竹島問題の歴史

2.7.08

1855 French map of Korea (Coree)


This map was published in 1855 in Paris. This may have been made on the basis of information in 1846 as the credit says "d'Apres l'Original dressee par Andre Kim en 1846 et apportee" but anyway, it was made in the mid-19th century. There are two islands off Samtsek which were labeled as "Oulangto" (Ulleungdo) and "Ousan" (Usan). Although it didn't show longitudinal lines, the location of Oulangto (Ulleungdo) seems to be almost the same as the eastern edge of "Taimato" (Tsushima) which is located at 129 degree E - more western than true Ulleungdo is located.

By the way, Dagelet island (Ulleungdo) had been already discovered when this map was made - it was discovered by a French ship in 1787. Liancourt Rocks was yet to be discovered (if the information was given in 1846 - three years earlier than 1849 when Liancourt Rocks were discovered), but the rocks were discovered 6 years earlier than the publicartion year . So if the French mapmaker knew that "Oulangto" was Dagelet island, they should have written as "Oulangto (Dagelet Isl)" but they didn't. It seems that they thought these two islands off Korean east coast were different from Dagelet island. If these two islands were believed to be closer to Korean peninsula than Dagelet island, "Ousan" was not Liancourt Rocks as the latter were located at more eastern position than Dagelet island. And the shape of the island is different from Liancourt Rocks. This may have been another evidence to prove that Usan (Ousan) was not Liancourt Rocks.


Addendum: Please see also the map (1880) Gerry introduced here:

It says that the map in the 1880 was based on Father Kim Degeon's Carte de la Corée of 1846. (Is this 金大建's 朝鮮全圖, 1846?) I haven't a slightest idea if Father Kim Degeon and Andre Kim was the same person or not. The map in 1880 looks more accurate - it depicted Ulleungdo as "Oul-neung-to (Is. Dagelet)" and the shape of "Ou-san" looks like today's Jukdo. It seems to me that mapmakers noticed that Ulleungdo was Dagelet island in the period between 1855 and 1880.

Additional post:
I found the Carta de la Coree (1846) here - it looks almost the same as the 1855 map (above).

Carta de la Coree (1846):


And in 1865, the map was much improved. It looks more accurate than the 1855 map. Note that they labeled as "I. Dagelet" which is inclusive of both Ulleungdo and Usan (Ousan).

4 comments:

  1. Thank you, for an interesting map, and the analysis is very interesting.

    "So if the French mapmaker knew that "Oulangto" was Dagelet island, they should have written as "Oulangto (Dagelet Isl)" but they didn't. It seems that they thought these two islands off Korean east coast were different from Dagelet island."

    I think this is because it's simply a copy of Korean old maps. But importantly, later, French maps of Korea started to describe both "Oul-leng-to (Ulleundo)" and "Ou-san(Usan)" consist one "Dagelet Island".

    1874 - "Histoire de L'Eglise de Corée" by Claude Charles Dallet
    http://dokdo-or-takeshima.blogspot.com/2008/05/1874-histoire-de-leglise-de-core-by.html

    1880 - R. Hausermann's Map of Korea "Corée" (Tyo Syen)
    http://dokdo-or-takeshima.blogspot.com/2008/05/1880-r-hausermanns-map-of-korea.html

    The transition of those French maps suggests that French identified "Oulangto" (Ulleungdo) and "Ousan" (Usan) in Korean old maps as actually Daglett island, which means French also recognized Usan in Korean old maps are Jukdo, a neighbouring island of Ulleungdo, not Takeshima/Liancourt Rocks just like us.

    As for Kim Degeon or Andre Kim, is it possible he is same person with "Kim Tayken, Korea's first Catholic priest, who studied and was ordained in China. "?

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  2. Thank you Kaneganese for your nice comment. I agree with you, this map may have been made after tracing old Korean maps and they may have improved the maps adding new information after this one.

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  3. Kaneganese,

    I found the map Carta de la Coree and added it to the post. Please take a look.

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  4. Wow! Good job, pacifist

    We can see the history and transition of French maps of Ulleungdo. French information on Korea around those years is extremely important, since only French missionary were allowed to stay in Korea except for Chinese and Japanese officials.

    Could you please make posts for each maps? I think each of three maps deserve it. (You don't have to delete what you have written in this posts, though. It is also important to show the transition.)

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