竹島問題の歴史

17.8.08

Q 5: Did Korea's 1530 "Sinjeung Dongguk Yeoji Seungram" mention Dokdo?

Answer: The Sinjeung Dongguk Yeoji Seungram (新增東國輿地勝覽) is a fifty-five volume set of geography books (25 books) published in Joseon Korea in 1530. They were a revised edition of a 50-volume set called the Dongguk Yeoji Seungram (東國輿地勝覽), which were completed in 1481. The books described the different administrative regions of Joseon Korea, including their geography, history, customs, government offices, temples, shrines, fortresses, local products, and places of scenic interest.

The books also included a map of Joseon's eight provinces called the "Paldo Chongdo" (八道總圖), which means "Complete Map of the Eight Provinces." There were also maps of each of the individual provinces for a total of nine maps. Together these maps were referred to as the "Dongram-do" (東覽圖 - Maps of the Dongram). The above map is the "Paldo Chongdo."

Evidence for Korea's Claim on Dokdo?

The Sinjeung Dongguk Yeoji Seungram and its attached maps are supposed to be some of Korea's most important evidence supporting their territorial claim on Dokdo (Liancourt Rocks) because Koreans say that not only do the books mention an island near Ulleungdo (鬱陵島 - 울릉도) called "Usando" (于山島 - 우산도), which Koreans claim was the old Korean name for Dokdo, but two of the maps in the geography books show Usando as Korean territory. However, the problem with the Korean claim is that there is no evidence that Usando was Dokdo. In fact the map Koreans claim to be one of their most important pieces of supporting evidence for their claim on Dokdo (Liancourt Rocks) shows Usando (于山島) as an island due west of Ulleungdo (鬱陵島), but Dokdo is ninety-two kilometers to the southeast.

Second, the text described Usando and Ulleungdo as being neighboring islands visible from the east coast village of Uljin, but Liancourt Rocks is about 215 kilometers east of Uljin, which is much too far away for them to be visible.
Usando to the West of Ulleungdo?

Why did the 1530 map show Usando (于山島) due west of Ulleungdo, when, in fact, there are no islands off Ulleungdo's west shore? The answer is that in 1530 the name "Usando" was thought to be the name for the main island of Ulleungdo while the name "Ulleungdo" was being used to refer to Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo (竹島), which is about two kilometers off Ulleungdo's east shore. This confusion started in 1412, when a group of people from an island named "Yusanguk-do" (流山國島 - 유산국도) sailed into a harbor on Korea's east coast and told officials there that their island had a smaller neighboring island called "Muleungdo" (武陵島). They actually referred to "Yusanguk-do" as the "main island" (本島), which meant that Muleungdo was the smaller neighboring island. (See HERE.)
Yusanguk-do was a misspelling of "Usanguk-do" (于山國島), which means the "island of Usanguk." The old name for Ulleungdo during the time of the Silla Kingdom was "Usanguk." Also, the name "Muleungdo" was a misspelling of the name "Ulleungdo," so the 1530 map above was actually showing the main island of Ulleungdo labeled as "Usando" (于山島) and its neighboring island to the east labeled as "Ulleungdo" (鬱陵島).

Visible from the East Coast of Korea

As mentioned above, the islands of Usando/Ulleungdo (于山島 鬱陵島) were described in the 1530 geography text as being visible from the east coast of Korea. The actual description, which follows, was in a section of the book describing the east coast village of Uljin (蔚珍 - 울진):

于山島 鬱陵島 一云武陵 一云羽陵 二島在縣正東海中 三峯岌嶪撑空 南峯稍卑 風日淸明則峯頭樹木 及山根沙渚 歷歷可見 風便則二日可到 一說于山鬱陵 本一島 地方百里

Usando/Ulleungdo are also called Muleung (武陵) or Uleung 羽陵). The two islands are in the sea due east of this village (Uljin). Three peaks reach high into the sky. The southern peak gets gradually smaller. On clear, windy days, the trees on the summits and the sandy beaches at the base of the mountains are clearly visible. With a fair wind, they can be reached in two days. It is said that Usan/Ulleung were originally one island. They have an area of 100 ri.

Notice that the above passage described the location of the two islands by giving their bearing and distance. The bearing was given as being "due east of this village (Uljin)," and the distance was described as being close enough to be seen "on clear, windy days." The photo to the right shows that Ulleungdo is visible from a peak overlooking the Korean east coast city of Donghae (東海 - 동해), which also appears on the above map.

Koreans claim that the distance in the above passage was not describing the distance between Uljin and Ulleungdo, but was describing the distance between Ulleungdo and Usando, which Koreans claim was Dokdo (Liancourt Rocks). However, that claim does not make sense since the bearing was clearly given as being from Uljin to the two islands, which means that the distance would have only been referring to the distance between Uljin and the two islands. Moreover, it was mentioned that trees were visible, but Liancourt Rocks (Dokdo) is just barren rocks with no trees, which eliminates any possibility that it could have been referring to Liancourt Rocks.

Notice also that the text said that Usan/Ulleung was once thought to be one island, which means that there was no knowledge of Ulleungdo's neighboring island at one time in the past. Also, only one area was given, which suggests that the two islands were just a main island with a small neighboring island. In fact, that would describe Ulleungdo and its small neighboring island of Jukdo (竹島 - 죽도), which is about two kilometers off Ulleungdo's east shore.

Full Text Description of Usando/Ulleungdo

于山島 鬱陵島 一云武陵 一云羽陵 二島在縣正東海中 三峯岌嶪撑空 南峯稍卑 風日淸明則峯頭樹木 及山根沙渚 歷歷可見 風便則二日可到 一說于山鬱陵 本一島 地方百里 新羅時 恃險不服 智證王十二年 異斯夫爲何瑟羅州軍主 謂于山國人愚悍 難以威服可以計服 乃多以木造獅子 分載戰艦 抵其國誑之曰 汝若不服 則卽放此獸踏殺之 國人恐懼來降 高麗太祖十三年 其島人 使白吉土豆 獻方物 毅宗十三年 王聞鬱陵地廣土肥可以居民 遣溟州道監倉金柔立往視 柔立回奏云 島中有大山 從山頂向東行至海一萬餘步 向西行一萬三千餘步 向南行一萬五千餘步 向北行八千餘步 有村落基址七所 或有石佛鐵鍾石塔多生柴胡藁本石南草 後崔忠獻獻議 以武陵土壤膏沃 多珍木海錯 遣使往觀之 有屋基破礎宛然 不知何代人居也 於是移東郡民以實之 及使還多以珍木海錯進之 後屢爲風濤所蕩覆舟 人多物故 因還其居民 本朝太宗時 聞流民逃其島者甚多 再命三陟人金麟雨 爲按撫使 刷出空其地 麟雨言土地沃饒 竹大如杠 鼠大如猫 桃核大於升 凡物稱是世宗二十年 遣縣人萬戶南顥 卒數百人 往搜逋民盡俘 金丸等七十餘人而還 其地遂空 成宗二年 有告別有三峯島者 乃遣朴宗元往覓之 因風濤不得泊而還 同行一船泊鬱陵島只取大竹大鰒魚 回啓云 島中無居民矣.

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우산도 울릉도 무릉, 우릉이라고도 한다. 두 섬은 (울진)현 동쪽 바다 가운데 있다. 세봉우리가 높이 솟아 하늘에 닿았는데, 남쪽으로 갈수록 점점 낮아진다. 날씨가 맑으면 봉우리 꼭대기 나무와 산 아래 모래들을 역력히 볼 수 있다. 바람이 좋으면 이틀이면 가히 닿을 수 있다. 일설에 우산과 울릉은 본래 한 섬이라고 한다. 둘레가 백리이며

신라 때 (지세가) 험함을 믿고 복종하지 않으니 지증왕 12년(511, 13년의 오기) 이사부가 하슬라주(명주-강릉지역) 군주(軍主)가 되어 이르기를, "우산국 사람들은 어리석고 사나와서 위세로는 복종시키기 어려우니, 가히 계교로써 하리라." 하였다. 이에 나무로 사자를 많이 만들어 전선(戰船)에 나누어 싣고, 그 나라에 가서 속여 말하기를, “너희들이 만약 항복하지 않으면, 이 짐승들을 풀어서 밟아 죽이게 하겠다” 하니 그 나라 사람들이 두려워하여 항복하였다.

고려 태조 13년(930) 그 섬사람들이 백길 토두로 하여금 방물을 바치게 하였다. 의종 13년(1159, 고려사에는 11년) 왕이 울릉도가 땅이 넓고 비옥하여 가히 백성들을 거주하게 할 수 있다는 말을 듣고 명주도 감창사 김유립을 보내어 보고 오게 하였는데, 유립이 돌아와서 아뢰기를 “섬 가운데 큰 산이 있는데 산꼭대기를 따라 동쪽을 향해 나아가면 바다에 닫는데 1만여보, 서쪽을 향해 나아가면 1만 3천여보, 남쪽을 향해 나아가면 1만 5천여보, 북쪽을 향해 나아가면 8천여보가 됩니다. 촌락의 옛터가 7곳이 있는데 간혹 석불, 철종, 석탑이 있으며, 멧미나리(柴胡), 고본(藁本, 실록에는 호본(蒿本)), 석남초(石南草)가 많이 납니다.” 하였다.

후에 최충헌(고려사에는 최이)이 무릉도의 토양이 기름지고, 좋은 재목과 해산물이 많다는 말을 듣고 관리를 파견하여 보고 오게 하였더니 부서진 집터가 완연하였고, 언제 사람이 살았는지 짐작할 수 없었다. 이때 동쪽 군현의 백성들을 이주시켜 섬을 채우니, 많은 좋은 재목과 해산물을 거두어들이기에 이르렀다. 후에 누차에 걸쳐 바람과 파도에 배가 뒤집혀져 많은 사람들이 죽게 되었으므로, 그 거주민들을 (육지로) 귀환 시켰다.

우리 나라(조선) 태종 때 유민들이 그 섬에 도망가는 자 심히 많다는 말을 듣고, 삼척인 김인우를 안무사로 거듭 임명하여 (유민들을 육지로) 데려 오게 하고 그 땅을 비웠다. 인우가 말하기를 "땅이 비옥하고 대나무의 크기가 기둥 같으며, 쥐는 크기가 고양이 같고, 복숭아씨가 되(升)처럼 큰데, 모든 물건이 이와 같다." 하였다.

세종 20년(1438) (울진)현인 만호 남호(南顥, 실록에는 남회(南會))가 군사 수백을 이끌고 가 거주민들을 모두 붙잡으니 김환(金丸) 등 70여인이 귀환하였으며 그 땅이 마침내 비었다.

성종 2년(1471) 별도로 삼봉도가 있다고 아뢰는 자가 있어 이에 박종원(朴宗元)을 파견하여 살펴보게 하였다. 바람과 파도로 정박하지 못하고 귀환하였는데, 동행한 한척은 울릉도에 정박하여 단지 큰 대나무와 전복을 취하였을 뿐이며, 돌아와 보고하기를 “섬 가운데에는 거주민이 없습니다”라고 하였다.
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Usando, Ulleungdo are also called Muleung (武陵) and Uleung 羽陵). The two islands are in the sea due east of this village (Uljin). Three peaks reach high into the sky. The southern peak gets gradually smaller. On clear, windy days, the trees on the summits and the sandy beaches at the base of the mountains are clearly visible. With a fair wind, they can be reached in two days. It is said that Usan/Ulleung were originally one island. They have an area of 100 ri.

During the time of Silla, the land was believed to be too rugged to subjugate, but during the twelfth year of King Jijeung [512 A.D.] Isabu became the commander of Hasula-ju and said, “The people of Usan are ignorant and savage and would be difficult to subjugate with strength, but we can use cunning.” Then, he made many wooden lions and loaded them onto their warships and then went to the country and deceitfully said, “If you do not surrender, I will release these animals and you will be trampled to death. The country’s people were very scared and surrendered.

In the thirteenth year of Goryeo’s Taejo (930 A.D.), the emissaries of the island (Ulleungdo), Baek Gil and To Du to, paid tribute to the king. In the thirteenth year of Wui Jong (1159 A.D.), the king heard that the land of Ulleung was wide and fertile and that people could like there, so he sent Myeongju-do Gamchang Kim Yu-rip there to see. Yu-rip returned and reported:

“There was a big mountain in the middle of the island. Following the mountain peaks we traveled about 10,000 paces east to the sea. To the west, it was about 13,000 paces. To the south, it was about 15,000 pace. And to the north, it was about 8,000 paces. There were remains of seven villages on the island. There was also a stone Buddha, an iron bell, and a stone pagoda. There was lots of siho (柴胡 - Bupleurum falcatum L.), Chinese lovage root (藁本), and heather (石楠草) growing on the island.”

Later, Choi Chung-heon said that the soil of Muleungdo was fertile, and there were many precious trees and sea products, so the king sent an official to see. The official reported that there were obvious ruins of houses, but he could not guess when people had lived there. Then he said that if people from eastern villages were moved to settle the island, they could gather the precious wood and sea products. Later, the strong wind and waves caused boats to capsize time and again, killing many people, so the settlers were brought back.

During the time of Taejong, in this dynasty, hearing that a great many displaced people ran away to the island, the king appointed Samcheok resident Kim In-u as anmusa to evict them and leave the island empty. In-u said, “The land is fertile and the bamboo is as big as pillars. The rats are as big as cats, and the peach seeds are as big as a doi. All of its products are like that.

In the twentieth year of Sejong (1438), Commander Nam Ho (南顥), an Uljin resident, led 100 soldiers to go and capture all the runaways. He returned with more than seventy people, including Kim Hwan (金丸). The island was finally empty.

In the second year of Seongjong (1471), there was a person who reported there was also an island called Sambongdo (三峯島), so Bak Jong-won (朴宗元) was sent to investigate. The wind and the waves prevented him from reaching the island and anchoring, so he returned. One of the ships in his group anchored at Ulleungdo and only brought back some big bamboo and big abalone. They returned and reported, “There is no one living on the island.”

As you can see from the above, the 1530 Sinjeung Dongguk Yeoji Seungram (新增東國輿地勝覽) does not support Korea's claim on Dokdo (Liancourt Rocks).

16 comments:

  1. Gerry,

    Thanks, it's a great posting.

    BTW, what do you think about the simulated picture of Ulleungdo by GTOMR?

    The island should be viewed more vaguely on naked eyes, and the island has some protrusions and irregular coast line with three peak mountains, so it may have looked as plural islands being piled up to some people in those days without telescopes. I think GTOMR's theory is somewhat persuasive.

    I want to hear your opinion. If it is likely, the inconsistency in the map of Paldo Chongdo is understandable. And if it was the case, it would be another proof that the Dongguk Yeoji Seungram didn't refer to Liancourt Rocks.

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  2. "Paldo Chongdo" (八道總道)→ 八道總"圖"?

    ReplyDelete
  3. Thank you for the correction, Kaneganese.

    Thanks, Pacifist.

    I do not think the Koreans imagined seeing two islands from Korea's east coast. I think they just thought of Usando and Ulleungdo as a twin-island group, just as THIS KOREAN MAP shows.

    As I explained HERE, Koreans during that time seemed to view "Usando" (于山島) as the "main island" and "Ulleungdo" (鬱陵島) as its neighboring island, which would explain the 1530 map and others that showed Usando to the west of Ulleungdo.

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  4. gerry,

    is that propaganda what you`re doing?

    You know of the new maps which show Dokdo far southeast of Ulleung-Do.

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  5. Helpfish,

    Yes, Korea's modern maps show Dokdo, but Korea's old maps did not, which is the point I have been trying to make. Korean maps did not start showing Dokdo until sometime around the 1950s.

    Is it propaganda to post old Korean maps and documents with translations? If you find any mistakes in my translation, please let me know.

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  6. I was talking about this ancient map.

    http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/special/2008/08/251_28767.html

    obviously you are ignoring and completely denyingg it.

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  7. helpfish,

    Sorry for interrupting, Gerry will give you a proper answer but if someone thinks this eel like island the same as the two rock isltes, it's a laugh.

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  8. pacifist,

    the maps proves that Usando is far away south east of Ulleung-Do.

    That means that Usando has to be Dokdo.

    ReplyDelete
  9. laughable are japs who claim their 1905 incorporation as legal.

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  10. helpfish, you are joking, aren't you.

    What we can tell from the deformed map you showed is that Korea had no precise knowledge as to where various islands were located. That's it.

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  11. This comment has been removed by the author.

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  12. 一、海島。在本邑某方。水路幾里。自陸地。去本邑幾里。四面周囘相距幾里。田沓幾結。民家有無。

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  13. Anyone know about Ulluengdo inspection order to the Ganwondo governor on 1511?

    (Ulluengod folk museum blosure)

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  14. Gerry Bevers wrote :

    "Koreans claim that the distance in the above passage was not describing the distance between Uljin and Ulleungdo, but was describing the distance between Ulleungdo and Usando, which Koreans claim was Dokdo (Liancourt Rocks)."

    I wonder which source his claim was based on. Koreans don’t claim that the distance in the Korean document "Sinjeung Dongguk Yeoji Seungram (新增東國輿地勝覽)" of 1530 was describing the distance between Ulleungdo and Usando. If there are some Koreans who claim so, they are totally wrong.


    The distance described in "Sinjeung Dongguk Yeoji Seungram" is obviously between Uljin and Ulleongdo. On the other hand, the distance in the passage of "Annals of King Sejong" which published in 1454 is between Ulleongdo and Dokdo. "Annals of King Sejong" described the two islands of Usan and Muleung(Ulleongdo) were not far from each other and visible from each other on a clear windy day. There’s no doubt Usan refers to Dokdo. Dokdo is th only island visible from Ulleongdo on a clear windy day.

    Ulleongdo and are visible each other on a clear windy day.

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  15. (Continued)

    Gerry Bevers also wrote:

    "...in 1530 the name the name "Usando" was thought to be the name for the main island of Ulleungdo while thename "Ulleungdo" was being used to refer to Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo, which is about two kilometers off Ulleungdo's east shore.”

    He claims Usando and Ulleongdo were the names being used to call Ulleongdo and Jukdo respectively in 1530, thus Usando can’t be Dokdo in "Annals of King Sejong".

    He used Korean document "Annals of King Taejong" (太宗實錄)” of 1412as an evidence for his claim. However, "Annals of King Taejong" doesn’t support his claim at all.

    "Annals of King Taejong" recorded "We (=12 families) were born and raised on Muleungdo and there are 11 houses and a total of more than sixty men and women, but now we have moved to the main island and are living there."

    Gerry Bevers’ assertion is that main island in "Annals of King Taejong" indicates Ulleongdo, then Muleungdo is Jukdo. Therefore, Muleungdo in "Annals of King Sejong" is also Jukdo, not Ulleongdo. However, the description of Muleungdo in "Annals of King Taejong" that people were born and lived doesn’t fit Jukdo. It was impossible for people to live on Jukdo at the time. In other words, Muleungdo in the text of "Annals of King Taejong" and also in text of "Annals of King Sejong" can’t be Jukdo. Muleungdo in "Annals of King Sejong" is definitely Ulleongdo as "The history of Koryo(高麗史)" of 1451 recorded and Usando is Dokdo which is visible from Ulleongdo on a fine windy day as "Annals of King Sejong" described.

    "The history of Koryo(高麗史)" recorded:

    "There’s Ulleongdo. It is in the middle of the sea due east of (Uljin) Hyeon. It was called as Usan Country during the period of Shilla Dynasty. It was called called Muleung or Uleung. (有鬱陵島 在縣正東海中 新羅時稱于山國 一云武陵 一云羽陵.)"

    Gerry Bevers’ claim Usando and Ulleongdo in the map "Paldo-Chongdo" are Ulleongdo and Jukdo respectively is deadly wrong.

    ReplyDelete