竹島問題の歴史

29.8.08

IHT: "A fierce Korean pride in a lonely group of islets"

The International Herald Tribune (IHT) has published an August 28 article on Dokdo by Choe Sang-Hun entitled "A fierce Korean pride in a lonely group of islets."
The IHT article comes out just one day after an Associated Press (AP) article by Kim Hyun-jin entitled "SKorean emotions run high over island dispute."
Is it just coincidence that two different articles written by two different men with Korean names have the same theme?
No, it is probably not a coincidence. Both of the men were probably part of the group of foreign journalists carried out to the islets this week on a South Korean Coast Guard ship as part of a government-sponsored tour, as was mentioned in the IHT article. However, I do not really understand why both articles seem to have the same theme, which is that Dokdo is more than just rocks to Koreans, and they will fight to keep them. Is that the message the Korean government wanted to send?
What was the message the Korean government was hoping to send by sponsoring this foreign press tour of Dokdo? Were they simply trying to tell the world, "We have control of the rocks and we are keeping them"?
Is it just coincidence that Korea's Chosun Ilbo posted an article today (August 29) entitled "Japan 'Should Recognize Korea's Effective Control of Dokdo,'" where it was reported that the "renowned Japanese economic and social critic Kenichi Omae" has urged the Japanese government to admit Korea's "effective control" of the Dokdo islets?
Is the Korean government now trying to take the attention off the history of Dokdo (Liancourt Rocks) and put it on "effective control"? If that is Korea's plan, then I think it is a good one because Korea's historical argument for the islets is so weak that to continue to focus on it would end up causing Korea a great deal of embarassment as the historical facts become known to the rest of the world.

28.8.08

AP: "SKorean emotions run high over island dispute"

The following is a link to an Associated Press (AP) article written by Hyung-jin Kim entitled, "SKorean emotions run high over island dispute."
One of the 40-member Korean police contingent stationed on Dokdo to guard the rocks had this to say:
"I always hated Japan and I've come to hate it more these days."
To me, that kind of hatred suggests a problem with Korea's education system, which is geared to fueling anti-Japanese feelings. Without realizing it, by feeding hatred, Koreans are hurting themselves more than they are hurting the Japanese.
Here is a Korean language summary of the article.

27.8.08

1903 Mar 30 - "Hwangseong Sinmun": "千山島에 二百二十名"

Below is a March 30, 1903 article from the Korean newspaper "Hwangseong Sinmun" (皇城新聞). The article seems to be reporting on a Japanese newspaper article that talks about Japanese immigrants to Korea, but I need to study it more before I can be sure.

One interesting thing about the article is that it says that 220 people were living on Usando (千山島에 二百二十名) and about 1,000 people were living on "Jukdo" (竹島에 約 千名), which is pronounced as "Takeshima" in Japanese. However, it also seems to be saying something about Japanese on Ulleungdo (鬱陵島), so it is possible that the Takeshima in the article was not referring to Ulleungdo. It is also possible that there was another "Usando" because I think I also remember their being another Usando on the West Coast of Korea.

Anyway, I would like some help in translating this article, which is not very clear. There may even be a record of the Japanese article it referred to, which would probably have also been published in March 1903. This may be an important piece of evidence, so I hope people will help me understand it. The article can also be found HERE.

Click twice to enlarge


26.8.08

1907 - "Chodeung Daehan Jiji" (初等大韓地誌)


The book pictured on the left was a Korean geography book entitled, "Chodeung Daehan Jiji," (初等大韓地誌 - 초등대한지지), which translates as "Elementary Level Geography of the Korean Empire." It was written by An Jong-hwa (安鍾和) and Yu Geun (柳瑾) and published in November 1907 as an elementary school geography book. It is stored in the National Libarary of Korea.
The book has only forty-three pages that are divided into twenty-four chapters. The first chapter is entitled "Location & Boundaries" and gives the location of Korea in relation to its neighbors in East Asia. It then gives the north-south, east-west latitudes and longitudes of the farthermost points of Korea, and then lists the names of those points. Korea's easternmost point was described as the island of Ulleungdo in Uldo County of North Gyeongsang Province (慶尙北道 鬱島郡 鬱陵島 -경상북도 울도군 울릉도).
 
Korea claims that Liancourt Rocks were a part of Uldo County (鬱島郡 - 울도군) and were referred to as "Seokdo" (石島 - 석도), but they have no evidence to support their claim. Moveover, the longitude given for Korea's easternmost point in the above geography book excludes Liancourt Rocks from Korean territory. Also, it lists the island of Ulleungdo in Uldo County as being Korea's easternmost point. If Liancourt Rocks had really been a part of Uldo County, then they would have been listed it as Korea's easternmost point. The fact that they were not listed is more evidence against the Korean claim.
 
The geography book also mentioned the island of Ulleungdo in more detail in Chapter Twenty-two, which was entitled "Scenic Communities" (勝地 都會 - 승지 도회). The description gave the longitude of Ulleungdo as extending from 130 degrees 35 minutes to 130 degrees 45 minutes, but Ulleungdo, including its neighboring island of Jukdo (竹島 - 죽도), actually extends from approximately 130 degrees 47 minutes to 130 degrees 57 minutes. This suggests that the longitude given for Ulleungdo in this chapter was an older, less accurate measurement than the one in Chapter One, which described Ulleungdo's eastern boundary as being at 130 degrees 58 minutes. The description in Chapter 22 also mixed up the names for latitude and longitude.
 
Ulleungdo was also described in Chapter Twenty-two as having an island named "Usando" (于山島 - 우산도) to the southeast, but no distance was given. Liancourt Rocks is ninety-two kilometers to the southeast of Ulleungdo at a longitude of 131 degrees 52 minutes, which is way outside the boundary the book gave for both Ulleungdo and for Korea's easternmost point.
 
It is possible the Usando mentioned in the geography book was referring to Liancourt Rocks (Dokdo), but it is also possible that it was referring to Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo (竹島 - 죽도). Usando was the old Korean name for Jukdo, which is about about 2.2 kilometers off the east shore of Ulleungdo. Actually, by 1907, Koreans on Ulleungdo were supposedly referring to Liancourt Rocks as "Dokdo" (獨島 - 독도) or by the Japanese name of "Yangko-do," while the original location of Usando had already been forgotten. (See "Location of Usando Unknown in Early 1900s.")
 
The following is my English translation of the relevant passages from the 1907 geography book. It is followed by the Korean text.
Chapter 1: Location and Boundaries
 
The Korean Empire is located in the eastern part of Asia. Its neighbor to the southeast is Japan, and it borders Russian territory on the northeast. The west and north border Manchuria, and the southern border faces faces the sea. Its northern latitude stretches from 33 degrees 13 minutes to 43 degrees 2 minutes. Its eastern longitude stretches from 125 degrees 50 minutes to 130 degrees 58 minutes. The eastern point is Ulleungdo in Uldo County of North Gyeongsang Province, and the western point is at Cape Jangsan in Jangyeong County in Hwanghae Province. The the southern point is Port Moseul on the island of Jeju in South Jolla Province, and the northern point is Tomun River in North Hamgyeong Province. The area is 82,000 square ri.

Chapter 22: Scenic Communities

Uldo is the old Ulleungdo. Its northern latitude stretches from 130 degrees 45 minutes to 35 minutes. It’s eastern longitude stretches from 37 degrees 34 minutes to 31 minutes. Three peaks prop up the sky. Its area is about 504 square ri. It produces many medical herbs and much timber. Usando is southeast of here.
-----------------

第一課 : 位置와 境界

大韓帝國의 位置는 亞細亞洲의 東部에 在하니 其境界는 同南은 日本을 鄰하고 東北은 俄領과 接하고 西와 北은 滿洲를 界하고 南은 海를 臨하니 北緯三十三度十三分에 越하야 四十三度二分에 止하고 東經一百二十五度五十分에 越하야 百三十度 五十八分에 止하니 東은 慶尙北道 鬱島郡 鬱陵島이오 西는 黃海道長淵郡 長山串이오 南은 全羅南道 濟州島 毛瑟浦 [摹瑟浦]오 北은 咸鏡北道 土門江이니 面積이 八萬二千方里니라.

第二十二課 : 勝地 都會


鬱嶋는 古鬱陵島이니 北緯 一百三十度 四十五分으로 三十五分에 至하며 東經三十七度 三十四分으로 三十一分에 지하니 三峯이 撑空하야 地方이 約 五百四方里오 藥材와 森林이 多産하며 于山嶋는 其東南에 在하니라.
 

23.8.08

1907 June - "Sinpyeon Daehan Jiri" (新編 大韓地理)

The book pictured on the left is entitled "Sinpyeon Daehan Jiri" (新編 大韓地理 - 신편 대한지리), which translates as "New Edition - Geography of the Korean Empire." It was printed in June 1907 and used as a middle school geography book. The book is stored in the National Library of Korea.
The book has 176 pages, and the main text is divided into three sections: Physical Geography, Cultural Landscape, and Regional Information. The book was largely a translation of the Japanese book "Korea's New Geography" (韓國新地理), which was written by Tabuchi Tomohiko (田淵友彦) and published in September 1905. However, revisions were made in the Korean text, including the renaming of the "Sea of Japan" (日本海) to the "Chosun Sea" (朝鮮海).
Other revisions included updated provincial information. For example, the Japanese text simply described the geography of the Korean island of Ulleungdo (鬱陵島), but the Korean version added the fact that Ulleungdo was made a county in 1900 and renamed "Uldo County" (鬱島郡).
One interesting thing about the Korean text is that it seems to have used the Japanese description of Liancourt Rocks without making any revisions. It even used the Japanese name of "Yang-ko" Island ("양고"島) to refer to the rocks. Koreans claim that Liancourt Rocks were made a part of Uldo County in 1900 and were called "Seokdo" (石島 - 석도), but they have no evidence to support their claim. Instead, the evidence suggests that "Seokdo" was just a catchall word used to include all the neighboring rock islets (石島) around Ulleungdo, including five small islets mentioned in old Korean texts and frequently shown on old Korean maps of Ulleungdo.
The fact that the 1907 Korean geography book did not refer to Liancourt Rocks as "Seokdo," but instead used the Japanese name for the rocks is more evidence against the Korean claim. Moreover, the coordinates given for Uldo (鬱島 - 울도) excluded Liancourt Rocks.
The following is my English translation of the section in the Korean book describing Ulleungdo (鬱陵島 - 울릉도), which was referred to as Uldo (鬱島 - 울도) in the text. It is followed by the Korean text.

Uldo

Uldo is Ulleungdo, which is in the middle of the sea about 400 ri away from Pyeonghae County’s Weolsong-po. In the third year of Gwangmu (1900), Uldo County was established and a magistrate was assigned. Its northern latitude is from 130 degrees 45 minutes to 53 minutes. Its eastern longitude is from 37 degrees 34 minutes to 31 minutes [The names for "latitude" and "longitude" are reversed.] The area is about 504 square ri. A tall mountain stands out in the center of the island. Its height is 4,000 cheok. There are no harbors on the shoreline, so it is extremely difficult for ships to tie up.

Flat ground is scarce on the whole island, but layers of fallen leaves and dried grass have accumulated and decomposed into dark, fertile soil, making it possible to have an abundant harvest without fertilizing. The annual output of soybeans, which is the island’s main product, is as much as 400 to 500 seok. The wood products include oak, paulownia, pine, and sandalwood. Grapes are also produced. On the shores, there is good production of sedum, which is clearly big. In the autumn, there are many flocks of woodcocks that are used as supplemental food. The fat is dissolved and supplied as lamp oil.

The residents of the island total about 500 families. About 300 Japanese families come to live on the island temporarily, which has caused the government to issue a standing order for them all to vacate and return home. There is a spring on the island that gushes out water that tastes slightly sour, but the island residents call it mineral water. They drink it when they are sick and it seems to have a good effect. This is the source of carbonated water.

About 300 ri to the southeast of this island is an island commonly called “Yang-ko” Island. It has an area of about thirty ri. The shoreline is indented, so it is good for anchoring fishing boats, but there is still no firewood or drinking water available, so it is uninhabited. There are many sea lions and various sea products.

---------------

鬱島

鬱島는 平海郡 越松浦 四百餘里海中에 在한 鬱陵島니 光武三年에 鬱島郡을 設하고 守를 寘하니 北緯 百三十度 四十五分乃至 五十三分. 東徑三十七度 三十四分乃至 三十一分 間에 在하야. 面積이 五百四 方里許며 中央에 高山이 屹立하야 고 – 四千 尺이며 沿岸의 港灣이 無하야 船舶의 碇繫가 甚難하니라

全島에 平地가 稀少하나 其地質은 落葉枯草가 堆積腐化한 黑土를 成함으로 膏腴하야 肥料를 不施하야도 農物이 豊碩하야 主産物의 大豆는 每年産額이 四五百石에 至하며 林産에는 欅, 桐, 松, 白檀香等이 有하며 또 葡萄가 産出하며 沿海에 良好한 石菜의 産額이 亦 大하니라. 秋季에 山鷸類가 多하야 副食物을 作하며 脂肪은 溶解하야 燈油에 供給하나니라.

本島住民은 五百餘戶며 日本人 三百餘戶가 一時에 來住함으로 政府에서 退去하란 命令이 有하야 至今에 盡歸하니라 島中의 一泉이 湧出하야 其味가 微酸하나 島民이 藥水라 稱하야 疾病時에 藥餌로 服用하면 効驗이 著見하니 此는 炭酸水의 源流니라.

本島東南約三百里에 一島가 유하야 俗稱 “양고”島라 云하니 長이 三十餘里오 沿岸이 屈曲하야 漁船의 碇泊이 便宜하나 薪材及 飮料水를 아즉 不得함으로 居人이 無하며 海馬와 各種海産이 多하니라.

22.8.08

Steve Barber in Korean News

The Korean newspaper, "Joongang Ilbo," has posted HERE a picture of 44-year-old Canadian Steve Barber, who they say has lived in Korea for nine years and operates an English Web site on Dokdo (http://www.dokdo-takeshima.com/), which the article says provides a massive amount of evidence in support of Korea's claim on the islets.

Those of you who may not recognize the name "Steve Barber" may know him better as Toadface, Frogmouth, Wedgie, Zippertrout, or one of the other aliases he used to post under before getting caught. (See HERE.)

Steve had claimed that he had no affiliation with Koreans and did all the research on his own. Here is what he wrote back in 2006:

Kanganese, don’t lump me together with other Koreans on the Dokdo issue. I have done my studies on this subject on my own. My only connection with Koreans on this is for gathering maps and documents. Unlike Ponta and Pacifist I’m not an errand-boy for my local political organization such as Shimane Prefecture. I’m not Korean nor am I a part of a political movement like Ponta.
The following email was discovered on the anti-Japanese Web site "Killzap.cafe," a name that looks very similar to "Killjap.cafe":

From: steve barber [mailto:maemi30@hotmail.com]Sent: Thursday, August 31,
2006 1:01 AMTo: spar@paran.comSubject: RE:
Hanmaumy

From: steve barber [mailto:maemi30@hotmail.com]Sent: Thursday, August 31, 2006 1:01 AMTo: spar@paran.comSubject: RE: Hanmaumy

Dr Mr Cho:

I went onto Hanmaumy’s website and just by the visual images I saw I can say his website is the best I’ve ever seen !! I’m very impressed.

The problem is that it is all in Korean language. Koreans already believe Dokdo is Korean land so Hanmaumy is in a sense wasting his time. We must get this valuable information out to the global community. If the Dokdo issue ever goes to the ICJ it is absolutely necessary that all of the related information be available to the public in English.

Mr Cho I must stress these days there are more Japanese working with foreigners promoting Takeshima is Japanese and they are doing it in English while working with idiots like Gerry Bevers. Like after WW2 Korea isn’t getting its message out there about Dokdo.

That being said, Mr Lovmo’s site is up and running and I’ve been working on my own to try to gather information and translate it but to be honest my lack of ability in Korean language makes it impossible to gather images on some of these Korean National Archives Websites because they are totally in Korean.

We should use Mr Lovmo’s site because it is already quite popular and it has the greatest amount of exposure on the English/Foreign Internet.

Please me must work together to get the message out there. I will do my best. In addtion please tell Hanmaumy I am going to gather images from his website and translate as well as I can for Mark.

I would love to meet both of you someday.

Yours Truly:Steve

Korea's "Maeil Kyeongje" newspaper has also written an article about Steve Barber HERE, which says that Steve Barber's college major was computer studies, but that he came to teach English in Korea, where he became interested in the Dokdo issue two years ago.

It also says that his Korean is not very good, so his 34-year-old Korean wife has been translating into English the Japanese and Korean documents for him.

The article quoted Steve Barber as saying that his consistent position has been that Dokdo was Korean territory in the past, is Korean territory now, and must be Korean territory in the future. (Well, I guess he can no longer claim that he is a neutral party.)

Anyway, for someone who needs his Korean wife to translate the Japanese and Korean documents for him, Steve Barber seems pretty confident in his belief that Dokdo is historically Korean territory. Well, maybe if I were a 44-year-old man with a 34-year-old Korean wife, I might start supporting Korea's claim, as well.

Now that Yonhap has reported on Mark Lovmo, an elementary school teacher in Minnesota who needed a Korean friend to translate for him, and Steve Barber, an Canadian English teacher in Korea who needs his Korean wife to translate for him, I wonder who will be the next Korean-illiterate, Dokdo-loving foreigner that Yonhap News finds to interview?

Here are more Korean newspaper and news sites reporting the Steve Barber article:

How about a trade?

Pacifist or Kaneganese,

If one of you will translate and post on the Ulleungdo section of 田淵友彦's 1905 geography text 韓國新地理 for me, then I will translate the Korean version for you. The links to the relevant pages are "07" and "08" in the link I provided.

Is it a deal?

Gerry

21.8.08

"Projects Unveiled to Reinforce Sovereignty Over Dokdo"

An August 21 article in the Korean Times entitled, "Projects Unveiled to Reinforce Sovereignty Over Dokdo," talks about the Korean government's plans to reenforce Korea's sovereignty over Dokdo. The plans include the following:
  • Renovate a shelter for fishermen on Dokdo
  • Develop infrastruction on Ulleungdo
  • Begin joint projects to protect the enviroment around Dokdo
  • Promote international awareness of Japan's repeated claims over the islets
  • Rocks, breakwaters, and a museum dedicated to Ahn Yong-bok (who the Korea Times thinks defended Korea's ownership of Dokdo in in the 18th century instead of the 17th)
  • Strengthen education and promotional actitivities about Dokdo
  • Expand military drills and beef up the security of Dokdo by deploying more patrol ships near the islets

South Korea has a million-man North Korean army on its northern border, yet she seems to be more worried about an invasion of Dokdo.

20.8.08

1880 Map of Japan from Adolf Stieler's Hand Atlas 7th Edition

Here is a German map from the "Adolf Stieler's Hand Atlas (7th Edition)" which was printed and hand-coloured in Gotha in 1880 by Justus Perthes. The title of the map is "CHINA (OSTL.THEIL), KOREA UND JAPAN". In this map, "Matsu Sima (Dagelet I.)" and "Liancourt In. (d. Franzosen) / Hornet In. (d. Englander) " can be seen in the Japanisches Meer (Japanese Sea) with the National Border which indicates both of the islands above were Japanese territory.



Although Dagelet island (Ulleungdo) was actually not a Japanese island, Liancourt Rocks were drawn as Japanese territory again. This is another evidence that western countries believed that Liancourt Rocks belonged to Japan in the 19th century.
(Click the left map to enlarge)

Professor Claims Korea's National Institute of Korean History Mistranslated 1714 Passage

In his book, "History of Dokdo, Ulleungdo" (독도, 울릉도의 역사), Yeongnam University History Professor Kim Ho-dong (金皓東 - 김호동) claims that Korea's National Institute of Korean History (국사편찬위원회) has mistranslated a July 22, 1714 passage from King Sukjong's "Bogweoljeong-o" (補闕正吳 - 보궐정오).

The passage was a report from Jo Seok-myeong (趙錫命), who had been sent to Gangwon Province (江原道 - 강원도) to inspect the coastal defenses of the Yeongdong (嶺東 - 영도) region. In his report, he said that the people in the ports there told him that there was an island visible to the east of Ulleungdo that was on the Japanese border. The following is the relevant passage, Professor Kim Ho-dong's translation, and my English translation:

辛酉江原道御使趙錫命 論嶺東海防疎虞狀略曰 詳聞浦人言 平海蔚珍 距鬱陵島最近 船路無少礙 鬱陵之東 島嶼相望 接于倭境.

포인(浦人)의 말을 상세히 듣건대, '평해平海), 울진(蔚珍)은 울릉도(鬱陵島)와 거리가 가장 가까와서 뱃길에 조금도 장애가 없고, 울릉도 동쪽에 섬이 보이는데 왜경(倭境)에 접해 있다'고 하였습니다.

I listened carefully to the people in the ports (浦人) who said, "Pyeonghae (平海) and Uljin (蔚珍) are closest to Ulleungdo, and there are no obstructions along the sea route. Visible to the east of Ulleung is an island that is on the Japanese border."

Now, HERE is the translation of the passage by Korea's Korea's National Institute of Korean History (국사편찬위원회) and my English translation:

辛酉江原道御使趙錫命 論嶺東海防疎虞狀略曰 詳聞浦人言 平海蔚珍 距鬱陵島最近 船路無少礙 鬱陵之東 島嶼相望 接于倭境.

“포인(浦人)의 말을 상세히 듣건대, ‘평해(平海)·울진(蔚珍)은 울릉도(鬱陵島)와 거리가 가장 가까와서 뱃길에 조금도 장애(障礙)가 없고, 울릉도 동쪽에는 섬이 서로 잇달아 왜경(倭境)에 접해 있다.’고 하였습니다.

I listened carefully to the people in the ports (浦人) who said, "Pyeonghae (平海) and Uljin (蔚珍) are closest to Ulleungdo, and there are no obstructions along the sea route. East of Ulleungdo, islands connect to each other to reach the Japanese border.

In a footnote on the translation in his book (pp. 119 - 120) , Professor Kim Ho-dong wrote the following:

그런데 국편의 최근 번역에는 이것을 "포인(浦人)의 말을 상세히 듣건대, ‘평해(平海)·울진(蔚珍)은 울릉도(鬱陵島)와 거리가 가장 가까와서 뱃길에 조금도 장애(障礙)가 없고, 울릉도 동쪽에는 섬이 서로 잇달아 왜경(倭境)에 접해 있다.’고 하였습니다'라고 잘못 번역하고 있다.

However, the National Institute of Korean History has recently been mistranslating the passage as, "I listened carefully to the people in the ports (浦人) who said, "Pyeonghae (平海) and Uljin (蔚珍) are closest to Ulleungdo, and there are no obstructions along the sea route. East of Ulleungdo, islands connect to each other to reach the Japanese border."

Professor Kim does not offer an explanation for the mistranslation by Korea's National Institute of Korean History, but I think they mistranslated it because they realized the passage supported Japan's claim to Liancourt Rocks (Dokdo). The passage was essentially saying that the island visible to the east of Ulleungdo was Japanese territory. In those days, a country's farthermost islands represented its border. Apparently, the Korean fishermen had seen Japanese fishing boats coming from the direction of the island and assumed it was Japanese.

If the Koreans had believed the island to be Korean territory, then they would not have referred to it as being "on the Japanese border," but, instead, would have referred to it with an expression similar to "接于我國境" (우리 국경에 접해있다), which means "on our country's border."

If you look at the full passage, you can see that the Korean official was worried about Japanese territory being so close to Korea, which was why he was urging the government to strengthen defenses in the Gangwondo area.

Gangwon Provincial inspector Jo Seok-myeong (趙錫命) discussed the neglected coastal defenses in the Yeongdong region. Here is a summary:

I listened carefully to the people in the ports (浦人) who said, "Pyeonghae (平海) and Uljin (蔚珍) are closest to Ulleungdo, and there are no obstructions along the sea route. Visible to the east of Ulleung is an island that is on the Japanese border." In 1708 and 1712, strange-looking ships drifted to the borders of Goseong (高城) and Ganseong (杆城), so we know that Japanese ships frequently come and go. The government, however, says that the vast sea is a barrier, so there is no need to worry, but how can we be sure that a future war will not break out in the Yeongdong region instead of the Yeongnam region? We cannot allow even a little delay in taking measures to be thoroughly prepared.

In accordance with the request, the Myodang (廟堂) requested that Gangwondo be reprimanded to cracked down on its military officials.

19.8.08

問5 : 「新增東國輿地勝覽」(1530)は竹島/Liancourt Rocks/独島について記述している?

Gerryの投稿の日本語訳です。原文はこちら ↓
 : 「新增東國輿地勝覽」は1530年に李朝朝鮮王朝によって編纂された、55巻に及ぶ地理の本です。これは1481年の「東國輿地勝覽」の改訂版です。朝鮮時代の韓国の各管理領域の地理、歴史、習慣、官庁、寺、神殿、砦、土地の名産品、および観光名所などについて説明しています。

この本には「八道總圖」という朝鮮の八つの各道(県)の地図と、各県の地図が全部で9枚付属しています。これらの地図は「東覽圖」と総称されています。左の地図は「八道總圖」です。


韓国側の領有権主張の証拠となりうる?
「新增東國輿地勝覽」とその付属地図は韓国側の竹島/Liancourt Rocks/独島に対する領有権主張の重要な証拠の一つとされています。というのも韓国側は「この本は鬱陵島の近くに于山島という、彼等が竹島だと主張する島があると記述しており、さらには附属の二つの地図に于山島が韓国の領土として描かれている」と主張しているからです。

しかしながら韓国側のこうした主張には問題があり、それはこの于山島が竹島/Liancourt Rocks/独島であるという証拠がどこにもないからです。実際、韓国側が領有権主張のもっとも重要な証拠として提示する地図には、于山島が鬱陵島の真西に描かれていますが、現実の竹島は鬱陵島の東南92kmにあるのです。上に挙げた「八道總圖」の拡大図を参照してください。

さらに、本文中では于山島と鬱陵島は隣接島で、朝鮮半島東岸から見ることができると記述していますが、実際の竹島は朝鮮半島東岸からは239km離れており、眺めることはできません。

干山島は鬱陵島の西にある?
実際には鬱陵島の西には島がないのに、1530年の地図はなぜ山島を鬱陵島の真西に描いたのでしょうか。

それは、1530年の"
山島"は鬱陵島の主島の名称で、"鬱陵島"が隣接島の竹嶼をさすと考えられていたからです。この混乱は1412年に"流山國島"という島から一団の人々が朝鮮半島の港へ船でやってきて、そこの役人に、"武陵島"という付属島がある、と述べたことに由来しています。

彼らは実際に"流山國島"を本島と言いました。流山國島は
山国島の記述違いです。鬱陵島の新羅時代の古名は"山国"であり、" 武陵島"は"鬱陵島"の記述違いなので、1530年の地図は、実際には"山島"と名付けられた鬱陵島の主島と、"鬱陵島"と名付けられた鬱陵島の付属島をその東に描いているわけです。

朝鮮半島東岸から見える
すでに述べたように、1530年のこの地理書において、于山島/鬱陵島という島は、"朝鮮東岸から見える"と記述されています。該等書の実際の記述は、東岸の村、蔚珍について記述した箇所にあります。
于山島 鬱陵島 一云武陵 一云羽陵 二島在縣正東海中 三峯岌嶪撑空 南峯稍卑 風日淸明則峯頭樹木 及山根沙渚 歷歷可見 風便則二日可到 一說于山鬱陵 本一島 地方百里

------------------

于山島 鬱陵島 は時に武陵、或いは羽陵とも呼ばれ、2島は県の真東の海中に在る。3つの峰が及業(きゅうぎょう)として空を支え、南の峰はやや低い。天候が清明であれば山頂の樹木及び山麓の海岸を歴々見ることができる。風が良ければ2日で到達できる。一説に于山と鬱陵は本来1つの島で、100里(約 40キロメートル)四方ある。

上の記述では、二島の方角や距離を与えることによってその位置を表現しています。方角は、"蔚珍の真東"であり、距離は"天候が清明で風がある日には見えるほど近い"といってるのです。右の写真は、上の古地図にも出ている、韓国東岸にある東海市を見下ろす高台から撮影された鬱陵島です。

韓国側は、この記述は蔚珍と鬱陵島の間の距離ではなく、于山島(韓国側はこれを現在の竹島だと主張しています)と鬱陵島との間の距離をあらわしたものと主張しています。しかしながら、この主張には無理があります。なぜなら、方角は明らかに蔚珍からみた二島の方角であるわけですから、距離に関しても蔚珍から二島までのものであると考えるのが自然です。さらに、島の樹木が見えると記述されていますが、問題の竹島は荒涼とした岩石島で、木など無いのです。 さらに、この記述では于山/鬱陵が本来一つの島であったとされていることに注意して下さい。おそらく、鬱陵島に附属島があるということが知られていなかった時期があったのでしょう。また、面積については一つしか記述がありません。つまり、この二島は一つのメインの島とその附属の小さな島嶼であることが伺えます。実際、これは鬱陵島とその東岸2kmにある小さな附属島嶼の竹嶼、と言う地理的事実に当てはまるのです。

「新增東國輿地勝覽」于山島鬱陵島の全文
以下は「新增東國輿地勝覽」于山島鬱陵島の記述の全文です。
于山島 鬱陵島 一云武陵 一云羽陵 二島在縣正東海中 三峯岌嶪撑空 南峯稍卑 風日淸明則峯頭樹木 及山根沙渚 歷歷可見 風便則二日可到 一說于山鬱陵 本一島 地方百里 新羅時 恃險不服 智證王十二年 異斯夫爲何瑟羅州軍主 謂于山國人愚悍 難以威服可以計服 乃多以木造獅子 分載戰艦 抵其國誑之曰 汝若不服 則卽放此獸踏殺之 國人恐懼來降 高麗太祖十三年 其島人 使白吉土豆 獻方物 毅宗十三年 王聞鬱陵地廣土肥可以居民 遣溟州道監倉金柔立往視 柔立回奏云 島中有大山 從山頂向東行至海一萬餘步 向西行一萬三千餘步 向南行一萬五千餘步 向北行八千餘步 有村落基址七所 或有石佛鐵鍾石塔多生柴胡藁本石南草 後崔忠獻獻議 以武陵土壤膏沃 多珍木海錯 遣使往觀之 有屋基破礎宛然 不知何代人居也 於是移東郡民以實之 及使還多以珍木海錯進之 後屢爲風濤所蕩覆舟 人多物故 因還其居民 本朝太宗時 聞流民逃其島者甚多 再命三陟人金麟雨 爲按撫使 刷出空其地 麟雨言土地沃饒 竹大如杠 鼠大如猫 桃核大於升 凡物稱是世宗二十年 遣縣人萬戶南顥 卒數百人 往搜逋民盡俘 金丸等七十餘人而還 其地遂空 成宗二年 有告別有三峯島者 乃遣朴宗元往覓之 因風濤不得泊而還 同行一船泊鬱陵島只取大竹大鰒魚 回啓云 島中無居民矣

------------------

于山島 鬱陵島は時に武陵、或いは羽陵とも呼ばれ、2島は県の真東の海中に在る。3つの峰が及業(きゅうぎょう)として空を支え、南の峰はやや低い。 天候が清明であれば山頂の樹木及び山麓の海岸を歴々見ることができる。風が良ければ2日で到達できる。一説に于山と鬱陵は本来1つの島で100里(約40 キロメートル)四方ある。

新羅の時代、大変険しい土地で、征服するのが難しいと思われたが、智證王十二年 (512 A.D.)に、異斯夫という者が何瑟羅州軍の長となり、こう言った。「于山人は無知で野蛮なので、武力で征服するのは困難である。そこで、知略を施さなければならない。」彼は恐ろしく獰猛そうな猛獣を木で作り、複数の軍の船に分載して島へ行き、住民へこう告げた。「もし服従しなければ、猛獣達を島へ放してお前達を食わせてしまうぞ。」島の住民は、恐れおののいて出てきて、服従した。

高麗太祖十三年(930 A.D.)に、その島の住民は白吉と土豆を使いにして貢納した。毅宗十三年(1159 A.D.)には、王は、鬱陵の土地は広大かつ肥沃で人民が居住可能であると聞き、溟州道(江原道)審察使の金柔立を派遣した。金は(島から)帰還し王にこう述べた。「島の中央に大きな山がある。頂から海岸までの距離は、東へ1万歩、西へ1万3千歩、南へ1万5千歩、北へ8千歩である。島には7つの村の跡がある。石仏像、鉄鐘、石塔もある。柴胡、蒿本、石南草が沢山自生している。」時代は下って、崔忠獻が武陵の土地は肥沃で貴重な樹木や海産物が取れると奏上したので、王が役人を派遣した。役人は人家の跡があったものの、いつ頃人が住んでいたのか判然としないが、もし東部の村人達をこの島に移住させれば、貴重な山海の物産を採集するだろう、と報告した。後に、しばしば強い雨風によって多数の犠牲者がでたので、移住民は連れ戻された。

太祖の時代(1392 ~1398 A.D.)に、多くの人が島へ逃げ込んだ、と伝えられる。三陟の住民である金麟雨が再び按撫使に任命されて島へ向かい、島の住民を強制的に退去させ、空島 とした。金麟雨はこう報告している。「島の土地はとても肥沃で、竹は柱の如く太く、鼠は猫の如く大きい。桃の種は升のように大きい。その島の産物は、皆そ んな具合である。」

世宗20(1438)年、蔚珍人で萬戸職の南顥を数百名の兵士とともに島に派遣し、亡民を捜査確保させた。彼は金丸ら70余人を連れ戻した。その地は遂に空島となった。

成宗2(1471)年、三峯島に人がいると告げる者がおり、そこで朴宗元を派遣し探索させたが、風濤のため行けずに戻った。同行の一船が鬱陵島に到達し、大竹やアワビなどを持ち帰った。戻ってから島に居住民はいないと奏上した。

以上見てきたように、1530年の「新增東國輿地勝覽」は、韓国側の領有権主張を裏打ちするものではありません。

参照

Interview with Mark Lovmo about his Dokdo Site

The Korean newspaper, "Hankyoreh," has reported HERE on an email interview "Yonhap News" did with American Mark Lovmo about his Dokdo Web site HERE. The article is written in Korean.
"Segye Ilbo" also reported on the Yonhap article with a picture of Mark HERE.
<<<<------- Mark Lovmo
UPDATE: Now, even the Korea Times has an English article on Mark Lovmo and his Dokdo Web site entitled, "American Urges US to Recognize S. Korean Sovereignty Over Dokdo."
What's next? Mark Lovmo for President?

Same photo, different effects?

The photo below is of Dokdo (Liancourt Rocks), as seem from Ulleungdo. It was supposedly taken last November by a Mr. Kim Cheol-hwan (金哲煥 - 김철환) of the Maritime Policy Section at the North Gyeongsang Provincial Office from an altitude of 300 meters using a Nikon FM2 camera and a 200 mm lens. The second photo seems to be the same photo, but it is darker and more blurry. Why?

I am not sure which photo originally appeared in the Chosun Ilbo article HERE, but the second photo is the one that now appears in the article. The difference between the two photos has been discussed on the Internet, so it is possible that the photos have been changed. Both photos are stored in the Chosun.com image database.

Photo 1


Photo 2
Comparison of the Two Photos by Commenter GTOMR

"Dokdo is Korean Territory"?

Korean Dokdo propaganda videos are pretty much all the same. When it comes time to prove Korean claims, they just flash through a bunch of old Korean and Japanese maps and documents with little or no explanation, but with plenty of background music. The reason they do that is that they do not want people to look too closely at the evidence because then people might start asking such questions as, "Why do the old Japanese maps show Liancourt Rocks (Dokdo), but Korean maps do not?"

The Korean videos are designed to play on Korean emotions while relying on people's ignorance of the facts. That is why we see many Korean commenters here claim that Korea has a lot of evidence to support her claim on Dokdo, but then those same people are unable to explain what that evidence is.

Anyway, enjoy the video. At least, the music is nice.

18.8.08

1966 Japanese map from Junior High School Textbook

Today's news (August 18th 2008) reported about a Japanese map in 1966 which was from High School Textbook "新詳高等地図 最新版" (published on March 15th 1966). It was from the journalist's own textbook. Takeshima (Liancourt Rocks) was drawn as Japanese territory - it's natural because Japan has claimed so from the start. So the journalist wonders why Korea is claiming now when the guideline to teach Takeshima precisely was decided.

1951 June: New Zealand's view

History of San Francisco Peace Treaty: Extra (2)

Commentary on Draft Treaty by the Department of State on June 1, 1951


To follow is about New Zealand's view from the "Foreign Relations with the United States" (1951, Vol.VI pp. 1060-1061)


New Zealand


"In view of the need to ensure that none of the islands near Japan is left in disputed
sovereignty, the New Zealand Government favours the precise delimitation by
latitude and longitude of the territory to be retained by Japan as suggested in Article 1 of the United Kingdom's draft. The adoption of this device could for example make it clear that the Habomai Islands and Shikotan at present under Russian occupation will remain with Japan."


(Comment-In the discussions at Washington the British agreed to drop
this proposal when the U.S. pointed to the psychological disadvantages of seeming to fence Japan in by a continuous line around Japan
. The Japanese had objected
to the British proposal when it was discussed with them in Tokyo. U.S. willingness to
specify in the treaty that Korean territory included Quelpart, Port Hamilton and Dagelet also helped to persuade the British. As regards the Habomais and Shikotan, it has seemed more realistic, with the USSR in occupation of the islands, not specifically to stipulate their return to Japan.)


[Lots of thanks to opp]



17.8.08

1951 April - May: Joint UK and USA Draft

History of San Francisco Peace Treaty: Extra(1)

A Pro-Korean website comments as follows; The fatal flaw in Japan's interpretation of the San Francisco Peace Treaty is their misleading conclusion the agreement was between the U.S. Government and Japan. In reality, about 48 countries participated in the negotiations. Naturally other nations, such as the United Kingdom and commonwealth members, had views that weren't in line with U.S. policy” The website is trying to make their readers believe that UK and other nations were against the U.S. decision concerning the sovereignty of Liancourt Rocks.

But this commentary is not right. The draft which UK brought to USA indicated that Liancourt Rocks to be out of Japan’s territory indeed as earlier American drafts did, but the point the UK objected to the American draft was how to represent the territory of Japan, whether Liancourt Rocks were Japanese or Korean territory was not a problem. The UK draft that is shown below was providing the territory in the area within a line which was written using latitudes and longitudes in details.


To follow is the original UK draft, which was made on April 7th, 1951.



Part I. - Territorial Clauses


ARTICIE l

Japanese sovereignty shall continue over all the islands and adjacent islets and rocks lying within an area bounded by a line from latitude 30°N, in a north-westerly direction to approximately latitude 33°N. 128 ° E. then northward between the islands of
Quelpart, Fukue-Shima bearing north - easterly between Korea and the island of
Tsushima, continuing in this direction with the islands of Oki-Retto to the south-east and
Take Shima to the north-west curving with the coast of Honshu, then northerly skirting
Rebun Shima passing easterly through Soya Kaikyo approximately 142° E., then in
a south-easterly direction parallel to the coast of Hokkaido to 145° 30’ E.
entering Numero Kaikyo at approximately 44° 30’ N. in a south-westerly direction
to approximately 43° 45' N. and 145° 15' E., then in a south-easterly direction
to approximately 43° 35' N. 145 ' 35' E., then bearing north-easterly to
approximately 44° N., so excluding Kunashiri, and curving to the east and then
bearing south-westerly to include Shikotan at 147° 5' E., being the most
easterly point, then in a south-westerly direction with the coastlin6 towards
the Nanpo Group of Islands curving south to include Sofu-Gan (Lot's Wife) at 29°
50' N., veering to the north-west towards the coast of Honshu, then at
approximately 33° N. turning south-westerly past Shikoku to 30° N. to include
YakuShima and excluding Kuchino Shima and the Ryuku Islands south of latitude
30° North. The line above described is plotted on the map attached to the
present treaty (Annex I).(') In the case of a discrepancy between the map
attached to the textual description of the line, the latter shall prevail.


FROM:The National Archives of the United Kingdom FO371/92538,FJ1022/222


USA had a different opinion concerning how to express the territory. They preferred simple way. So representatives of the both countries had meetings on various dates including April 25th and 2nd May 1951 to produce the Joint U.S.-U.K. Draft which was made on May 3rd 1951.



Below is from the rercord of the U.S.U.K. Meeting on April 25, 1951:


SECRET
Anglo - American Meetings on Japanese Peace Treaty.

Summary Record of First Meeting held in Washington at 10.30 a.m. on the 25th April.


Present were:

United Kingdom

Mr. C.H. Johnston

Mr. G.G. Fitzmurice

Miss Dennehy

Mr. F.S. Tomlison

Mr. K.R.C. Pridham

United States

Mr. John M. Allison
Brig. Gen. Conrad Snow

Mr. Robert A. Fearly

Mr. Noel Hemmendinger

Mr. C. Arnold Fraleigh

Mr. Douglas Overton

[...]


CHAPTER II.


Mr. Allison said that the American View was that our defining of the Japanese boundaries would have a bad psychological effect on the Japanese and emphasize the contraction of their country. The Americans would prefer a wording which emphasized the full sovereignty of Japan such territory as we should leave her and, exclude by name from her sovereignty and only such territory and islands as might be necessary
to avoid confusion.


FROM:The National Archives of the United Kingdom FO371/92545, FJ1022/342


And below is the record of the U.S.U.K. Meeting on May 2, 1951:

SECRET

1076/357/510

Anglo - American Meetings on Japanese Peace Treaty.

Summary Record of Seventh Meeting held at 10.30 a.m. on the 2nd
May, in Washington


Present were:

United Kingdom

Mr. C.H. Johnston

Mr. G.G. Fitzmurice

Mr. F.A. Vallat

Mr. F.S. Tomlison

Mr. K.R.C. Pridham

United States

Mr. John M. Allison

Brig. Gen. Conrad Snow

Mr. Robert A. Fearly


[...]

UNITED STATES CHAPTER III


Both Delegations agreed that it would be preferable to specify
only the territory over which Japan was renouncing sovereignty. In
this connection, United States Article 3 would require the insertion of the
three islands Quelpart, Port Hamilton and Dagelet. It was left undecided whether
the sentence in British Article 2 requiring Japan to recognize whatever
settlement the United Nations might make in Korea should be maintained or not.
It was agreed that further consideration should be given to the drafting of the
sentence dealing with Japan’s renunciation of her mandates.

[...]


BRITISH EMBASSY,

WASHINGTON, D. C.

2nd May, 1951




FROM:The National Archives of the United Kingdom FO371/92547,FJ1022/376

















They reached an agreement finally. They abandoned to express the territory in details using latitudes and longitudes, instead they adopted a simple expression as USA insisted – the islands which Japan should renounce were written as Quelpart, Port Hamilton and Dagelet. It omitted Liancourt Rocks. At this point, UK didn’t oppose the American thought – so one can say that UK admitted that Liancourt Rocks to be Japanese territory as USA decided.


Below is the record of the Joint U.S.-U.K. Draft made on May 3, 1951:

CHAPTER II

TERRITORY

Article 2


Japan renounces all rights, titles and claims to Korea (including Quelpart, Port Hamilton and Dagelet)', [Formosa and the Pesca-dores]; and also all rights, titles and claims in connection with the mandate system, [or based on any past activity of Japanese nationals in the Antarctic area]. Japan accepts the action of the United Nations Security Council of April 2, 1947, in relation to extending the trusteeship system to Pacific .Islands formerly under mandate to Japan. (U.K. reserves position on passages between square brackets.)


(Foreign Relations of the United States; 1951 Vol.VI p.p. 1024-1026)



Q 5: Did Korea's 1530 "Sinjeung Dongguk Yeoji Seungram" mention Dokdo?

Answer: The Sinjeung Dongguk Yeoji Seungram (新增東國輿地勝覽) is a fifty-five volume set of geography books (25 books) published in Joseon Korea in 1530. They were a revised edition of a 50-volume set called the Dongguk Yeoji Seungram (東國輿地勝覽), which were completed in 1481. The books described the different administrative regions of Joseon Korea, including their geography, history, customs, government offices, temples, shrines, fortresses, local products, and places of scenic interest.

The books also included a map of Joseon's eight provinces called the "Paldo Chongdo" (八道總圖), which means "Complete Map of the Eight Provinces." There were also maps of each of the individual provinces for a total of nine maps. Together these maps were referred to as the "Dongram-do" (東覽圖 - Maps of the Dongram). The above map is the "Paldo Chongdo."

Evidence for Korea's Claim on Dokdo?

The Sinjeung Dongguk Yeoji Seungram and its attached maps are supposed to be some of Korea's most important evidence supporting their territorial claim on Dokdo (Liancourt Rocks) because Koreans say that not only do the books mention an island near Ulleungdo (鬱陵島 - 울릉도) called "Usando" (于山島 - 우산도), which Koreans claim was the old Korean name for Dokdo, but two of the maps in the geography books show Usando as Korean territory. However, the problem with the Korean claim is that there is no evidence that Usando was Dokdo. In fact the map Koreans claim to be one of their most important pieces of supporting evidence for their claim on Dokdo (Liancourt Rocks) shows Usando (于山島) as an island due west of Ulleungdo (鬱陵島), but Dokdo is ninety-two kilometers to the southeast.

Second, the text described Usando and Ulleungdo as being neighboring islands visible from the east coast village of Uljin, but Liancourt Rocks is about 215 kilometers east of Uljin, which is much too far away for them to be visible.
Usando to the West of Ulleungdo?

Why did the 1530 map show Usando (于山島) due west of Ulleungdo, when, in fact, there are no islands off Ulleungdo's west shore? The answer is that in 1530 the name "Usando" was thought to be the name for the main island of Ulleungdo while the name "Ulleungdo" was being used to refer to Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo (竹島), which is about two kilometers off Ulleungdo's east shore. This confusion started in 1412, when a group of people from an island named "Yusanguk-do" (流山國島 - 유산국도) sailed into a harbor on Korea's east coast and told officials there that their island had a smaller neighboring island called "Muleungdo" (武陵島). They actually referred to "Yusanguk-do" as the "main island" (本島), which meant that Muleungdo was the smaller neighboring island. (See HERE.)
Yusanguk-do was a misspelling of "Usanguk-do" (于山國島), which means the "island of Usanguk." The old name for Ulleungdo during the time of the Silla Kingdom was "Usanguk." Also, the name "Muleungdo" was a misspelling of the name "Ulleungdo," so the 1530 map above was actually showing the main island of Ulleungdo labeled as "Usando" (于山島) and its neighboring island to the east labeled as "Ulleungdo" (鬱陵島).

Visible from the East Coast of Korea

As mentioned above, the islands of Usando/Ulleungdo (于山島 鬱陵島) were described in the 1530 geography text as being visible from the east coast of Korea. The actual description, which follows, was in a section of the book describing the east coast village of Uljin (蔚珍 - 울진):

于山島 鬱陵島 一云武陵 一云羽陵 二島在縣正東海中 三峯岌嶪撑空 南峯稍卑 風日淸明則峯頭樹木 及山根沙渚 歷歷可見 風便則二日可到 一說于山鬱陵 本一島 地方百里

Usando/Ulleungdo are also called Muleung (武陵) or Uleung 羽陵). The two islands are in the sea due east of this village (Uljin). Three peaks reach high into the sky. The southern peak gets gradually smaller. On clear, windy days, the trees on the summits and the sandy beaches at the base of the mountains are clearly visible. With a fair wind, they can be reached in two days. It is said that Usan/Ulleung were originally one island. They have an area of 100 ri.

Notice that the above passage described the location of the two islands by giving their bearing and distance. The bearing was given as being "due east of this village (Uljin)," and the distance was described as being close enough to be seen "on clear, windy days." The photo to the right shows that Ulleungdo is visible from a peak overlooking the Korean east coast city of Donghae (東海 - 동해), which also appears on the above map.

Koreans claim that the distance in the above passage was not describing the distance between Uljin and Ulleungdo, but was describing the distance between Ulleungdo and Usando, which Koreans claim was Dokdo (Liancourt Rocks). However, that claim does not make sense since the bearing was clearly given as being from Uljin to the two islands, which means that the distance would have only been referring to the distance between Uljin and the two islands. Moreover, it was mentioned that trees were visible, but Liancourt Rocks (Dokdo) is just barren rocks with no trees, which eliminates any possibility that it could have been referring to Liancourt Rocks.

Notice also that the text said that Usan/Ulleung was once thought to be one island, which means that there was no knowledge of Ulleungdo's neighboring island at one time in the past. Also, only one area was given, which suggests that the two islands were just a main island with a small neighboring island. In fact, that would describe Ulleungdo and its small neighboring island of Jukdo (竹島 - 죽도), which is about two kilometers off Ulleungdo's east shore.

Full Text Description of Usando/Ulleungdo

于山島 鬱陵島 一云武陵 一云羽陵 二島在縣正東海中 三峯岌嶪撑空 南峯稍卑 風日淸明則峯頭樹木 及山根沙渚 歷歷可見 風便則二日可到 一說于山鬱陵 本一島 地方百里 新羅時 恃險不服 智證王十二年 異斯夫爲何瑟羅州軍主 謂于山國人愚悍 難以威服可以計服 乃多以木造獅子 分載戰艦 抵其國誑之曰 汝若不服 則卽放此獸踏殺之 國人恐懼來降 高麗太祖十三年 其島人 使白吉土豆 獻方物 毅宗十三年 王聞鬱陵地廣土肥可以居民 遣溟州道監倉金柔立往視 柔立回奏云 島中有大山 從山頂向東行至海一萬餘步 向西行一萬三千餘步 向南行一萬五千餘步 向北行八千餘步 有村落基址七所 或有石佛鐵鍾石塔多生柴胡藁本石南草 後崔忠獻獻議 以武陵土壤膏沃 多珍木海錯 遣使往觀之 有屋基破礎宛然 不知何代人居也 於是移東郡民以實之 及使還多以珍木海錯進之 後屢爲風濤所蕩覆舟 人多物故 因還其居民 本朝太宗時 聞流民逃其島者甚多 再命三陟人金麟雨 爲按撫使 刷出空其地 麟雨言土地沃饒 竹大如杠 鼠大如猫 桃核大於升 凡物稱是世宗二十年 遣縣人萬戶南顥 卒數百人 往搜逋民盡俘 金丸等七十餘人而還 其地遂空 成宗二年 有告別有三峯島者 乃遣朴宗元往覓之 因風濤不得泊而還 同行一船泊鬱陵島只取大竹大鰒魚 回啓云 島中無居民矣.

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우산도 울릉도 무릉, 우릉이라고도 한다. 두 섬은 (울진)현 동쪽 바다 가운데 있다. 세봉우리가 높이 솟아 하늘에 닿았는데, 남쪽으로 갈수록 점점 낮아진다. 날씨가 맑으면 봉우리 꼭대기 나무와 산 아래 모래들을 역력히 볼 수 있다. 바람이 좋으면 이틀이면 가히 닿을 수 있다. 일설에 우산과 울릉은 본래 한 섬이라고 한다. 둘레가 백리이며

신라 때 (지세가) 험함을 믿고 복종하지 않으니 지증왕 12년(511, 13년의 오기) 이사부가 하슬라주(명주-강릉지역) 군주(軍主)가 되어 이르기를, "우산국 사람들은 어리석고 사나와서 위세로는 복종시키기 어려우니, 가히 계교로써 하리라." 하였다. 이에 나무로 사자를 많이 만들어 전선(戰船)에 나누어 싣고, 그 나라에 가서 속여 말하기를, “너희들이 만약 항복하지 않으면, 이 짐승들을 풀어서 밟아 죽이게 하겠다” 하니 그 나라 사람들이 두려워하여 항복하였다.

고려 태조 13년(930) 그 섬사람들이 백길 토두로 하여금 방물을 바치게 하였다. 의종 13년(1159, 고려사에는 11년) 왕이 울릉도가 땅이 넓고 비옥하여 가히 백성들을 거주하게 할 수 있다는 말을 듣고 명주도 감창사 김유립을 보내어 보고 오게 하였는데, 유립이 돌아와서 아뢰기를 “섬 가운데 큰 산이 있는데 산꼭대기를 따라 동쪽을 향해 나아가면 바다에 닫는데 1만여보, 서쪽을 향해 나아가면 1만 3천여보, 남쪽을 향해 나아가면 1만 5천여보, 북쪽을 향해 나아가면 8천여보가 됩니다. 촌락의 옛터가 7곳이 있는데 간혹 석불, 철종, 석탑이 있으며, 멧미나리(柴胡), 고본(藁本, 실록에는 호본(蒿本)), 석남초(石南草)가 많이 납니다.” 하였다.

후에 최충헌(고려사에는 최이)이 무릉도의 토양이 기름지고, 좋은 재목과 해산물이 많다는 말을 듣고 관리를 파견하여 보고 오게 하였더니 부서진 집터가 완연하였고, 언제 사람이 살았는지 짐작할 수 없었다. 이때 동쪽 군현의 백성들을 이주시켜 섬을 채우니, 많은 좋은 재목과 해산물을 거두어들이기에 이르렀다. 후에 누차에 걸쳐 바람과 파도에 배가 뒤집혀져 많은 사람들이 죽게 되었으므로, 그 거주민들을 (육지로) 귀환 시켰다.

우리 나라(조선) 태종 때 유민들이 그 섬에 도망가는 자 심히 많다는 말을 듣고, 삼척인 김인우를 안무사로 거듭 임명하여 (유민들을 육지로) 데려 오게 하고 그 땅을 비웠다. 인우가 말하기를 "땅이 비옥하고 대나무의 크기가 기둥 같으며, 쥐는 크기가 고양이 같고, 복숭아씨가 되(升)처럼 큰데, 모든 물건이 이와 같다." 하였다.

세종 20년(1438) (울진)현인 만호 남호(南顥, 실록에는 남회(南會))가 군사 수백을 이끌고 가 거주민들을 모두 붙잡으니 김환(金丸) 등 70여인이 귀환하였으며 그 땅이 마침내 비었다.

성종 2년(1471) 별도로 삼봉도가 있다고 아뢰는 자가 있어 이에 박종원(朴宗元)을 파견하여 살펴보게 하였다. 바람과 파도로 정박하지 못하고 귀환하였는데, 동행한 한척은 울릉도에 정박하여 단지 큰 대나무와 전복을 취하였을 뿐이며, 돌아와 보고하기를 “섬 가운데에는 거주민이 없습니다”라고 하였다.
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Usando, Ulleungdo are also called Muleung (武陵) and Uleung 羽陵). The two islands are in the sea due east of this village (Uljin). Three peaks reach high into the sky. The southern peak gets gradually smaller. On clear, windy days, the trees on the summits and the sandy beaches at the base of the mountains are clearly visible. With a fair wind, they can be reached in two days. It is said that Usan/Ulleung were originally one island. They have an area of 100 ri.

During the time of Silla, the land was believed to be too rugged to subjugate, but during the twelfth year of King Jijeung [512 A.D.] Isabu became the commander of Hasula-ju and said, “The people of Usan are ignorant and savage and would be difficult to subjugate with strength, but we can use cunning.” Then, he made many wooden lions and loaded them onto their warships and then went to the country and deceitfully said, “If you do not surrender, I will release these animals and you will be trampled to death. The country’s people were very scared and surrendered.

In the thirteenth year of Goryeo’s Taejo (930 A.D.), the emissaries of the island (Ulleungdo), Baek Gil and To Du to, paid tribute to the king. In the thirteenth year of Wui Jong (1159 A.D.), the king heard that the land of Ulleung was wide and fertile and that people could like there, so he sent Myeongju-do Gamchang Kim Yu-rip there to see. Yu-rip returned and reported:

“There was a big mountain in the middle of the island. Following the mountain peaks we traveled about 10,000 paces east to the sea. To the west, it was about 13,000 paces. To the south, it was about 15,000 pace. And to the north, it was about 8,000 paces. There were remains of seven villages on the island. There was also a stone Buddha, an iron bell, and a stone pagoda. There was lots of siho (柴胡 - Bupleurum falcatum L.), Chinese lovage root (藁本), and heather (石楠草) growing on the island.”

Later, Choi Chung-heon said that the soil of Muleungdo was fertile, and there were many precious trees and sea products, so the king sent an official to see. The official reported that there were obvious ruins of houses, but he could not guess when people had lived there. Then he said that if people from eastern villages were moved to settle the island, they could gather the precious wood and sea products. Later, the strong wind and waves caused boats to capsize time and again, killing many people, so the settlers were brought back.

During the time of Taejong, in this dynasty, hearing that a great many displaced people ran away to the island, the king appointed Samcheok resident Kim In-u as anmusa to evict them and leave the island empty. In-u said, “The land is fertile and the bamboo is as big as pillars. The rats are as big as cats, and the peach seeds are as big as a doi. All of its products are like that.

In the twentieth year of Sejong (1438), Commander Nam Ho (南顥), an Uljin resident, led 100 soldiers to go and capture all the runaways. He returned with more than seventy people, including Kim Hwan (金丸). The island was finally empty.

In the second year of Seongjong (1471), there was a person who reported there was also an island called Sambongdo (三峯島), so Bak Jong-won (朴宗元) was sent to investigate. The wind and the waves prevented him from reaching the island and anchoring, so he returned. One of the ships in his group anchored at Ulleungdo and only brought back some big bamboo and big abalone. They returned and reported, “There is no one living on the island.”

As you can see from the above, the 1530 Sinjeung Dongguk Yeoji Seungram (新增東國輿地勝覽) does not support Korea's claim on Dokdo (Liancourt Rocks).