竹島問題の歴史

7.11.07

1907 - Daehan Shinjiji Attached Maps (大韓新地志附地圖)

The following is a map of North Gyeongsang Province (慶尙北道), which was included in the 1907 Korean geography text, Daehan Sinjiji (大韓新地志). The map also includes a cutout of Ulleungdo (鬱陵島), which was a county of North Gyeongsang Province and was called "Uldo" (鬱島) at the time. The map of Uldo (鬱島) is in the lower left-hand corner of the map.

If you look closely at the map of Uldo (鬱島), you should see a small island off its northeast shore labeled as "竹" (Juk), which was an abbreviation for Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo (竹島). The map does not show Ulleungdo with any other neighboring islands. Not even Gwaneumdo (觀音島), which is a fairly large neighboring island of Ulleungdo is shown. However, Gwaneumdo is only about 100 meters off the east shore of Ulleungdo, and maps at the time suggest that Gwaneumdo was considered more of a cape than an island, which was most likely why it was not shown as an island on this map.

Inside the box encircling Ulleungdo are Chinese characters that give the latitude and longitude for the island. The characters and their translation are as follows:

南北緯 百三十度 四十五分至三十五分
North-South Latitude: 130 degrees 45 minutes ~ 35 minutes

東西經 三十七度 三十四分至五十一分
East-West Longitude: 37 degrees 34 minutes ~ 51 minutes

Unless I am misunderstanding something, the geography text seems to have gotten the longitude and latitude mixed up. That would mean that the latitude should be 37 degrees 34 minutes ~ 51 minutes, and the longitude should be 130 degrees 45 minutes ~ 35 minutes. Excusing that mistake, the map gives the eastern-most boundary of Ulleungdo at an east longitude of 130 degrees 45 minutes. That measurement is off the actual location by about 11 minutes since Ulleungdo's Jukdo (竹島) is actually at an east longitude of approximately 130 degrees 56 minutes.

Korea claims that Liancourt Rocks (Dokdo) was also a part of Uldo County (鬱島郡) in 1907 and was called "Seokdo" (石島), but not only does this map of Ulleungdo not show Liancourt Rocks or any island named "Seokdo," it also tells us that Liancourt Rocks could not have been a part of Uldo county since Liancourt Rocks are located at a longitude of 131 degrees 52 minutes, which is much farther east of the eastern-most boundary of Ulleungdo given above. The name "Seokdo" (石島) was not a reference to Liancourt Rocks, but was simply a reference to the small, rock islets around Ulleungdo. The name "Seokdo" (石島) means "rock island" or "rock Islets". (See HERE.)

1907 - Daehan Sinjiji Map - Gyeongsangbukdo

1907 - Daehan Sinjiji Map - Ulleungdo

11 comments:

  1. Gerry ,

    " usando is jukdo "

    http://news.naver.com/main/read.nhn?mode=LSD&mid=sec&sid1=103&sid2=&oid=001&aid=0001812651&iid=

    조선 후기 지도에서는 우산도가 울릉도의 댓섬(죽도)으로 표기됐는데

    朝鮮後期地図では傘島が鬱陵島のデッソム(竹嶼)で表記したが

    ReplyDelete
  2. Thanks, Yabutarou. That's funny.

    It seems Korea's so-called "scholars" are being forced to find new ways to explain the Ulleungdo maps that show Usando as Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo, and if this is an example of what is to come, then I think we can expect more laughs in the future.

    I will translate the article for the non-Korean speakers on this blog when I get home tonight, but the only reason I will be wasting my time doing it is that I want others to see how an interesting theory can be screwed up when you try to force "Dokdo" into it.

    All the claims in Korean books and on Korea Web sites that Korean maps showed Usando in the "exact" position of present-day "Dokdo" (Liancourt Rocks) are finally being revealed as the lies that they are. Korean scholars are sacrificing their integrity for Korean nationalism. I hope they feel it is worth it.

    ReplyDelete
  3. It's really hard to understand what he claims through automatic translation, but it sounds like similar to what 金柄烈 said about 武稜島 in his latest book with professor Emeritus Naito published in Japan this April.

    ReplyDelete
  4. Gerry,
    Could you tell me what the explanation of no.82 and no. 46 on this Dokdo Museum site says? No.82 looks like same as 分道詳密韓国新地図の江源道図 1905 as yabutarou told me, but original doesn't seems like coloured.

    This is interesting, since Japanese map put Ulleundo in 江原道, but Korean map put it in 慶尚北道 and added Jukdo next to Ulleundo 2 years later. Did Korean officials in Education Ministry copied the Japanese map but added their original information independantly? And maybe they made mistakes of latitude and longitude when they copied?

    ReplyDelete
  5. Kaneganese,

    Next to Map #46, on the Dokdo Center Web site, is written the following:

    Uldo (鬱島: Ulleungdo) is drawn separately to one side of North Gyeongsang Province, and to its right is the label "Juk" (竹). Unlike the real Uldo, it is drawn as a rectangular shape.

    By the way, in 1906, I think Ulleungdo was put under the administration of South Gyeongsang Province, not North Gyeongsang Province. It was not until later that it became a part of North Gyeongsang province, so this map would be wrong in that regard.

    The following is written next to Map #82 on the Dokdo Center site:

    Ulleungdo and Jukdo are drawn within the territory of Gyeongsang Province. Ulleungdo is drawn separately and Ulleungdo's geographical information and local products are listed. Interestingly, an "onjeon" (溫泉 - hot springs) is shown in the vicinity of Hyeonpo, but no "onjeon" exists there today.

    Again, the #82 map (1905) shows Ulleungdo under Gyeongsang Province, which I do not think happened until 1906. Anyway, I will recheck that fact and let you know later today. Also, notice that it mentions an irrelevant "hot springs," but ignoresthe the fact that no "Dokdo" or "Seokdo" is shown on the map. I think this is another example of Dokdo advocates trying to hide the truth.

    By the way, a more obvious example of Dokdo advocates trying to hide the truth is that the maps on the Dokdo Center map list are shown too small to read, and "Usando" (우산도) is only mentioned in the descriptions of the full-size maps of Korea and the provinces, but not in the descriptions of the full-size maps of Ulleungdo. In the descriptions of the full-size maps of Ulleungdo, they talk about everything except the fact that Usando is shown right next to Ulleungdo. People ignorant of the maps would not know that fact since it is not mentioned in the descriptions and since the maps are too small to read. I think that was the intention of the Dokdo Center. Afterall, it would be easier to point out Usando on the full-size maps of Korea since you could still leave doubt in people's minds as to the location of Usando, but it would be much, much more difficult to explain why Usando was shown as a neighboring island on the full-size maps of Ulleungdo.

    ReplyDelete
  6. CORRECTION: In my post above, it should read "Dokdo Museum," not "Dokdo Center."

    ReplyDelete
  7. Thank you, Gerry.

    Too bad the year #46 was made is unknown. And as for #82, does it say it is Japanese map of Korea 「分道詳密韓国新地図」 ? In Japanese original map, there in no island next to Ulleundo. But in 1907 version by Korean, it has an island labelled as "竹" at the location of todays Jukdo. The shape of Ulleundo is not caaurate as the Dokdo Museum explins, but it tells us that when Korean copied Japanese maps, they apparently added their original information.

    Those are brief history what happened in 1906.

    March : The officials of Shimane and Oki went to Takeshima and Ulleundo. They met Shim(沈興沢) on 28th.
    Shim greeted the group warmly, and received sealion hunted in Takeshima as a gift from Japanese officials. But after they left, Shim reported that Japanese incorporated "Dokdo"of their territory to the governor of 江原道. (Why he didn't tell this to Japanese directly? Why did he say "Dokdo", not "Sokto" as in Imperial Edict 41 in 1900?)

    April 29th : 江原道観察使署理 and 春川郡守 李明来 reported this to the Central government.

    May 28th : 議政府参政大臣 李齋純 issued the order 「指令第三号」 and ordered 春川郡守・李明来 to do investigation of the shape of the island(Dokdo) and Japanese activity on the island. (But there is no record that what Lee reported nor how they decided. One thing is clear that they didn't protest to Japan at all.)

    According to this 朝鮮日報 article (Japanese), he was a 郡主 of Ulleundo since 1903 and three years after, he was moved to another country, it means he was transferred just after this incident.

    Considring those, I think Imperial Korean government didn't know about "Dokdo" or 竹島/Liancourt Rocks until this happened and when they received a report of "Dokdo" from 李明来, they realized that "Dokdo" is not their territory. And they transferred 沈 to the other place since he made an false claim. Then central Korean government referred 1905 Japanese geological maps(#82 on Dokdo Museum Center) and started to correctly put Jukdo instead of Usando, and didn't draw Takeshima/Liancourt Rocks/Dokdo on their geography text(#45) in 1907 since they already realized the island is not their territory.

    This is my assumption.

    ReplyDelete
  8. One more evidence proving the Japanese theory of Jukdo=Usando or Seokdo ≠Usando(=Dokdo) is not correct.

    This post like most of the other posts in this blog misleads the readers.

    The map in the lower left corner of the map of North Gyeongsang Province is the map of Uldo(=Ulleungdo), not the map of Uldo County. So it's not necessary Dokdo should be in this map of Ullungdo. It doesn't matter if Dokdo is shown in this map of Ulleungdo or not, though Jukdo which was just 2km off Ulleungdo
    is drawn in this map of Ulleungdo.

    Gerry Bever is desperately forced to prove his wrong Seokdo≠Usando(=Dokdo)theory with the incorrect longitude and latitude of Ulleungdo here. He is trying hard to lead to the wrong conclusion Dokdo was not included as a part of Uldo County because it is not within east longitude of 130 degrees 45 minutes of Ulleungdo. As he mentioned, the Jukdo was not inculded, either. Then, why should Dokdo be included within east longitude of 130 degrees 45 minutes of Ulleungdo? It's illogical to talk about the islands which Uldo County administers with the map of Ulleungdo.


    Very importantly, the authour of Daehan Shinjiji (大韓新地志), Jang Ji-yeon, didn't forget about Dokdo in his book. Under the section of North Gyeongsang Province, he explained about Ulleungdo and added at the end that "Usando(Dokdo) exists to the south-east of the island(Ullogndo)." The original text is
    HERE .


    “于山島는 基東南에 在하니라(Usando exists to the south-east of the island(Ullogndo)." This sentence is an conclusive answer to the Usando=Jukdo and Usando≠Dokdo theory Japan has insisted with obstinacy. This sentence proves 3 important points.

    First, it's clear the Jukdo and Ulsando are two different islands.
    Jukdo is in the northeast of Ulleungdo as shown in the map and Usando is located at southeast of Ulleungdo as described in the 大韓新地志. Are they the same islands?

    Second, it's proved Usando is the older name of today's Dokdo. It's only Dokdo that exists southeast of Ulleungdo. Is there any other island located at southeast of Ulleungdo in the East Sea than Dokdo?

    Third, Dokdo is an attached island to Ulleungdo.


    Gerry Bevers says that "The name "Seokdo" (石島) was not a reference to Liancourt Rocks, but was simply a reference to the small, rock islets around Ulleungdo." Even though it's supposed he is right, Dokdo is Seokdo. Dokdo is one of the small, rock islets around Ulleungdo. .

    In conclusion, Japanese stubborn insistence of Usando≠Dokdo or Usando=Jukdo in spite of clear evidence is noting but the proof Japan has no other way to support her false claim.

    ReplyDelete
  9. sloww,

    There is no single document nor map which proves Usando was today's Dokdo/Liancourt Rocks, unfortunately.

    First of all, if Jang really thought Usando was Dokdo at the time, then why he wrote as "Usando", not Dokdo nor Seokdo? Usando had already dissapeared around 1882.

    The authour of Daehan Shinjiji (大韓新地志), Jang Ji-yeon, didn't know about today's Takeshima/Liancourt Rocks at all. He only knew that there is an island Japan incorporated a year before because his newspaper reported it. It is possible, as you guess, he's noticed, from what he got to know, that there is an island "Dokdo" to the south-east of the Ulleungdo and he presumed that Usando is Dokdo. But his description of Usando proves he had no knowledge, since it lacks like location and distance. All he knew was direction, since it is the only correct information Magistrate Shim reported. But it is clear that Jang didn't think today's Takeshima/Liancourt Rocks is Korea's, since Daehan Shinjiji declares that the eastern limit of Korea is 東経130度58分(豆満江口). Takeshima lacates outside the Korean territory that Jang described.

    On top of that, there is no Takeshima in this atlas, even the whole map of Korea.
    「大韓全圖」『大韓新地志附地圖』(1907)
    http://www.dlibrary.go.kr/Map/main.jsp?code=KOL000021224
    http://blog.daum.net/cariland/1849985

    Even if Korean believed that there is two island off the east coast of Joseon peninsula, that doesn't necessary mean one of the island is Takeshima. You need to give us more clear evidence to identify the identity of the island, since Korean had already learned the modern geographic system in 1907.

    Actually, the truth is, Korean didn't think that Usando was Dokdo and they couldn't identify the whereabout of Usando.
    1913 - Jun 22- Location of Usando Unknown in Early 1900s (毎日申報 "無人島探検中止")
    http://dokdo-or-takeshima.blogspot.com/2008/04/location-of-usando-unknown-in-early.html

    ReplyDelete
  10. Kaneganese,

    If you don't like to accept Jang's evidence “于山島는 基東南에 在하니라", try
    Japanese map probing Usando is Dokdo. Take a look at 朝鮮全圖(1894) HERE (For the whole map, HERE)

    What do you think is Usando in "朝鮮全圖(1894)"? Are you going to say it's Jukdo 2.2 km off from Ullongdo as the pro-Japanese people always do? It's not Jukdo, right? Then what is Usando in this map of Korea drawn by Japanese? It's Takeshima(Dokdo) which has been depicted always with Matsushima(Ulleongao) in the Japanese maps.

    Kaneganese wrote "if Jang really thought Usando was Dokdo at the time, then why he wrote as "Usando", not Dokdo nor Seokdo?"
    --> Why shouldn't he use the name "Usando"? Is there any rule the old name of Dokdo or Seokdo shouldn't be used?

    "his description of Usando proves he had no knowledge, since it lacks like location and distance"
    --->"Did Japanese mapmakers in the 1880s draw Takeshima and Matsusima with the exact knowledge on location and distance?

    "Jang didn't think today's Takeshima..is Korea's, since Daehan Shinjiji declares that the eastern limit of Korea is 東経130度58分"
    -->Jang just cited the wrong Japanese side's document, but clearly he included Dokdo as Korean land by writing it's located on the south-east of the island(Ullogndo." under the section of North Gyeongsang Province He was a journalist, not a cartographer nor a geographer.

    "there is no Takeshima in this
    atlas, even the whole map of Korea"
    ---> Read what I wrote again. He didn't exclude Dokdo as Korean land. I assume the reason he didn't mark Usando in the map is Japanese Resident-General of Korea(統監府)'s surveillance. He was arrested on the charge of writing the editorial of Hwangseong Newspaper(是日也放聲大哭) to protest the Protectorate Treaty between Korea and Japan in 1905. For this reason, it can be inferred that he was placed under surveillance of Japanese Resident-General of Korea(統監府). Actually, Jang's "大韓新地誌" was banned to be published in 1909.

    ReplyDelete
  11. (continued)

    Kaneganese wrote "Even if Korean believed that there is two island off the east coast of Joseon peninsula, that doesn't necessary mean one of the island is Takeshima."
    ---> Ulleongdo and Usando have been always drawn together in both Korean and Japanese maps. If one is not Dokdo, what is it? Usando can't be Jukdo as pro-Japanese people like to believe. As seen in the Japanese map "朝鮮全圖(1894)", Ulleongdo and Usando(Dokdo) go in pair. Ulleongdo & Dokdo in Korean maps and Takeshima & Matsushima in the Japanese maps are inseparable.

    "You need to give us more clear evidence to identify the identity of the island, since Korean had already learned the modern geographic system in 1907."
    --->I know you'll never believe Korean side's evidence. Fortunately, Japan left the abundant evidence Dokdo belonged to Korea before Japanese illegal incorporation in 1905. I think you know what I'm talking about.

    In 1905, Dokdo became the greedy imperial Japanese land and Korean people became to be under the control of the imperial Japan. How were Korean people under Japanese colony expected to have the clear recognition on the identity of the land which became other's land by force? Don't say such a stupid and shameless thing that Korea was an independent country until 1910. In 1904, the unfair "Japan–Korea Protocol of August 1904 (第一次韓日協約)"was made and in 1906, Japanese Resident-General of Korea(統監府) was installed.

    In 1905, Japanese government made Dokdo the first victim of Japanese imperialism in the Korean Peninsula and today's Japanese government is threatening Dokdo by claiming Dokdo belongs to Japan based on the false.

    Is Japan qualified to be called as one of the leaders in the world?

    ReplyDelete