竹島問題の歴史

4.8.08

Q 3: Why did old Korean maps show Ulleungdo as two islands?

Answer: The 1145 A.D. Korean text Samguk Sagi (三國史記 - 삼국사기), which means "History of the Three Kingdoms," said there was an island off the east coast of Korea called "Usanguk" (于山國 - 우산국). It also said that another name for the island was "Ulleungdo" (鬱陵島 - 울릉도) and described it a single island due east of what today is Gangneung, which is a city on the east coast of Korea. It also gave the area of the island as 100 ri. However, by 1530 A.D., Ulleungdo had divided into two islands called Ulleungdo (鬱陵島 - 울릉도) and "Usando" (于山島 - 우산도), as can be seen in the 1530 Korean map to the left, which is called the "Map of the Eight Provinces" (八道總圖 - 팔도총도). So, how could an island divide into two?
1412 - "Yusangukdo" was "Main Island" & "Muleungdo" a Neighboring Island
In 1412, a group of twelve people sailed into the habor at Koseong (高城 - 고성) and said they had came from an island called "Yusanguk-do (流山國島 - 유산국도), which was a misspelling of the island of Usanguk (于山國 - 우산국). In other words, they were saying they came from Ulleungdo. In their testimony to Korean officials, the islanders said that sixty of them had lived on an island named "Muleungdo" (武陵島 - 무릉도), but later moved to the "main island" (本島 - 본도). This tells us that Muleungdo was the smaller of the two islands and that Yusanguk-do (Usando) was the main island. Muleungdo (武陵島) was the spelling of Ulleungdo (鬱陵島) during most of the 1400s.
The following is the record from the "Annals of King Taejong" (太宗實錄 - 태종실록) that talks about the incident.

命議政府議處流山國島人 江原道觀察使報云 流山國島人 白加勿等十二名 求泊高城 於羅津言曰 予等生長武陵 其島內人戶十一 男女共六十餘 今移居本島 是島自東至西自南至北 皆二息 周 回八息 無牛馬水田 唯種豆一斗出二十石 或三十石 麥一石出五十餘石 竹如大椽 海錯果木皆在焉 竊慮此人等逃還 姑分置于通州高城扞[杆]城

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의정부(議政府)에 명하여 유산국도(流山國島) 사람을 처리하는 방법을 의논하였다. 강원도 관찰사가 보고하였다. “유산국도(流山國島) 사람 백가물(百加勿) 등 12명이 고성(高城) 어라진(於羅津)에 와서 정박하여 말하기를, ‘우리들은 무릉도(武陵島)에서 생장하였는데, 그 섬 안의 인호(人戶)가 11호이고, 남녀가 모두 60여 명인데, 지금은 본도(本島)로 옮겨 와 살고 있습니다. 이 섬이 동에서 서까지 남에서 북까지가 모두 2식(息) 거리이고, 둘레가 8식(息) 거리입니다. 우마(牛馬)와 논이 없으나, 오직 콩 한 말만 심으면 20석 혹은 30석이 나고, 보리 1석을 심으면 50여 석이 납니다. 대[竹]가 큰 서까래 같고, 해착(海錯)과 과목(果木)이 모두 있습니다.’고 하였습니다. 이 사람들이 도망하여 갈까 염려하여, 아직 통주(通州)·고성(高城)·간성(扞城)에 나누어 두었습니다.”

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In accordance with Uijongbu orders, methods for dealing with the people of Yusanguk-do were discussed. The governor of Kangwon Province reported, "Twelve people from Yusanguk-do, including Baek Ga-mul, came and anchored at Eorajin in Koseong and said the following:

"Twelve families of us lived on Mu-leungdo with a total of more than sixty men and women, but now we have moved to the main island and are living there. The island's distances from east to west and north to south are each two sik (60 ri), and its circumference is eight sik (240 ri). There are no cows or horses or rice paddies on the island, but if we plant just one mal of beans, we harvest twenty to thirty seok. If we plant one seok of barley, we harvest more than fifty seok. The bamboo are as big as rafters, and there are all kinds of sea products and fruit trees."

Fearing that they may try to run away, they were divided up and put at Tongju, Koseong, and Ganseong, where they are still.

The 1412 incident was the first time that Ulleungdo (Usanguk) had been described as having a neighboring island, and it caused Korean officials to start thinking of Usando as the main island and Ulleungdo (Muleungdo) as its smaller neighboring island.
The neighboring island being referred to in the above record was almost certainly Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo (竹島 - 죽도), which is Ulleungdo's largest neighboring island and is about 2.2 kilometers off Ulleungdo's east shore. (See "What is Ulleungdo's largest neighboring island?") Since Usando (于山島 - 우산도) was considered the main island and Ulleungdo (Muleungdo) considered to be the neighboring island, that means that old Korean maps would have shown Usando to be to the west of Ulleungdo, which is exactly what they did. The map to the right is a cutout of the Ulleungdo region from the 1530 Korean map shown above, which was the first Korean map to show Ulleungdo as two islands. (See 1530 - "Paldo Chongdo" (八道總圖) - "Map of the Eight Provinces.")
Koreans claim that Usando was the old Korean name for Dokdo (Liancourt Rocks), but the island mentioned in the 1412 record could not have been Dokdo since the record said that eleven families of more than sixty people had lived there. Dokdo, however, is just barren rocks that does not have the soil or water to support sixty people.
1416 - Small Neighboring Island with Narrow Path onto It
In a 1416 record from the "Annals of King Taejong" (太宗實錄 - 태종실록), former Gangwon Provincial Government Bak Seup (朴習 - 박습) reconfirmed that Ulleungdo had a neighboring island. He also seemed to suggest that people lived on the island, though it is unclear if he was referring to Ulleungdo or the neighboring island. However, he did say that there was only one entrance onto the island, which was just a narrow path that could only be traveled by people in single file. That suggests that the island was Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo rather than Ulleungdo since Ulleungdo had several paths onto the island.

Source: 「太宗實錄」卷 三十二, 太宗 十六年 九月 庚寅條

September 2, 1416庚寅/以金麟雨爲武陵等處安撫使.

戶曹參判朴習啓: “臣嘗爲江原道都觀察使, 聞武陵島周回七息, 傍有小島, 其田可五十餘結。 所入之路, 纔通一人, 不可竝行。 昔有方之用者率十五家入居, 時或假倭爲寇。 知其島者, 在三陟, 請使之往見。” 上可之, 乃召三陟人前萬戶金麟雨, 問武陵島事, 麟雨言: “三陟人李萬嘗往武陵而還, 詳知其島之事。” 卽召李萬。 麟雨又啓: “武陵島遙在海中, 人不相通, 故避軍役者, 或逃入焉。 若此島多接人, 則倭終必入寇, 因此而侵於江原道矣。” 上然之, 以麟雨爲武陵等處安撫使, 以萬爲伴人, 給兵船二隻、抄工二名、引海二名、火㷁火藥及糧, 往其島, 諭其頭目人以來。 賜麟雨及萬衣笠靴

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김인우(金麟雨)를 무릉(武陵) 등지 안무사(安撫使)로 삼았다. 호조 참판(戶曹參判) 박습(朴習)이 아뢰기를,

“신이 일찍이 강원도 도관찰사(江原道都觀察使)로 있을 때에 들었는데, 무릉도(武陵島)의 주회(周回)가 7식(息)이고, 곁에 소도(小島)가 있고, 전지가 50여 결(結)이 되는데, 들어가는 길이 겨우 한 사람이 통행하고 나란히 가지는 못한다고 합니다. 옛날에 방지용(方之用)이란 자가 있어 15가(家)를 거느리고 입거(入居)하여 혹은 때로는 가왜(假倭)로서 도둑질을 하였다고 합니다. 그 섬을 아는 자가 삼척(三陟)에 있으니, 청컨대, 그 사람을 시켜서 가서 보게 하소서.” 하니, 임금이 옳다고 여기어 삼척 사람 전 만호(萬戶) 김인우(金麟雨)를 불러 무릉도의 일을 물었다. 김인우가 말하기를,

“삼척 사람 이만(李萬)이 일찍이 무릉(武陵)에 갔다가 돌아와서 그 섬의 일을 자세히 압니다.” 하니, 곧 이만을 불렀다. 김인우가 또 아뢰기를,

“무릉도가 멀리 바다 가운데에 있어 사람이 서로 통하지 못하기 때문에 군역(軍役)을 피하는 자가 혹 도망하여 들어갑니다. 만일 이 섬에 주접(住接)하는 사람이 많으면 왜적이 끝내는 반드시 들어와 도둑질하여, 이로 인하여 강원도를 침노할 것입니다.”하였다.

임금이 옳게 여기어 김인우를 무릉 등지 안무사로 삼고 이만(李萬)을 반인(伴人)으로 삼아, 병선(兵船) 2척, 초공(抄工) 2명, 인해(引海) 2명, 화통(火通)·화약(火藥)과 양식을 주어 그 섬에 가서 그 두목(頭目)에게 일러서 오게 하고, 김인우와 이만에게옷[衣]·입(笠)·화(靴)를 주었다.

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Kim In-n was made Inspector of the Ulleungdo area.

Official (호조참판) Bak Seup said, "When I was governor of Kangwon Province, I heard that Mu-leungdo had a circumference of seven sik and had a small island next to it. It had fifty kyeol of farmland and a narrow entryway that only allowed people to travel single file; they could not walk two abreast. A long time ago a man named Bak Ji-yong lead fifteen families to the island and lived there. I also heard that they would sometimes conspire with Japanese pirates and steal. There is a man in Samcheok who knows that island. Please ask him to go there and check.

"The king considered that good advice and called Samcheok resident and former military commander Kim In-u and asked him about Mu-leungdo.

Kim In-u said, "Samcheok resident Lee Man has been to Mu-leungdo and knows the details of the island." Lee Man was immediately sent for. Kim In-u added, "Mu-leungdo is far away in the middle of the sea, so there is not much contact with people there, which is probably why people flee to the island to escape military service. If there are many people living on the island, Japanese pirates will end up raiding it, and then use it to raid Kangwon Province.

The king agreed and made Kim In-u Inspector of the Ulleungdo area. He also made Lee Man his assistant and give them two troop ships, two ship's captains, two inhae (引海 - 인해), guns, gunpowder, and provisions. He told them to go to Ulleungdo, inform the leader there, and have them return. The king gave Kim In-u and Lee Man clothes, hats, and shoes.

Notice in the 1416 record that the former Gangwon-do governor said that Muleungdo (Ulleungdo) has a small island next to it, which he seems to be describing when he had it had fifty kyeol of farmland and a narrow pathway leading up onto it. Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo had only one narrow path leading up onto the island, but Ulleungdo had several entrances to the island. (See HERE.) He also said that he had heard that fifteen families had lived on the island, so that would have eliminated any possibility that the island could have been Dokdo since Dokdo is just barren rocks without the soil or water to support fifteen families.

1417 - Inspector Returns from "Usando" with Bamboo, Ramie & Wood Products

On February 5, 1417, it was reported in the "Records of King Taejong" HERE that Ulleungdo Inspector Kim In-u (金麟雨 - 김인우) had returned from "Usando" (于山島 - 우산도) and had brought back local products that included large bamboo, seal skins, raw ramie cloth, silk wool, and geombak mok. He also said that he found fifteen families of 86 people living on the island. This is more evidence that Usando was referring to the main island of Ulleungdo, not to its neighboring island of Jukdo. And it certainly was not referring to Dokdo (Liancourt Rocks), which is 92 kilometers southeast of Ulleungdo and is just barren rocks that could not grow the bamboo, ramie, or wood products mentioned in the report.

Here is the February 5, 1417 record:

Source: 「太宗實錄」卷 三十三, 太宗 十七年 二月 壬戌條

February 5, 1417

按撫使金麟雨還自于山島, 獻土産大竹、水牛皮、生苧、綿子、檢樸木等物, 且率居人三名以來。 其島戶凡十五口, 男女幷八十六。 麟雨之往還也, 再逢颶風, 僅得其生

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안무사(按撫使) 김인우(金麟雨)가 우산도(于山島)에서 돌아와 토산물(土産物)인 대죽(大竹)·수우피(水牛皮)·생저(生苧)·면자(綿子)·검박목(檢樸木) 등을 바쳤다. 또 그곳의 거주민 3명을 거느리고 왔는데, 그 섬의 호수[戶]는 15구(口)요, 남녀를 합치면 86명이었다. 김인우가 갔다가 돌아올 때에, 두 번이나 태풍(颱風)을 만나서 겨우 살아날 수 있었다고 했다.

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Inspector Kim In-u returned from Usando and brought local products as tribute, including large bamboo, seal skins, raw ramie cloth, silk wool, and geombaek wood (檢樸木 - 검박목). He also brought back three residents of the place. There were fifteen families living on the island for a total of 86 men and women. On his way back from the island, Kim In-u ran into two typhoons and barely made it back alive.

1417 - Ulleungdo Described as "Usan-Muleung Area"

Again, the above record makes it fairly clear that Usando was thought of as the main island of Ulleungdo, as was mentioned in the above 1412 record, which also referred to Ulleungdo's neighboring island as "Muleungdo" (武陵島 - 무릉도). This is reconfirmed again in a February 8, 1417 record that referred to Ulleungdo as the "Usan-Muleung Area" (于山武陵等處 - 우산무릉등처), which suggests that Usan was the larger of the two islands since it was mentioned first. The name also suggests that Korean officials were thinking of Ulleungdo as an area rather than just two separate islands.

Here is the February 8, 1417 record:

Source: 「太宗實錄」 卷 三十三, 太宗 十七年 二月 乙丑條

February 8, 1417

乙丑/命右議政韓尙敬、六曹、臺諫, 議刷出于山、武陵居人便否, 僉曰: “武陵居人, 勿令刷出, 給五穀與農器, 以安其業, 仍遣主帥撫之, 且定土貢可也。” 工曹判書黃喜獨不可曰: “勿令安置, 依速刷出。” 上曰: “刷出之計是矣。 彼人等曾避役安居, 若定土貢,有主帥, 則彼必惡之, 不可使之久留也。 宜以金麟雨仍爲安撫使, 還入于山武陵等處, 率其居人出陸。” 仍賜衣笠及靴, 且賜于山人三名各衣一襲。 命江原道都觀察使, 給兵船二隻, 選揀道內水軍萬戶千戶中有能者, 與麟雨同往

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우의정 한상경(韓尙敬), 육조(六曹)·대간(臺諫)에 명하여, 우산(于山)·무릉도(武陵島)의 주민[居民]을 쇄출(刷出)하는 것의 편의 여부를 의논케 하니, 모두가 말하기를,“무릉(武陵)의 주민은 쇄출하지 말고, 오곡(五穀)과 농기(農器)를 주어 그 생업을 안정케 하소서. 인하여 주수(主帥)를 보내어 그들을 위무(慰撫)하고 또 토공(土貢)을 정함이 좋을 것입니다.” 하였으나,공조 판서 황희(黃喜)만이 유독 불가하다 하며,“안치(安置)시키지 말고 빨리 쇄출하게 하소서.” 하니, 임금이,“쇄출하는 계책이 옳다. 저 사람들은 일찍이 요역(搖役)을 피하여 편안히 살아왔다. 만약 토공(土貢)을 정하고 주수(主帥)를 둔다면 저들은 반드시 싫어할 것이니, 그들을 오래 머물러 있게 할 수 없다. 김인우(金麟雨)를 그대로 안무사(按撫使)로 삼아 도로 우산(于山)·무릉(武陵) 등지에 들어가 그곳 주민을 거느리고 육지로 나오게 함이 마땅하다.” 하고,인하여 옷[衣]·갓[笠]과 목화(木靴)를 내려 주고, 또 우산 사람 3명에게도 각기 옷 1습(襲)씩 내려 주었다. 강원도 도관찰사(江原道都觀察使)에게 명하여 병선(兵船) 2척(隻)을 주게 하고, 도내의 수군 만호(水軍萬戶)와 천호(千戶) 중 유능한 자를 선간(選揀)하여 김인우와 같이 가도록 하였다.

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Minister Han Sang-gyeong told the six government authorities and the Daegan to discuss the best ways to evict the Usan-Muleung residents. They all said the following:"Let's not evict the Muleung residents. Wouldn't it be better to give them grain and farming implements so that they will have a stable occupation? Then we can send a military commander to keep them pacified and determine the tribute."However, Kongjo Minister Hwang Hui, who was the sole dissenter, said, "Do not banish them, but quickly evict them."Then the king said,"Evicting them is the right strategy. Those people have avoided their national duty and have been living comfortably. If we decide on a tribute and install a commander, they will definitely not like it, so we cannot allow them to stay there for long. The appropriate thing to do is to keep Kim In-u as the area inspector, and send him back to the Usan-Muleung area (于山武陵等處) to bring its residents to the mainland."Then, the king gave clothes, hats, and shoes [to Kim In-u]. He also gave a set of clothes to each of the three people from Usan. After that, he ordered the Kangwon provincial governor to supply two military ships and to choose a capable naval commander from his province to accompany Kim In-u.

1417 - Japanese Pirates Raid "Usan-Muleung"

A short August 6, 1417 record in the Annals of King Daejong HERE said the following:

Source: 「太宗實錄」卷 三十四, 太宗 十七年 八月 己丑條

August 6, 1417

倭寇于山武陵

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왜적이 우산도(于山島)·무릉도(武陵島)에서 도둑질하였다.

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Japanese pirates looted Usan and Muleung islands.

Notice in the above record that Usando was again mentioned before Muleungdo, which suggests that Usando was the main island and Muleungdo was the neighboring island.

1425 - Inspector Given Title of "Usan-Muleung Area Inspector"

An August 8, 1425 record in the "Annals of King Sejong" said that Kim In-u was made Inspector for the Usan-Muleung Area (于山武陵等處按撫 - 우산무릉등처안무), which again suggests that Usan was the larger island since it was listed first.

Source: 『世宗實錄』 卷 二十九, 世宗 七年 八月 甲戌條

August 8, 1425

甲戌以前判長鬐縣事金麟雨 爲于山武陵等處按撫 初江原道平海人金乙之李萬金亐乙金等 曾逃居武陵島 歲丙申 國家遣麟雨 盡行刷還 癸卯 乙之等男婦共二十八名 復逃入本島 今年五月 乙之等七人 留其妻子於本島 乘小船潛到平海郡仇彌浦 發覺 監司囚之 本郡馳報於是復爲刷還 麟雨率軍人五十名 備軍器齎三月粮 浮海而去 島在東海中 麟雨三陟人也

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전 판장기현사(判長鬐縣事) 김인우(金麟雨)를 우산도(于山島)·무릉도(武陵島) 등지의 안무사(安撫使)로 삼았다. 당초에 강원도 평해(平海) 고을 사람 김을지(金乙之)·이만(李萬)·김울금[金亐乙金] 등이 무릉도에 도망가 살던 것을, 병신년에 국가에서 인우를 보내어 다 데리고 나왔는데, 계묘년에 을지 등 남녀 28명이 다시 본디 섬에 도망가서 살면서, 금년 5월에 을지 등 7인이 아내와 자식은 섬에 두고 작은 배를 타고 몰래 평해군 구미포(仇彌浦)에 왔다가 발각되었다. 감사가 잡아 가두고 본군(本郡)에서 급보(急報)하여 곧 도로 데려 내오기로 하고서, 인우가 군인 50명을 거느리고 군기와 3개월 양식을 갖춘 다음 배를 타고 나섰다. 섬은 동해 가운데 있고, 인우는 삼척(三陟) 사람이었다.

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Kim In-u, a former panjanggihyeonsa, was made Inspector for the Usan/Muleung Area. In 1416, the government sent In-u to Muleungdo to bring back former Pyonghae residents Kim Ul-ji, Lee Man, Kim Ul-geum, and others who had run away to live on Muleungdo. In 1423, twenty-three men and women, including Ul-ji, ran away back to the island. In May this year, seven people, including Ul-ji, left their wives and children on the island and came secretly in a small boat to Kumi-po in Pyeonghae County, where they were discovered. The governor arrested them, and sent an urgent message from his village to bring back immediately the people still on the island. With fifty men, military equipment, and 3-months of rations, In-u got on a ship and left. The island is in the middle of the East Sea. In-u was from Samcheok.

All the above records suggest that Usando (于山島 - 우산도) was the main island of Ulleungdo and that Muleungdo (武陵島 - 무릉도) was its neighboring island. Since Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo (竹島 - 죽도) is off the east shore of Ulleungdo, that means that Usando would have been west of there, which would explain why Usando was drawn to the west of Ulleungdo on most of Korea's old maps of Korea before the An Yong-bok Incident in the 1690s.

Also, sometimes Korean officials would refer to the two islands as just "Muleungdo" (武陵島 - 무릉도) and sometimes as the "Usan-Muleung Area", but it seems clear from the above records that the two islands were near enough each other that Korean officials considered them as essentially one island group. It is also clear from the above records that Usando was not referring to Dokdo (Liancourt Rocks).

7 comments:

  1. Wow, this is great.
    Thanks gerry.

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  2. This comment has been removed by the author.

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  3. Gerry, You try to explain a map published in 1530 with random texts dated back to 1413.

    I don`t think that such a method is valid.

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  4. Gerry, this will be a first meeting with you. So I don`t know who you are, what your work is. But let me tell you something. This problem is not a simple thing as you thought and drove. During reading this article, the article said all things from your head are very logical and right, even nuetral. But for me, it`s just all things you want to say on your own way. It`s not an information. I think an article must be shown just an information, not your guess. Besides, I think you wear just one-colored glasses. Anyway, I think you need to be more nuetral in any articles you wrote.

    In detail, I want you to write every articles in this site in various kinds of ways after this time.

    If you want to make a discussion, you`d never write an one-way article.

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  5. Hey Garris.

    I know you are trying to say 'Usan-do' was the Main island.. referring to that the Korean officials called the area by 'Usan,Mulleung area' putting U-san first.

    And later.. you ignored some Korean officials calling the area just 'mulleung'

    even though putting something first doesn't prove it's bigger any better that putting it alone..

    Where is the logic? Garry..

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  7. To Gerry Bevers

    If you can, why don’t you do some work like this about the old Japanese maps which didn’t include Dokdo as part of Japan. The title could be “Why didn’t old Japanese maps mark Dokdo as territory of Japan?”

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