourt Rocks as "Seokdo," but instead used the Japanese name for the rocks is more evidence against the Korean claim. Moreover, the coordinates given for Uldo (鬱島 - 울도) excluded Liancourt Rocks.
The following is my English translation of the section in the Korean book describing Ulleungdo (鬱陵島 - 울릉도), which was referred to as Uldo (鬱島 - 울도) in the text. It is followed by the Korean text.