1904 Hammond's Atlas of the World

I already posted "1904 Hammond map of Japan, Korea and Manchuria" here:

Argonaut island (phantom island), Dagelet island (Ulleungdo) and Hornet island (Liancourt Rocks) in the map were not coloured.

But I recently found another version of the same map. It was from "Hammond's Atlas of The World" (C.S. Hammond & Co. N.Y. 1904).
(Please look at the left map) [Click the map to enlarge]
In this version, Dagelet island was painted in the same colour (pink) as Japanese land although Argonaut and Hornet islands (Liancourt Rocks) were not coloured. This may mean that the mapmaker believed that Dagelet island (Ulleungdo) was Japanese Matsushima while Argonaut island (phantom island) was Takeshima which was given to Korea in the late 17th century.

Please take a look at another map from the same atlas, the map of "China, Japan and Korea". (Please look at the left map) [Click the map to enlarge]
Argonaut island was not coloured again but both of Dagelet island and Hornet island (Liancourt Rocks) were painted in the same colour (pink) as Japan. And you may notice that there is a writing beside Argonaut island - "(Tako-simo)" which means Takeshima.
So the theory above may be right.

By the way, the subtitle of the atlas reads "A New Series of Physical, Political and Historical Maps Compiled from Government Surveys and Exhibiting the Latest Results of Geographical Research - Accompanied by an Index-Gazetteer of the Principal Towns of the World".
It is clear that the mapmaker of the authoritative atlas believed after the research that Liancourt Rocks didn't belong to Korea in 1904, four years after the Korean Edict #41 and one year before Japan's incorporation of the rocks (Takeshima).


"Dokdo Humor," by Gerry Bevers

  • 독도가슴 (Dokdo breasts) – jagged, uneven breasts covered with bird droppings
    새똥으로 덮인 들죽날죽하고 울퉁불퉁한 가슴

  • 독도광대 (Dokdo clowns) - clowns who use the stage name "Steve"
    "Steve"이라는 예명을 쓰는 광대들
  • 독도교육 (Dokdo education) - studying the lyrics to a 1982 Bak In-ho song
    1982년에 나온 박인호 노래 가사를 공부하는 것
  • 독도구이 (Dokdo roasted meat) – meat roasted while chanting “It’s our meat,” It’s our meat,” “It’s our meat”
    "우리 고기," "우리 고기," 우리 고기"라고 염불처럼 계속 말하면서 구운 고기
  • 독도논리 (Dokdo reasoning) – reasoning that begins with a false premise, proceeds with wild assumptions, and ends with “Therefore, it’s our land”
    잘못된 전제로 시작하고 터무니없는 가정을 하는 끝에 "그러니까 우리 땅이다"라는 결론을 하는 논리
  • 독도놀이 (Dokdo outing) – an outing that causes a lot of puking
    구토 많이 하게 하는 여행
  • 독도두통 (Dokdo headache) – intense head pain caused by a fruitless search for a small group of rock islets on old Korean maps
    옛 한국지도에서 작은 돌섬 군도을 성과없이 찾느라고 난 심한 두통
  • 독도망신 (Dokdo shame) – the shame felt from learning that one’s real parents are Japanese
    진짜 부모가 일본 사람인 것을 알게 될때 나는 망신
  • 독도망언 (Dokdo abusive language) – a truth charm that causes Koreans to go red in the face
    한국 사람을 붉히는 사실의 마술주문
  • 독도미인 (a Dokdo beauty) – an ugly girl whom people imagine to be beautiful
    상상속 미인이 된 못생긴 여자
  • 독도복시 (Dokdo double vision) - a disorder of vision that causes people to see one island on old Korean maps as two. The disorder is believed to be caused by reading too much historical fiction.
    옛 한국지도에서 나온 섬이 하나인데 두 개로 보이게 하는 시각 기관이 혼란하게 하는 눈병. 그 원인는 역사 소설을 너무 많이 봤나는 추측이 있다.

  • 독도 상대성 원리 (Dokdo Theory of Relativity) - a theory that states when a group of people are subjected to a constant barrage of propaganda, their ability to reason will appear to decrease relative to that of the rest of the world
    어떤 사람들이 흑색 선전을 빗발 같이 겪으면 그들은 조리있게 생각할 수 있는 능력이 남들의 거에 비해서 떨어지게 된다는 원리
  • 독도섹스 (Dokdo Sex) – four and a half hours of foreplay followed by 15 minutes of boring sex
    네 시간 반 동안 한 애무 끝에 15분 동안 지루한 성교 (독도 여행을)
  • 독도역사 (Dokdo history) – a form of creative writing
    창작의 한 종류
  • 독도외교 (Dokdo diplomacy) – diplomacy designed to discredit one's own country
    자기가 자기 나라 신용을 손상하는 외교
  • 독도작업 (Dokdo seduction) – seduction that begins by stating support for your partner’s territorial claims
    상대의 영토 주장에 동의한다고 일단 발표하는 유혹
  • 독도주장 (Dokdo claim) – a hamburger that Americans call “a whopper”
    "A whopper"라고 미국 사람들이 부르는 햄버거 (사전에서 "whopper"를)

  • 독도학 (Dokdo Studies) – the study of promoting territorial claims through song, dance, and animal sacrifice
    노래, 춤, 동물 제물로 영토 주장을 선전하는 학술
  • 독도학자 (Dokdo scholar) – a scholar who can look at old maps and documents and see things that are not there
    옛 지도, 문서에 없는 것을 볼 수 있는 학자


Dokdo Museum Exhibition Focuses on Modern History

Dokdo Museum is hosting an exhibition of thirty historical articles related to Ulleungdo and "Dokdo" from June 22 to the end of August. The articles are from relatively recent history and include articles from the Jeju National Museum and from Uljin County's "Daepungheon" (待風軒) in Gusan-ri, where Ulleungdo inspectors in the 1800s would wait for favorable winds to travel to the island. There are also twelve photographs taken in 1917 by a Japanese national on Ulleungdo.

The document shown above is from the Daepungheon, where many more Ulleungdo historical documents were stored until Korean government officials allegedly came to the place several years ago and burned most of them. This was reported in a 2006 KBS interview with the man in charge of the place. I wrote about this back in 2007 HERE. The video used to be at the following address, but now it seems to have been deleted:


The man who made the claim about the documents being burned in the KBS interview looked very similar to the the man who appears in the picture of the Daepungheon to the left.

What is ironic is that the picture to the left is of a ceremony commemorating a effort to protect the historic site and the documents housed in it from fire. Notice the fire extinguishers in the background.

I think this is an example of the barn door being fixed after the cow has already run away. We will probably never know what documents were destroyed those many years ago.

By the way, the following painting was supposedly donated to the the Daepungheon by a Japanese national who visited the place sometime in the past. LINK


"Seoul Podcast" Discusses Dokdo

"Seoul Podcast" is a podcast Web site that does podcasts by and for foreigners living in Korea. The most recent podcast is an interesting one on Dokdo entitled "Seoul Podcast #59: Wagugin Parade on Dokdo," in which one speaker answers questions about his recent Korean government-sponsored trip to Ulleungdo and Dokdo. ("Wagugin" means "foreigner.") It is a long Podcast that includes other topics, so you have to wait awhile to get to the part on Dokdo, but, fortunately, the podcast up to the Dokdo portion is entertaining.

The people in the discussion group seem quite intelligent, but they also seem pretty ignorant on Korean history and Korea-Japan relations. For example, one of the members of the group claimed, among other things, that Japan never compensated Korea for Korea's colonial period and has never apoligized to Korea for the colonial period and the comfort women, nor has it apologized to other nations for the war.

They do not seem to know that Korea has a bad habit of demanding apologies that they then ignore or forget about after they get them. When someone points to the past apologies as evidence that Japan has apologized, Koreans usually say something like, "Oh, well, that was not a 'sincere' apology." That is why Japan is asked for a new apology everytime Korea gets a new president, even when the new president had said he would not ask for an apology.

Nevertheless, I still recommend that people listen to the podcast. It is entertaining.

Another EPIK-sponsored Dokdo Brainwashing

Tonight, I came across a blog entitled, "Not Another Tourist," which had an interesting post on the blogger's recent trip to Ulleungdo and "Dokdo" (Liancourt Rocks) entitled "16 June 09- Everyone Loves a Field Trip!" It was an EPIK-sponsored trip, which means she and the other foreign English teachers on the trip had to go through the Dokdo brainwashing lectures. Since she has not been in Korea that long and does not seem to know much about the history, she seems to have been an easy victim, which may be one reason why they target the EPIK teachers.

I left a comment on her site with a summary of my views on the subject and an invitation to visit this site, but she moderates her comments section, so I do not know if she will post it or not.
She posted a link to a bunch of pictures of Ulleungdo, but, strangely, there were no pictures of Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo, which sticks out like a sore thumb if you are on the right side of the island. It makes me wonder if the foreign teachers were intentionally taken only to places where Jukdo was not visible. Jukdo is only about two kilometers off Ulleungdo's east shore and was the island that appeared on old Korean maps as "Usando."
Among the pictures posted was a picture of the infamous replica of the first Korea map to show Ulleungdo and Usando. The original map shows Usando (于山島) to the west of Ulleungdo (鬱陵島) instead of the east, but the Dokdo Museum has switched the locations of the two islands on the replica.
A few years ago, a Japanese newspaper reporter asked the people at the museum why they switched the locations of Ulleungdo and Usando on the replica and suggested that by doing so they were being dishonest. The man at the museum told the reporter that they switched the locations to make it easier for Korean children to understand. In other words, it is more difficult to brainwash Korean children into believing Usando was Dokdo when Korea's old maps show Usando west of Ulleungdo instead of east. When the reporter replied that that would still not justify their falsifying the map, the man at the museum told her that they were planning to correct the mistake; however, two and a half years later, they appear to still be showing the altered replica.
Compare the original map with the altered replica in the Dokdo Museum. Notice that the locations of Ulleungdo (鬱陵島 - 울릉도) and Usando (于山島 - 우산도) are switched and moved farther apart.
The Original Map

The Altered Replica in the Dokdo Museum (Notice that the islands have been switched)


Nakai Yozaburo Exhibition Mentioned in San-in Chuo Shinopo

The Japanese newspaper San-in Chuo Shinopo(山陰中央新報)seems to have a short article on the Nakai Yozaburo (中井養三郞) exhibition being held from June 13 to 28 at the Oki Island Cultural Center (隱岐島文化會館). I have already mentioned the exhibition HERE. You can find the June 18, San-in Chuo Shinopo article at the link below.


Jukdo (竹島) Missing from Daum's Satellite Photo of Ulleungdo

The Korean Web site "Daum Map" has really great satellite photos of Ulleungdo, except that Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo (竹島 - 죽도) is mysteriously missing. Jukdo is a small 51-acre island located two kilometers off Ulleungdo's east shore, but it is not so small that you cannot see it.

It appears on the following satellite photo of Ulleungdo, so why not Daum's photo?

Jukdo also appears on Google's map of Ulleungdo below.

One strange thing is that the Daum map of Ulleungdo shows Jukdo (竹島 - 죽도), but not the Daum satellite photo. I wonder if it was judged to be too sensitive to show so detailed a photo?

Jukdo is the island that Koreans during the Joseon period called "Usando" (于山島 - 우산도). Many Koreans today claim that Usando was the old Korean name for Liancourt Rocks, which Koreans call "Dokdo" (獨島 - 독도) and Japanese call "Takeshima" (竹島), but Korea's old maps and documents show that Usando was Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo.

A suspicious person might think that Jukdo was deliberately removed from the Korean satellite photo to keep Koreans from suspecting the Korean claim that Usando was Dokdo (Liancourt Rocks).

Also, why does "Sea Lion Rock" (가재바위) not appear off the southern tip of Ulleungdo in the satellite photo? The name is there, but I do not see a rock. "Gajae" (가재) is the name for "sea lion" (gangchi - 강치) in the Ulleungdo dialect and was written as "Gaji" (可支 - 가지) during Korea's Joseon period. Japanese maps from the early 1900s HERE showed the rock, and a Western document from the 1800s described it. Here is a reference to the rock from the 1864 Bristish publiction "China Pilot":
MATSUSIMA, or Dagelet island, is a collection of sharp conical hills, well clothed with wood, supporting an imposing peak in the centre, in lat. 37°30′N., long. 130°53′E. It is 18 miles in circumference, and in shape approximates a semicircle, the northern side, its diameter, running nearly E. by N. and W. by S. 6.25 miles. From each end the coast trends rather abruptly to the southward, curving gradually to the east and west, with several slight sinuosities until meeting at Seal Point, the south extreme of the island, off which is a small rock.
What's really strange is that the rock appears on the Daum map of "Seal Point," but not on the satellite photo.

Again, a suspicious person might think the rock was destroyed because someone was afraid that some Koreans might suspect it to be the place referred to as "Gajido" (可支島 - 가지도) in some inspection reports of Ulleungdo in the 1700s. Some Koreans claim that Gajido was an old name for Liancourt Rocks (Dokdo / Takeshima), rather than a place around Ulleungdo, but they have no documents or maps to support their claim.

KBS NEWS: "Dokdo Protector 'An Yong-bok Foundation' Sets Sail"

In a June 19 broadcast HERE, KBS News has reported on the launching of a new Dokdo related foundation entitled, "The An Yong-bok Foundation," of which its chief goal is to defend Dokdo.

Is anyone keeping count of how many Dokdo-related foundations Korea has so far?

Here is a video of the event from "Paran News":

By the way, the huge banner over the stage reads "Your love of Dokdo is making history" (당신의 독도 사랑이 역사를 만듭니다). I found that sentence quite appropriate since Koreans have been "making" Dokdo history since the 1950s.

Ulleungdo's Neighboring Island of Jukdo (죽도 - 竹島)

Jukdo (竹島 - 죽도) is a small 51-acre island about two kilometers off the east shore of Ulleungdo (鬱陵島 - 울릉도). During Korea's Joseon period, it was referred to as Usando (于山島 - 우산도). Many people, including Koreans, are confused by the fact that the Chinese characters used for "Jukdo" (竹島) are the same as those used for the Japanese island of "Takeshima" (竹島), which Koreans call "Dokdo" (獨島 - 독도) and people in the West call "Liancourt Rocks." The names are different because the characters are pronounced differently in the two languages. Koreans claim that Usando (우산도 - 于山島) was the old Korean name for "Dokdo" (Liancourt Rocks / Takeshima), but Korea's old maps show that Usando was simply Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo, not Liancourt Rocks, which are about ninety-two kilometers southeast of Ulleungdo.

Ulleungdo (울릉도 - 鬱陵島)

Ulleungdo's Northeast Shore (울릉도 동북 지역) & Jukdo (죽도 - 竹島)

Ulleungdo's Neighboring Island of Jukdo (죽도 - 竹島)

On Jukdo (죽도 - 竹島) looking toward the south (Ohmynews)

On Jukdo (죽도 - 竹島) looking toward Ulleungdo to the west (Ohmynews)
Compare the shape and location of Jukdo (竹島 - 죽도) from Google's satellite photo with the shape and location of the neighboring island labeled as "Usan" (于山 - 우산) on some of Korea's old maps of Ulleungdo (鬱陵島 - 울릉도):
"Haedong Yeojido" (海東輿地圖) - Ulleungdo (울릉도 - 鬱陵島) ca. 1776 - 1795

"Dong Yeodo" (東輿圖) - Ulleungdo (울릉도 - 鬱陵島), 1795 - 1800
"Joseon-do" (朝鮮圖) - Ulleungdo (울릉도 - 鬱陵島), 1800 - 1822
Cheonggu-do (靑邱圖) - Ulleungdo (鬱陵島 - 울릉도) 1834
On the above Cheonggu-do (靑邱圖) map of Ulleungdo, the hash marks along the edge of the map represented distances of 10 ri, which was four kilometers and sometimes seem to have represented two kilometers. Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo is about two kilometers off its east shore. Liancourt Rocks (Dokdo / Takeshima), on the other hand, is about 92 kilometers southeast of Ulleungdo, which means the neighboring island labeled as "Usan" (于山 - 우산) on the above maps could not have been Dokdo (獨島 - 독도).
The following is the satellite photo of Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo overlayed with an image of the island labeled as "Usan" (于山) on the 1834 Cheonggu-do (靑邱圖) map.


Foreign English Teachers Used for Dokdo Propaganda

"Brian in Jeollanam-do" has posted an article entitled, "Teachers back from Dokdo," which talks about a program in the Korean province of North Gyeongsang that takes foreign English teachers to Ulleungdo and Dokdo and teaches them the Korean version of Dokdo history, while taking pictures of them to be used for Dokdo propaganda. The group this year set sail on June 7th and returned on the 9th.

The following is part of what one of the foreign teachers wrote about the trip (LINK):
On a side note I feel that I should mention that many of us did question the lecturers about how Korea acts towards Dokdo and how it basically presents itslef. They took our criticisms and answered our questions to the best they could. One of the speakers presented us with a booklet about the debate and was terribly biased. He argued that Japan's aspiration for Dokdo is to reconquer the Korean Peninsula. He didn't answer my question when I asked for empirical evidence.
"Japan's aspiration for Dokdo is to reconquer the Korean peninsula"? What a stupid thing to say! Such ridiculous claims may work on rabid, anti-Japanese Koreans, but it does not work on the average foreigner. I would have thought that Koreans would be worldly enough to know that by now, but I guess not.

By the way, below is a link to a very funny account of last year's disasterous attempt to take foreign English teachers to Dokdo. The weather was so bad that they had to turn back after the trip turned into a vomit fest. They tried to go in November, which from what I understand, is one of the worst months of the year to go, weather-wise. Anyway, here is part of what one of the foreign English teachers wrote about the very beginning of the trip.

After claiming our spots and mingling in the hallway while a few were interviewed on camera (What do you think about Dok-do island? Do you think you will have a good visit to Dok-do? Do you feel Dok-do is an important issue?) we were called on deck for the funniest part of the trip…little did I know it was to be one of the last times we’d smile on board this ship. They gave us name tags with the now famous motto: Dok-do is Korean territory, and a picture of our flag so we could all see what country we were from, and then we were rounded up in front of the giant Dok-do banner (it travels) and instructed to wave our flags and say, in Korean, that Dok-do is Korean territory. Are you picking up on the theme? They were going to air this footage on t.v and we were all reasonably sure that we would be forever banned from entering the country of Japan after this little display went public.

Here is the link: "Dok-do, wait...Dok-DON'T island"

New Survey: Is the Korean government telling its people the truth about Liancourt Rocks (Dokdo)?

I have posted a new survey question that reads as follows:

Is the Korean government telling its people the truth about Liancourt Rocks (Dokdo)?

A) Yes

B) No

C) I don't know

If you would like to vote in this survey, you can find the survey question on the right side of the blog.

Survey: Int'l Court Should Settle Dokdo-Takeshima Dispute

According to our online blog survey, seventy-one percent of those polled believe the territorial dispute between Korea and Japan over Liancourt Rocks (Dokdo / Takeshima) should be settled by the International Court of Justice.
Among the 979 votes cast, 71% (703) have voted to let the International Court of Justice settle the dispute while 17% voted to make the rocks a neutral nature preserve administered by both Korea and Japan. Ten percent (103) chose neither option.
In the past, Japan asked Korea to take the dispute to the International Court of Justice, but Korea refused.


A Sea Lion Cave

Korean historical documents talk about sea lion caves on Ulleungdo. The following is a video of a sea lion cave in Oregon, which should give people an idea of what one looks like.

The following are Korean historical references to Ulleungdo's sea lion caves and sea lions:


The 19th column “Seeking Truth Based Solely on Facts(実事求是)”

Below is a translation of The 19th column “Seeking Truth Based Solely on Facts(実事求是)” by Prof. Shimojo Masao(下條正男)
"Korea Maritime Institute(KMI : 韓国海洋水産開発院), who lacks ability to read their own historical documents, cirticized on Shimane Prefecture. "

On April 27, 2009, KMI issued the article "Shimane Prefecture of Japan intensify the publicity of "Takeshima/Dokdo"only by advantageous historical resources"(Dokdo and oceanic territory briefing" No.09-60), claiming Shimane Prefecture is working on a biased information activities regarding Takeshima Issue. According to KMI's claim, the homepage of Shimane Prefecture "distorts the historical records" by "intentionally dismissing the official documents, such as the passage ban in 1696 or the Dajokan Order(太政官指令) in 1877, which, according to KMI, admitted (!?) that Ulleungdo and Dokto are the Joseon territories", and "especially, presenting 1846 edition of "Complete Map of Japanese Lands and Roads( 改定日本輿地路程全図)",dismissing the first edition, which, according to KMI again, notes Dokdo as Korean territory (!?)."

However, this KMI's claim is nothing but merely a sophistry for concealing Korea's own acts of invasion, who keeps occupying Takeshima unlawfully. Because the final report of Shimane Prefecture's Takeshima Research Center's "Surveillance study on the Takeshima Issue" and the pamphlet by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan "10 Issues of Takeshima" both empirically proved the fact that Takeshima/Dokdo had never been a territory of Korean before 1905, when Takeshima is incorporated into Shimane Prefecture.

Japan named the Liancourt Rocks, the uninhabited island that was terra nullius as Takeshima on January 28, 1905, and "make it control under the jurisdiction of the local government of Oki island of Shimane prefecture from now on (本邦所属)" based on International Law. On the other hand, South Korea somehow automatically replace all "Usando(于山島)" in the historical documents and maps into Dokdo when they read them and claim Takeshima/Dokdo as their territory while distorting historical records. Because of this distortion, Dokdo/Takeshima was said to have been Korean territory since 6th century(!?) and wrongfully "identified" Usandos even in "Annals of King Sejong (世宗莊憲大王實錄)" and "Dongguk Yeoji Seungram (東國輿地勝覽)" as today's Takeshima.

However, Korea's logical basis, notation of 東国文献備考, had been already exposed as falsification during the process of compilation of the book, and SK had already lost its grounds of an argument in order to claim the sovereignty of Takeshima/Dokdo. What South Korea had to do by all means was to prove the fact Takeshima/Dokdo was a South Korean territory without the notation("輿地志云 鬱陵 于山 皆于山國地 于山則倭所謂松島也 (Yojiji says that Ulleun and Usan are all Usanguk. Usan is so-called Japanese Matsushima. )") of 東国文献備考, which had been exposed as alternation already.

Nevertheless, KMI dodged the controversy which would be fatal for them, taking up "the passage ban in 1696, "the Dajoukan Order(太政官指令) in 1877 and first edition of "Complete Map of Japanese Lands and Roads( 改定日本輿地路程全図)(1779)", and quibbled "Shimane Prefecture is working on a biased information activities regarding Takeshima Issue."

However, since Takeshima/Dokdo had nothing to do with Korean territory, therefore, the Japanese decision of Takeshima has absolutely nothing to do with Korea naturally. But KMI only argued about the colouration of Ulleungdo and Takeshima/Dokdo on the map and misconstrued/distorted that" Takeshima/Dokdo was described as Korean territory" if it was not coloured. But, the point for interpretation of "Complete Map of Japanese Lands and Roads( 改定日本輿地路程全図)" is not the colouring but the appendix noted next to Ulleungdo(Takeshima).

This additional remark "見高麗猶雲州望隠州" was cited from the "Chronicle of the country (国代記)" in " Onshu Shicho Goki (隠州視聴合記)" compiled by Saito Hosen in 1667(寛文七年), and it states Ulleungdo was Japanese territory. The meaning of this remark is " (These two are uninhibited islands(此二嶋無人之地).) From there(Ulleungdo) you can view Korea, it is just like you view Onshu (Oki island) from Unshu (east of Shimane prefecture, mainland of Japan)(見高麗如自雲州望隠州)." And it is followed by the sentence"So then, the northwest of Japan, we make this island (Ulleungdo) (note : 州 means the island, state, province) to be the boundary(然則日本乾地以此州為限矣)." in Saito's book.

In South Korea, "此州" is interpreted as the Oki islands. Korean translate "" as Oki islands, However, most importantly, this sentence has important and necessary condition that from "this island/state/province", Choson (Korea) can be seen. It is impossible for us to see even Ulleungdo, not to mention Joseon from Oki. Naturally, "此州" should be interpreted as Ulleungdo.

That is easily proven to be true because in Kanbun(寛文 ; 1661-1672) years, when Saito Hosen compiled " Onshu Shicho Goki (隠州視聴合記)", Japanese then did have a recognition of Ulleungdo as Japanese territory, and in fact, Saito himself reported the cases of voyage to Ulleungdo in his book. Besides, in 1666( 寛文六年), a year before Saito compiled the book, 21 fishermen of the Ohyas(大谷家) from Yonago of Tottori clan, who left for fishing to Ulleungdo, drifted to Janggi(長鬐) in Choson. Edo Bakufu, Japanese government at that time, who was consenting to the seclusion policy, indeed acknowledged this shipwreck incident and Ohya family's Ulleungdo fishing activity as well.

Therefore, the fact there is notation on "Complete Map of Japanese Lands and Roads( 改定日本輿地路程全図)" by Nagakubo cited from Chronicle of the country (国代記)" in " Onshu Shicho Goki (隠州視聴合記)", is the concrete proof that Nagakubo followed geographic recognition of Saito, who reported Ulleungdo as "the northwestern boundary of Japan", and considered Ulleungdo as Japanese territory.

Nonetheless, KMI disregarded this necessary notation and claimed Shimane Prefecture "dismissed the first edition of "Complete Map of Japanese Lands and Roads( 改定日本輿地路程全図)", which specially notes Dokdo as Korean territory (!?)". They are apparently racking their brains to manipulate public opinion in order to give people the impression as if Shimane prefecture is doing some kind of document manipulation.

However, what is indispensable for historical study is the existence of the document which can be grounds of an argument. In Saito's "Onshu Shicho Goki (隠州視聴合記)", he stated Ulleungdo as the northeastern limit of Japan, and Nagakubo's"Complete Map of Japanese Lands and Roads( 改定日本輿地路程全図)" followed him and clearly noted Ulleungdo as the northeastern limit of Japan. Daring to read Ulleungdo in stead of Oki island is only the act of camouflage which try to conceal the fact Takeshima couldn't be Korean territory.

As for this kind of deceptive/fraudulent document manipulation by KMI, it is demonstrated satisfactorily for the interpretation of "passage ban in 1696 and Dajokan instruction in 1877". KMI's interpretation that in those two documents, Japan "admitted that Ulleungdo and Takeshima/Dokto were the Korean territories" is also the malignant/tinpot "Distortion of historical materials".

As a matter of fact, the passage ban in 1696 by Edo Bakufu in concern was for ceding the permission to voyage to Ulleungdo which Edo Bakufu had been giving to Ohya and Murakawa family, thus it has nothing to do with today's Takeshima. The fact that Tsushima clan fought over Ulleungdo, not today's Takeshima/Liancourt Rocks, against Joseon government also contributes to consolidate Japanese claim. Again it is clear that it was Ulleungdo alone that Edo Bakufu, the government, prohibited to voyage, while Takeshima/Liancourt Rocks was not even hinted in the ban.

The reason KMI insists obstinately, against all the confronting evidences, saying that "It was admitted as Korean territory" is because Tottori clan answered that "Takeshima(Ulleungdo) doesn't belong to Inaba nor Hohki(因幡伯耆)" and "There are no islands as Takeshima, Matsushima and others attached to both (Inaba and Hohki) countries."when Edo Bakufu made inquiry to Tottori clan regarding the title to Takeshima(Ulleungdo). However, the licence to Ulleungdo Voyage was issued to The Ohyas and Murakawas by Edo Bakufu, not to Tottori clan, thus it has nothing to do with Tottori clan in the first place. Consequently, it is natural for Tottori clan to answer "Takeshima(Ulleungdo) and Matsushima(Liancourt Rocks) don't belong to Inaba nor Hohki ". KMI's streaching this as " was admitted they are Korean territory" is an unenlightened remarks by the person who are utterly ignorant of the historical distinguish Japanese feudality system from Joseon's commandery/district system in heavily-centralized nation.

Same goes to the distorting interpretation of 1877's Dajokan instruction, which the Cabinet said that "Takeshima and the other island has nothing to do with our country." Korean assumes this "other island" as today's Takeshima and made it as a basis for the claim that Japanese government decided Takeshima was not Japanese territory. Only because "The rough sketch of Isotakeshima (磯竹島略図)" which Shimane prefecture submitted to the government in 1876, described Isotakeshima(Ulleungdo) and Matsushima(Takeshima) and both islands are mentioned in the documents submitted, Korean declared Matsushima or "the other island"as today's Takeshima. (* to the left is a cutout from "The rough sketch of Isotakeshima (磯竹島略図)".)

However, the document/text criticism is indispensable for this 1977 Dajokan instruction as well , since the name of Takeshima and Matsushima were already conveyed to the West by means of Siebold's "Map of Japan" in 1840 and those two islands were wrongfully plotted in the western sea-charts and maps at that time. In Siebold's "Map of Japan", Argonaut, which later declined its existence, was depicted as Takeshima and Matsushima was Dagelet(Ulleungdo). This made maps and sea-charts that had been circulated in Japan depict Ulleungdo as Matsushima. In results, Matsushima, "the other island" in Dajokan instruction meant Ulleungdo(Dagelet), not today's Takeshima.

On the other hand, the existence of Liancourt Rock, which was renamed as "Takeshima" and incorporated into Shimane in 1905, was ascertained by Le Liancourt, the French whaling ship, in 1849. Accordingly, 1864 edition of British Royal Navy's Sea-chart described Liancourt Rocks(today's Takeshima) along with Takeshima(Argonaut) and Matsushima(Ulleungdo). Among those three islands, Takeshima(Argonaut), which couldn't be identified, disappeared from 1876 edition of British Navy Sea-chart, and since then, Matsushima(Ulleungdo) and Liancourt Rocks were described on the sea-charts. In results, the maps produced referring to the chart prior to 1876 version didn't describe today's Takeshima.

This fact leads the same conclusion that Matsushima(Dagelet island), "Takeshima the other island has nothing to do with Japan" in 1877 Dajokan instruction meant Ulleungdo(Dagelet), not today's Takeshima. This was officially confirmed by the Warship Amagi's surveillance on Ulleungdo. The Amagi confirmed not only Matsushima being Ulleungdo but also "Jukdo(竹嶼/ Korea's 竹島)" which locates 2km away from Ulleungdo. This surveillance record was adopted by Kitazawa Masanari, a MOFA employee, in his book "A Study of Takeshima (Takeshima Kosho:竹島考証) " and "A Study of the Territorial Sovereignty on Takeshima (Takeshima Hanto Shozoku Koh : 竹島版図所属考)". And this Japanese decision led 竹嶼/Jukdo written as 竹島/Jukdo in place of their current/old name of Usando(于山島) in Korea.

As has been seen, the Meiji government confirmed that "Matsushima" was in fact a Ulleungdo, not old Matsushma/today's Takeshima based on Kiatazawa's book "A Study of the Territorial Sovereignty on Takeshima (Takeshima Hanto Shozoku Koh : 竹島版図所属考)". On the other hand, KMI, ingoring this historical fact, distorted and got it into their head that Dajokan, the top policymaking group in Japan, said today's Takeshima was unrelated to Japanese territory,
The territorial issue of Japan-South Korea would never be solved as long as South Korea neglects the document criticism and moreover, in Korea, propaganda and the historical study are not distinguished. The South Korea's KMI made a wild and wrong guess, criticizing the homepage of Shimane Prefecture as " Strengthen the publicity of "Takeshima/Dokdo"only by advantageous historical resources", and it stems from their lack of ability of historical resources. Keeping cheating the international society as South Korea's repeating "Misinterpretation of historical materials" remarkably ruins the national interest of South Korea herself. What KMI should do is not to fabricate a groundless history nor to continue spreading the propaganda to criticize Japan, like they are doing up to now. What they are required to do is to demonstrate the validity of their claim, if Takeshima really was their territory, by the evidence of historical documentation.

“実事求是 〜日韓のトゲ、竹島問題を考える〜 第19回 文献が読めない韓国海洋水産開発院の島根県批判について 下條正男”

Courtesy of Web Takeshima Research Center.

The 24th column “South Korean Government dug their own grave by publishing the English version of "The Dokdo/Takeshima Controversy" by Prof. Emeritus Naito Seichu and Mr. Park Byeong-seop.”

The 23rd column " Refutation against the report of South Korean Yonhap News Agency which misread the Mori Kohan(森幸安)'s "The Map of Tsushima(對馬輿地図)"

The 22th column “ Refutation against "The Meiji Government's recognition of Takeshima=Dokdo" by Mr. Park Byeong-seop(朴炳渉)””, Part 1, Part 2, Part 3, Part 4

The 21st column " Refutation against "Analysis of Shimojo Masao's Editorials" by Mr. Park Byeong-seop(朴炳渉)”

The 20th column “Act of Folly by "Northeast Asian History Foundation"”

The 19th column “"Korea Maritime Institute(KMI : 韓国海洋水産開発院), who lacks ability to read their own historical documents, criticized on Shimane Prefecture. "”

The 18th columnAbsurd and Peculiar Theory of Prof. Hosaka, plus the "Children and textbook nationwide net 21" and others' Getting "Out of Control.”

The 17th column “The Ordinance of Prime Minister and Cabinet Office, No.24 and the Ordinance of the Ministry of Finance, No.4 in 1951(昭和26年).

The 16th column ""Dokdo Month" without any historical grounds."

The 15th column " South Korea's Groundless Claim of "Inherent Part of (Korean) Territory"

The 14th column “A reckless Courage of the Professor Kimishima Kazuhiko(君島和彦) of Tokyo Gakugei University(東京学芸大学).

The 13th column “Sins of Asahi Shimbun and Mr. Wakamiya Yoshibumi(若宮啓文).

The 12th column “Northeast Asian History Foundation and Dokdo Research Center's Misunderstanding”

The 11th column “South Korea's Misunderstanding of 'A Map of Three Adjoining Countries (Sangoku Setsujozu 三国接壌図)' by Hayashi Shihei(林子平)”

The 10th column " A Blunder of Sokdo(石島) = Dokto(独島) Theory

The 9th column "Criticism on Dokdo Research Center”

The 8th column “The Historical Facts" The 6th column “Onshu-shicho-goki (隠州視聴合記)" and the "Nihon Yochi Totei Zenzu (日本輿地路程全図)" by Nagakubo Sekisui(長久保赤水)"

The 5th column “South Korea’s erroneous interpretation of the document 'Takeshima and Another Island are Unrelated to Japan"

The 4th column “Errors in Educational Video Produced by the Northeast Asian History Foundation (東北アジア歴史財団)."

References :
Shimane Prefecture (Eng. Jap. & Kor.)
Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Eng.)
1696 - Ordinance Prohibiting Voyages to Takeshima (幕府 渡航禁制令)
1877 - Argument about "another island": details of the compiled official documents (公文禄) of the Ministry of the Interior (太政官指令)

Q1: Has Dokdo been a part of Korea since the sixth century?
Q 2: What is Ulleungdo's largest neighboring island?
Q 3: Why did old Korean maps show Ulleungdo as two islands?
Q 4: Did King Sejong's geography text mention Dokdo?
Q 5: Did Korea's 1530 "Sinjeung Dongguk Yeoji Seungram" mention Dokdo?

1656 - "Yojiji (輿地志)" by Ryu Hyung-won (柳馨遠) didn't say "Usan is so-called Japanese Matsushima."
1667 - Onshu Shicho Goki (隠州視聴合記)
1667 - "Onshu Shicho Goki(隠州視聴合記)" - The different translations
1905 - January 28th: the decision to incorporate Takeshima in to Shimane by a Cabinet meeting公文類集第29編 竹島編入閣議決定)
1881- Kitazawa Masanari(北澤正誠), a official of MOFA concluded that "Takeshima" is Jukdo in "A Study of Takeshima (Takeshima Kosho 竹島考証) "
1882 April 7 - King Kojong says Usando Neighboring Island of Ulleungdo
(高宗実録 19卷, 19年 4月 7日 壬戌)


Steve Barber & his "Academic" Site in Korean News

The Korea Herald has a new article on Steve Barber entitled, "Seeking to covey the truth about Dokdo."

In the article, Steve describes his Web site as "a forum through which Koreans may convey their messages about Dokdo to the world." However, Steve's site is not a "forum." Google Dictionary defines "forum" as follows:
A forum is a place, situation, or group in which people exchange ideas
and discuss issues, especially important public issues.
There is no discussion or exchange of ideas on Steve's site, and he does not seem interested in conveying truth. Steve's site has no discussion forums, which would give people an opportunity to refute his silly claims. It is just a Dokdo propaganda site operated by a man who used to go around to different Web sites promoting Korea's Dokdo claims using multiple, anonymous IDs until his identity was finally exposed.

Here is another quote from the article.

Some Japanese claim that he is taking side with Korea, his wife's homeland and that his arguments are largely biased, he said.

"I, however, see myself as an academically devoted person to this specific historical issue," he said.

If anyone is interested in seeing just how unbiased and academic Steve is, you can go read the posts on his site at the following address: http://www.dokdo-takeshima.com/


2009 June. 13 - Former Shimane Gov. Sumita Nobuyoshi (澄田 信義) passed away.

Former Shimane Gov. Sumita Nobuyoshi (澄田 信義) passed away yesterday.

According to the San-in Chuo Shinpo's artice, in 1957, he started working for former Japan National Railways after he graduated from Shimane's Izumo High and Department of Law at The University of Tokyo. He was in charge of division and privatization of the former Japan National Railways as a standing director after seving as a vice-chief of the Shinkansen bureau and the general manager of Wakayama prefectural police. He aimed at the early establishment of the dominium of Takeshima, and "Takeshima Day" was enacted in 05. At the same time, he was zealous about international exchanges, including a sister tie-up with South Korea's Gyeongsang Province (慶尚北道).

May his noble soul Rest in Peace.


Shimane touts 'Takeshima Day'(Japan Times) - March 17, 2005 (cache)
'Takeshima Day,' rhetoric just Shimane affair (Japan Times)- Feb. 23, 2006 (cache)

Exhibition on Nakai Yozaburo in Oki from 6/13 - 6/28

.A special exhibition on Nakai Yozaburo (中井養三郞) is being held at the Oki Island Cultural Center (隱岐島文化會館) from June 13 to June 28. Mr. Nakai was the man who petitioned the Japanese government in September 1904 to formally incorporate Liancourt Rocks (Takeshima / Dokdo). You can read his petition HERE.

Link to Japanese Announcement of the Exhibition

Some good photos of Liancourt Rocks (Takeshima 竹島 / Dokdo 獨島)

Photos of Liancourt Rocks

after 1945 - "Geography for Middle School(中等地理)" by the Association of Gyeongbuk Geographers(慶北地理學會) admits Dokdo is outside of the territory of Korea

"Geography for Middle School(中等地理)" is a textbook, published by a Korean company 以文社 in Daegu(大邱) city and probably handwritten and printed by some kind of mimeograph machine. We don't know when it was exactly printed, but it should be after 1945, the year Korea gained the Independence. The book also tells that the author is the Association of Gyeongbuk Geographers(慶北地理學會). 慶北 is the abbreviation for Gyeongsangbuk-do (North Gyeongsang Province:慶尚北道). Ulleung County(鬱陵郡), which Ulleungdo and "Dokdo" supposed to belong to, is in 慶北, and Geographer in 慶北 should have been well informed about geography of Ulleungdo.

  極東 東経一三〇度五六分●陵島東端
  極西 西経一二四度一一分(鴨緑江薪島西端)
  極南 北緯三三度六分(済洲島南端) 極北 北緯四三度(咸鏡北道北端)


Geography for Middle School
Joseon's quadrupolar, latitudes and longitudes
The Far East 130°56" east ( The eastern edge of Ulleungdo)
  The Far West 124°11" west (The western edge of Sindo,Yalu River)
  The Far South 33°6" (The southern edge of Jeju island) The Far North 43° north (North end of North Hamgyŏng)

As you may have noticed, the longitude of Takeshima/Liancourt Rocks/Dokdo is 131°52′0″E, and it completely outside of 130°56" E. In other words, from this documents it is crystal clear that Korean Geographers considered that "Dokdo" is not Ulleungdo's adjunct island at all, since it is Ulleungdo's neighbouring island of Jukdo(竹島), which locates 130°56" E, not Japanese Takeshima(竹島). This fact coincides with the description of famous Korean geographer and historian Choi Nam-seon(崔南善)'s book entitled, “Common Questions and Answers about Joseon(朝鮮常識問答)” (1946).

“Question: Where is our country located on a map?”

“Answer: The peninsula, itself, is located from an east longitude of 130 degrees, 41 minutes, 22 seconds to 124 degrees, 18 minutes, 35 seconds, and from a north latitude of 34 degrees, 14 minutes, 16 seconds to 43 degrees, 0 minutes, 36 seconds. If islands (large and small) are included, east longitude is from 130 degrees, 56 minutes, 23 seconds to 124 degrees, 11 minutes, 00 seconds, and north latitude is from 33 degrees, 6 minutes, 40 seconds to 43 degrees, 0 minutes, 36 seconds.”

Mr. Choi also wrote the following in his 1948 book "朝鮮常識":

“Question: Where are the farthest north, south, east, west boundaries of our country?”

“Answer: On the peninsula, the farthest eastern point is Noseo-myeon, in Gyeongheun County of North Hamgyeong Province. The farthermost western point is Yongcheon-myeon, in Yongcheon Country of North Pyeongan Province. The farthest southern point is Songji-myeon, in Haenam County of South Jeolla Province. The farthest northern point is Yupo-myeon, in Eunseong County of North Hamgyeong Province.”

“If islands are included, the fartest eastern point is Jukdo, in Ulleung County of North Gyeongsang Province. The farthest western point is Ma-an-ri, Sindo-myeon, in Yongcheon County of North Pyeongan Province. The farthest southern point is
Marado, Daejeong-myeon, in Jejudo of South Jeolla Province. The farthest northern point is Yupo-myeon, in Eunseong County of North Hamgyeong Province.”

Mr. Choi clearly wrote that Korea’s farthermost eastern point was “Jukdo, in Ulleung County of North Gyeongsang Province.” As can be seen on the modern map of Ulleungdo above, Jukdo is a small island about two kilometers off Ulleungdo’s east shore. (Images of Choi's books are from reprinted book.)

極東 東経一三〇度五六分二三秒
This 竹島 is not Japanese Takeshima/Liancourt Rocks/Dokdo, but Jukdo. When Japanese got confused the numbers, names and locations of the islands in the Sea of Japan due to the misplotted Western maps and old Korean maps which placed Usando to the west of Ulleungdo after the Meiji Restoration in 1867, the government of Japan sent Warship Amagi to survey Ulleungdo and "finally came to understand the situation when I (Kitazawa, a MOFA official ) learned that "Matsushima" (松島) was Ulleungdo, and the other island, which was called Takeshima (竹島), was just a rock (竹嶼 - Jukdo or Boussole Rock). " Then the islands was decided to call "竹嶼(Korean name 竹島:Jukdo)" by Japanese in 1882, and Korean followed Japanese and started to call this neighbouring island of 4km away from Ulleungdo, which they used to call Usando, as Jukdo(竹島). Korean considered the easternmost of Ulleungdo, which naturally makes the island Jukdo the easternmost of Korean territory. In spite of the confusion in 1860s-80s, Japanese officials knew "ホルネットロックス/ホウルリロック : Hornet Rocks " or "リャンコ島 : Liancourt Rocks", today's Japanese Takeshima, is Japan's while they never ever considered as Korean territory.

As we could see in the following references, there is no single document that suggests Korean government and intellectuals even perceived accurately where their "Dokdo" is nor had a clear conception that it was their territory before 1950s, when they militarily occupied the island illegaly against Japan's official firm protest.

The book is owned by the anonymous individual in Shimane. He/She gave me a permission to post it only after Takeshima Day in Feb.

References ;

Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Part 11 : 大韓全図(1899), 大韓新地誌(1907), 崔南善「朝鮮常識問答」(1946) 「朝鮮常識」(1948)
1900 - The Times Map (China and Japan, Printing House, London)It shows Ulleungdo = Korean , Liancourt Rocks = Japanese
1901 - "Daehanjiji" (大韓地誌) Map of Korea's Gangwon Province (玄采)
1906 - "Daehan Jiji" (大韓地誌) by Hyeon Chae (玄采)
1907 - "Chodeung Daehan Jiji" (初等大韓地誌)
1907 June - "Sinpyeon Daehan Jiri" (新編 大韓地理)
1907 - Daehan Shinjiji Attached Maps (大韓新地志附地圖)

1922 - "Map of Daehanminguk" (대한민국 디도) (大韓民国図)
1954 - Korean map didn't include Liancourt Rocks " Korea: Her History and Culture" Office of Public Information, Republic of Korea"
Korean Eastern limits described in various books world wide exclude Takeshima/Dokdo from Korean Territory
Sugino Yomei's blog page "★ハングルで書かれた「朝鮮の東端」" (Japanese)

DSC00093 DSC00092 1946 崔南善「朝鮮常識問答」「朝鮮常識」 復刻版 表紙


1954 Korean map didn't include Liancourt Rocks

This is a map made by the Office of Public Information, Republic of Korea. It included Ulleungdo (as ULLUNG DO) but not Dokdo (Liancourt Rocks).

This map was attached to an official book made by the Office of Public Information, "Korea: Her History and Culture", which was published in 1954.

This book was written in English to make world countries understand Korea's history and culture including how Korea endeavoured to gain independence from 'wicked' Japan. It fully explains how Yi Sun-shin fought against troops of Toyotomi Hideyoshi and how Queen Ming was assassinnated by Japanese. But it didn't refer to Dokdo or Liancourt Rocks at all.

I wonder why they didn't write about Dokdo if they really considered that it was robbed by 'wicked' Japan.

They mentioned islands which were discovered by Westerners;
"But it was in the middle of
the nineteenth century that the Wsterners came to Korea in considerable numbers.
In addtion to Catholic priests, quite a number of French, British and Russian
survey-ships and whalers cruised the waters surrounding the peninsula, and many
Korean islands, ports, and coastal towns became known to the West as were shown
on their marine charts. Mulshom island, for instance, was called "Boisee",
Kohmun island, "Port Hamilton," and Ulnung (sic), "Dagalet.(sic)" Cheju island
had previously been named "Quelpart" by the Dutch

Still, there is no mentioning of Dokdo or Liancourt Rocks.

The year 1954 was the year Korea's illegal occupation of Liancourt Rocks began.

Rhee Syngman drew the Syngman Line two years previously (1952) and they insisted that Liancourt Rocks belonged to Korea.

Then, why the book didn't mention Liancourt Rocks at all?

It maybe because they knew that they were not the right owner of Dokdo (Liancourt Rocks).
But the Korean propaganda "Dokdo is ours" began after then maybe in order to make Korean people believe the myth of Dokdo.......Thye told their people that "Dokdo is ours" but they couldn't say the same phrase to the outer world.

BTW, to follow is a map of Korea made by C.S. Hammond & Co. (New York). It was included in the "Military Maps of All Theaters of Operation" which was published in the 1950's. This map was made during almost the same period as the above book and map because this map included the Military Demarcation Line at 38 degree which was set on March 27th 1953. You may notice that there is no Dokdo (Liancourt Rocks) in tha map. The world knew that Dokdo (Liancourt Rocks) didn't belong to Korea in around 1954 when Korea occupied Dokdo illegally.