의정부(議政府)에 명하여 유산국도(流山國島) 사람을 처리하는 방법을 의논하였다. 강원도 관찰사가 보고하였다. “유산국도(流山國島) 사람 백가물(百加勿) 등 12명이 고성(高城) 어라진(於羅津)에 와서 정박하여 말하기를, ‘우리들은 무릉도(武陵島)에서 생장하였는데, 그 섬 안의 인호(人戶)가 11호이고, 남녀가 모두 60여 명인데, 지금은 본도(本島)로 옮겨 와 살고 있습니다. 이 섬이 동에서 서까지 남에서 북까지가 모두 2식(息) 거리이고, 둘레가 8식(息) 거리입니다. 우마(牛馬)와 논이 없으나, 오직 콩 한 말만 심으면 20석 혹은 30석이 나고, 보리 1석을 심으면 50여 석이 납니다. 대[竹]가 큰 서까래 같고, 해착(海錯)과 과목(果木)이 모두 있습니다.’고 하였습니다. 이 사람들이 도망하여 갈까 염려하여, 아직 통주(通州)·고성(高城)·간성(扞城)에 나누어 두었습니다.”
In accordance with Uijongbu orders, methods for dealing with the people of Yusanguk-do were discussed. The governor of Kangwon Province reported, "Twelve people from Yusanguk-do, including Baek Ga-mul, came and anchored at Eorajin in Koseong and said the following:
"Twelve families of us lived on Mu-leungdo with a total of more than sixty men and women, but now we have moved to the main island and are living there. The island's distances from east to west and north to south are each two sik (60 ri), and its circumference is eight sik (240 ri). There are no cows or horses or rice paddies on the island, but if we plant just one mal of beans, we harvest twenty to thirty seok. If we plant one seok of barley, we harvest more than fifty seok. The bamboo are as big as rafters, and there are all kinds of sea products and fruit trees."
Fearing that they may try to run away, they were divided up and put at Tongju, Koseong, and Ganseong, where they are still.
Notice in the 1416 record that the former Gangwon-do governor said that Muleungdo (Ulleungdo) has a small island next to it, which he seems to be describing when he had it had fifty kyeol of farmland and a narrow pathway leading up onto it. Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo had only one narrow path leading up onto the island, but Ulleungdo had several entrances to the island. (See HERE.) He also said that he had heard that fifteen families had lived on the island, so that would have eliminated any possibility that the island could have been Dokdo since Dokdo is just barren rocks without the soil or water to support fifteen families.
Source: 「太宗實錄」卷 三十二, 太宗 十六年 九月 庚寅條
September 2, 1416庚寅/以金麟雨爲武陵等處安撫使.
戶曹參判朴習啓: “臣嘗爲江原道都觀察使, 聞武陵島周回七息, 傍有小島, 其田可五十餘結。 所入之路, 纔通一人, 不可竝行。 昔有方之用者率十五家入居, 時或假倭爲寇。 知其島者, 在三陟, 請使之往見。” 上可之, 乃召三陟人前萬戶金麟雨, 問武陵島事, 麟雨言: “三陟人李萬嘗往武陵而還, 詳知其島之事。” 卽召李萬。 麟雨又啓: “武陵島遙在海中, 人不相通, 故避軍役者, 或逃入焉。 若此島多接人, 則倭終必入寇, 因此而侵於江原道矣。” 上然之, 以麟雨爲武陵等處安撫使, 以萬爲伴人, 給兵船二隻、抄工二名、引海二名、火㷁火藥及糧, 往其島, 諭其頭目人以來。 賜麟雨及萬衣笠靴
김인우(金麟雨)를 무릉(武陵) 등지 안무사(安撫使)로 삼았다. 호조 참판(戶曹參判) 박습(朴習)이 아뢰기를,
“신이 일찍이 강원도 도관찰사(江原道都觀察使)로 있을 때에 들었는데, 무릉도(武陵島)의 주회(周回)가 7식(息)이고, 곁에 소도(小島)가 있고, 전지가 50여 결(結)이 되는데, 들어가는 길이 겨우 한 사람이 통행하고 나란히 가지는 못한다고 합니다. 옛날에 방지용(方之用)이란 자가 있어 15가(家)를 거느리고 입거(入居)하여 혹은 때로는 가왜(假倭)로서 도둑질을 하였다고 합니다. 그 섬을 아는 자가 삼척(三陟)에 있으니, 청컨대, 그 사람을 시켜서 가서 보게 하소서.” 하니, 임금이 옳다고 여기어 삼척 사람 전 만호(萬戶) 김인우(金麟雨)를 불러 무릉도의 일을 물었다. 김인우가 말하기를,
“삼척 사람 이만(李萬)이 일찍이 무릉(武陵)에 갔다가 돌아와서 그 섬의 일을 자세히 압니다.” 하니, 곧 이만을 불렀다. 김인우가 또 아뢰기를,
“무릉도가 멀리 바다 가운데에 있어 사람이 서로 통하지 못하기 때문에 군역(軍役)을 피하는 자가 혹 도망하여 들어갑니다. 만일 이 섬에 주접(住接)하는 사람이 많으면 왜적이 끝내는 반드시 들어와 도둑질하여, 이로 인하여 강원도를 침노할 것입니다.”하였다.
임금이 옳게 여기어 김인우를 무릉 등지 안무사로 삼고 이만(李萬)을 반인(伴人)으로 삼아, 병선(兵船) 2척, 초공(抄工) 2명, 인해(引海) 2명, 화통(火通)·화약(火藥)과 양식을 주어 그 섬에 가서 그 두목(頭目)에게 일러서 오게 하고, 김인우와 이만에게옷[衣]·입(笠)·화(靴)를 주었다.
Kim In-n was made Inspector of the Ulleungdo area.
Official (호조참판) Bak Seup said, "When I was governor of Kangwon Province, I heard that Mu-leungdo had a circumference of seven sik and had a small island next to it. It had fifty kyeol of farmland and a narrow entryway that only allowed people to travel single file; they could not walk two abreast. A long time ago a man named Bak Ji-yong lead fifteen families to the island and lived there. I also heard that they would sometimes conspire with Japanese pirates and steal. There is a man in Samcheok who knows that island. Please ask him to go there and check.
"The king considered that good advice and called Samcheok resident and former military commander Kim In-u and asked him about Mu-leungdo.
Kim In-u said, "Samcheok resident Lee Man has been to Mu-leungdo and knows the details of the island." Lee Man was immediately sent for. Kim In-u added, "Mu-leungdo is far away in the middle of the sea, so there is not much contact with people there, which is probably why people flee to the island to escape military service. If there are many people living on the island, Japanese pirates will end up raiding it, and then use it to raid Kangwon Province.
The king agreed and made Kim In-u Inspector of the Ulleungdo area. He also made Lee Man his assistant and give them two troop ships, two ship's captains, two inhae (引海 - 인해), guns, gunpowder, and provisions. He told them to go to Ulleungdo, inform the leader there, and have them return. The king gave Kim In-u and Lee Man clothes, hats, and shoes.
1417 - Inspector Returns from "Usando" with Bamboo, Ramie & Wood Products
On February 5, 1417, it was reported in the "Records of King Taejong" HERE that Ulleungdo Inspector Kim In-u (金麟雨 - 김인우) had returned from "Usando" (于山島 - 우산도) and had brought back local products that included large bamboo, seal skins, raw ramie cloth, silk wool, and geombak mok. He also said that he found fifteen families of 86 people living on the island. This is more evidence that Usando was referring to the main island of Ulleungdo, not to its neighboring island of Jukdo. And it certainly was not referring to Dokdo (Liancourt Rocks), which is 92 kilometers southeast of Ulleungdo and is just barren rocks that could not grow the bamboo, ramie, or wood products mentioned in the report.
Here is the February 5, 1417 record:
February 5, 1417
按撫使金麟雨還自于山島, 獻土産大竹、水牛皮、生苧、綿子、檢樸木等物, 且率居人三名以來。 其島戶凡十五口, 男女幷八十六。 麟雨之往還也, 再逢颶風, 僅得其生
안무사(按撫使) 김인우(金麟雨)가 우산도(于山島)에서 돌아와 토산물(土産物)인 대죽(大竹)·수우피(水牛皮)·생저(生苧)·면자(綿子)·검박목(檢樸木) 등을 바쳤다. 또 그곳의 거주민 3명을 거느리고 왔는데, 그 섬의 호수[戶]는 15구(口)요, 남녀를 합치면 86명이었다. 김인우가 갔다가 돌아올 때에, 두 번이나 태풍(颱風)을 만나서 겨우 살아날 수 있었다고 했다.
Inspector Kim In-u returned from Usando and brought local products as tribute, including large bamboo, seal skins, raw ramie cloth, silk wool, and geombaek wood (檢樸木 - 검박목). He also brought back three residents of the place. There were fifteen families living on the island for a total of 86 men and women. On his way back from the island, Kim In-u ran into two typhoons and barely made it back alive.
1417 - Ulleungdo Described as "Usan-Muleung Area"
Again, the above record makes it fairly clear that Usando was thought of as the main island of Ulleungdo, as was mentioned in the above 1412 record, which also referred to Ulleungdo's neighboring island as "Muleungdo" (武陵島 - 무릉도). This is reconfirmed again in a February 8, 1417 record that referred to Ulleungdo as the "Usan-Muleung Area" (于山武陵等處 - 우산무릉등처), which suggests that Usan was the larger of the two islands since it was mentioned first. The name also suggests that Korean officials were thinking of Ulleungdo as an area rather than just two separate islands.
Here is the February 8, 1417 record:
Source: 「太宗實錄」 卷 三十三, 太宗 十七年 二月 乙丑條
February 8, 1417
乙丑/命右議政韓尙敬、六曹、臺諫, 議刷出于山、武陵居人便否, 僉曰: “武陵居人, 勿令刷出, 給五穀與農器, 以安其業, 仍遣主帥撫之, 且定土貢可也。” 工曹判書黃喜獨不可曰: “勿令安置, 依速刷出。” 上曰: “刷出之計是矣。 彼人等曾避役安居, 若定土貢,有主帥, 則彼必惡之, 不可使之久留也。 宜以金麟雨仍爲安撫使, 還入于山武陵等處, 率其居人出陸。” 仍賜衣笠及靴, 且賜于山人三名各衣一襲。 命江原道都觀察使, 給兵船二隻, 選揀道內水軍萬戶千戶中有能者, 與麟雨同往
우의정 한상경(韓尙敬), 육조(六曹)·대간(臺諫)에 명하여, 우산(于山)·무릉도(武陵島)의 주민[居民]을 쇄출(刷出)하는 것의 편의 여부를 의논케 하니, 모두가 말하기를,“무릉(武陵)의 주민은 쇄출하지 말고, 오곡(五穀)과 농기(農器)를 주어 그 생업을 안정케 하소서. 인하여 주수(主帥)를 보내어 그들을 위무(慰撫)하고 또 토공(土貢)을 정함이 좋을 것입니다.” 하였으나,공조 판서 황희(黃喜)만이 유독 불가하다 하며,“안치(安置)시키지 말고 빨리 쇄출하게 하소서.” 하니, 임금이,“쇄출하는 계책이 옳다. 저 사람들은 일찍이 요역(搖役)을 피하여 편안히 살아왔다. 만약 토공(土貢)을 정하고 주수(主帥)를 둔다면 저들은 반드시 싫어할 것이니, 그들을 오래 머물러 있게 할 수 없다. 김인우(金麟雨)를 그대로 안무사(按撫使)로 삼아 도로 우산(于山)·무릉(武陵) 등지에 들어가 그곳 주민을 거느리고 육지로 나오게 함이 마땅하다.” 하고,인하여 옷[衣]·갓[笠]과 목화(木靴)를 내려 주고, 또 우산 사람 3명에게도 각기 옷 1습(襲)씩 내려 주었다. 강원도 도관찰사(江原道都觀察使)에게 명하여 병선(兵船) 2척(隻)을 주게 하고, 도내의 수군 만호(水軍萬戶)와 천호(千戶) 중 유능한 자를 선간(選揀)하여 김인우와 같이 가도록 하였다.
Minister Han Sang-gyeong told the six government authorities and the Daegan to discuss the best ways to evict the Usan-Muleung residents. They all said the following:"Let's not evict the Muleung residents. Wouldn't it be better to give them grain and farming implements so that they will have a stable occupation? Then we can send a military commander to keep them pacified and determine the tribute."However, Kongjo Minister Hwang Hui, who was the sole dissenter, said, "Do not banish them, but quickly evict them."Then the king said,"Evicting them is the right strategy. Those people have avoided their national duty and have been living comfortably. If we decide on a tribute and install a commander, they will definitely not like it, so we cannot allow them to stay there for long. The appropriate thing to do is to keep Kim In-u as the area inspector, and send him back to the Usan-Muleung area (于山武陵等處) to bring its residents to the mainland."Then, the king gave clothes, hats, and shoes [to Kim In-u]. He also gave a set of clothes to each of the three people from Usan. After that, he ordered the Kangwon provincial governor to supply two military ships and to choose a capable naval commander from his province to accompany Kim In-u.
1417 - Japanese Pirates Raid "Usan-Muleung"
A short August 6, 1417 record in the Annals of King Daejong HERE said the following:
Source: 「太宗實錄」卷 三十四, 太宗 十七年 八月 己丑條
August 6, 1417
왜적이 우산도(于山島)·무릉도(武陵島)에서 도둑질하였다.
Japanese pirates looted Usan and Muleung islands.
Notice in the above record that Usando was again mentioned before Muleungdo, which suggests that Usando was the main island and Muleungdo was the neighboring island.
1425 - Inspector Given Title of "Usan-Muleung Area Inspector"
An August 8, 1425 record in the "Annals of King Sejong" said that Kim In-u was made Inspector for the Usan-Muleung Area (于山武陵等處按撫 - 우산무릉등처안무), which again suggests that Usan was the larger island since it was listed first.
Source: 『世宗實錄』 卷 二十九, 世宗 七年 八月 甲戌條
August 8, 1425
전 판장기현사(判長鬐縣事) 김인우(金麟雨)를 우산도(于山島)·무릉도(武陵島) 등지의 안무사(安撫使)로 삼았다. 당초에 강원도 평해(平海) 고을 사람 김을지(金乙之)·이만(李萬)·김울금[金亐乙金] 등이 무릉도에 도망가 살던 것을, 병신년에 국가에서 인우를 보내어 다 데리고 나왔는데, 계묘년에 을지 등 남녀 28명이 다시 본디 섬에 도망가서 살면서, 금년 5월에 을지 등 7인이 아내와 자식은 섬에 두고 작은 배를 타고 몰래 평해군 구미포(仇彌浦)에 왔다가 발각되었다. 감사가 잡아 가두고 본군(本郡)에서 급보(急報)하여 곧 도로 데려 내오기로 하고서, 인우가 군인 50명을 거느리고 군기와 3개월 양식을 갖춘 다음 배를 타고 나섰다. 섬은 동해 가운데 있고, 인우는 삼척(三陟) 사람이었다.
Kim In-u, a former panjanggihyeonsa, was made Inspector for the Usan/Muleung Area. In 1416, the government sent In-u to Muleungdo to bring back former Pyonghae residents Kim Ul-ji, Lee Man, Kim Ul-geum, and others who had run away to live on Muleungdo. In 1423, twenty-three men and women, including Ul-ji, ran away back to the island. In May this year, seven people, including Ul-ji, left their wives and children on the island and came secretly in a small boat to Kumi-po in Pyeonghae County, where they were discovered. The governor arrested them, and sent an urgent message from his village to bring back immediately the people still on the island. With fifty men, military equipment, and 3-months of rations, In-u got on a ship and left. The island is in the middle of the East Sea. In-u was from Samcheok.
All the above records suggest that Usando (于山島 - 우산도) was the main island of Ulleungdo and that Muleungdo (武陵島 - 무릉도) was its neighboring island. Since Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo (竹島 - 죽도) is off the east shore of Ulleungdo, that means that Usando would have been west of there, which would explain why Usando was drawn to the west of Ulleungdo on most of Korea's old maps of Korea before the An Yong-bok Incident in the 1690s.
Also, sometimes Korean officials would refer to the two islands as just "Muleungdo" (武陵島 - 무릉도) and sometimes as the "Usan-Muleung Area", but it seems clear from the above records that the two islands were near enough each other that Korean officials considered them as essentially one island group. It is also clear from the above records that Usando was not referring to Dokdo (Liancourt Rocks).