(Please look at the item (14) of the above posting.)
于山武陵二島在縣正東海中二島相去不遠 風日淸明則可望見Korea uses the above passage to claim that Usan was "Dokdo" (Liancourt Rocks), and that the distance being talked about was the distance between Dokdo and Ulleungdo ("Muleung" was an alternate spelling for Ulleungdo), but Japan claims that the distance was a referrence to the distance between Uljin-hyeon and the two islands. The map below, which shows the two islands as just neighboring islands, supports the Japanese claim.
The two islands of Usan (于山) and Muleung (武陵) are in the sea due east of this hyeon. The distance to the two islands is close enough that they can be seen on a clear day when the wind is blowing.
1861 Map of Ulleungdo (Click on the map for a much larger picture)
Ulleungdo is in the sea due east of this “hyeon” (縣) and is the old Usan 우산 (于山). Other names are Muleung (武陵 - 무릉), Uleung (羽陵 - 우릉), and Uleung (芋陵 - 우릉). It has a circumference of about 200 ri, and the distance from east to west is about seventy ri, while the distance from north to south is about fifty ri. Three dangerously high peaks tower above the island and are pure rock. If you climb up to a high place on a clear day and look into the distance, it [Ulleungdo] looks like a shimmering cloud. With a fair wind, it can be reached in two days. The Japanese call it Takeshima (竹島 - 죽도) and it is close to Japan’s Oki district. Japanese boats occassionally come to fish (倭舡漁探者時到).
From the central peak, it is about thirty ri to the shore due east, forty ri due west, twenty ri due south, and twenty ri due north. The are six to seven streams, five to six bamboo forests, and dozens of [old] dwelling sites (居址). There is Jeojeon-dong (楮田洞), Gong-am (孔巖 – "Hole Rock"), Jutogul (朱土窟 – "Red Earth Cave"), “seokjang” (石葬 – stone-piled graves), old boat houses (古址船泊處), and “places to wait for fair wind” (待風所). On the south side of the island are four or five small islands. The center of the island is all deep valleys with streams and rock cliffs. There are many cats and rats that are so big they are unrecognizable. [狙 means “monkey,” but it was probably supposed to be 猫 (cat).] There are also runaways (避人). There are peaches, plums, mulberry, edible herbs, rare trees, and many strange, unknown plants.
Also called Usan (于山), Ulleungdo has an area of 100 ri and is in the middle of the sea east of Uljin (蔚珎).
Ulleung (鬱陵) or Uleung (羽陵) is in the middle of the sea and is made up three mountain peaks that are tall and steep. Among them the southern peak is the smallest by a small bit. When the sea is clear, you can see the dense trees and all the white beaches below the mountains. They say that if you have a fair wind, you can travel there in one day.
Also called Usan (于山), Ulleungdo has an area of 100 ri and is in the middle of the sea east of Uljin (蔚珎).
In the 13th year of Koryo's Taejo (930 A.D.), Usanguk (于山國) envoy Baek Gil To (白吉圡) brought tribute of the local products. [The "History of Koryo" (高麗史) says that two people came from Usanguk, Baek Gil (白吉) and To Du (土豆), so it is likely that the 豆 character was omitted in error.]
In the 13th year of Eujong (1159 A.D.), it was said that Ulleungdo land was fertile and grains grew well, so Myeongju-do (溟州道) grain storehouse supervisor (監倉使) Kim Yu-rip (金柔立) was sent there to investigate. He returned and reported that the island had a large mountain at its center and that it was about 10,000 paces from its peak to the eastern shore, about 15,000 to the southern shore, and about 8,000 to the northern shore. On the east and north sides, there were remains of villages that total in the dozens. The were a few stones Buddhas, stone pagodas, and a metal bell. There were lots of Chinese hare's ear (柴胡), Angelica tenuisima Nakai (藁本), and moorwort (石南草).
Later, Choi Chung-heon proposed that people from Donggun (東郡) move there, but when he attempted to carry out his plan, the sea conditions were bad, a boat sank, and people died, so he had the people return. During the time of Joseon's Taejong (太宗), when displaced people went to live on the island, Anmusa Kim In-u (安撫使 金麟雨) was sent to search them out. He brought back about forty families. When Kim In-u returned, he said that bamboo on the island was as big as a flagpole, rats were as big as cats, and peaches were as big as a gourd bowl. In the 20th year of Sejong (1438), Commander Namho (南灝) was sent again to capture about seventy people who had run away to the island, including Kim Gu-saeng (金九生). All the people living on the island were removed and their leaders were killed.
Kim In-u (金麟雨) was from Samcheok (三陟). His decendents are now government officials and many live in the administrative distict (府中). Kim In-u was originally a soldier under Nameum (南誾), but he distinguished himself as a soldier and was made commander of Anin-po (安仁浦 - Port Anin) and Panjanggi Hyeunsa (判長鬐縣事). During the time of Taejong (太宗), he became an anmusa (安撫使).
울릉(鬱陵)은 혹 우릉(羽陵)이라고 하는데 바다 가운데에 세 산봉우리로 이루어져 있으며 높고 험준하다. 그 중 남쪽 봉우리는 조금 낮다. 바다가 맑게 게이면 나무가 우거져 무성한 것을 바라볼 수 있고, 산 아래는 모두 흰모래이다. 바람이 수조로우면 하루만에 건너 갈 수 있다고 한다.
혹 우산(于山)이라고도 하는 울릉도는 길이가 사방 100리로 울진 동쪽 바다 가운데에 있다.
고려 태조 13년(930)에 우산국(于山國) 사신(使臣) 백길, 토두가 그 지방의 토산물을 바쳤다.
의종 13년(1159)에 울릉도는 토지가 기름져 곡식이 잘 됨으로 백성을 살게 할 수 있다고 하여 명주도(溟州道) 감창사(監倉使) 김유립으로 하여금 가서 살펴보도록 하였다. 그가 돌아와서 아뢰기를 섬 가운데에 큰산이 있는데 산 정상에서 동쪽 해안까지는 만여 보(步)이고 남쪽 해안까지는 만 오천여 보, 북쪽 해안까지는 팔천여 보이며, 동쪽과 북쪽에는 모두 옛 촌락 터가 있는데 합하여 수 십여 곳이나 되고 가끔은 석불(石佛), 석탑(石塔), 철종(鐵鍾) 등도 있으며 시로(柴胡), 고본(藳本), 석남초(石南草) 등이 많다고 하였다.
그 후에 최충헌이 동군(東郡)의 백성을 이주시킬 것을 제의하여 이를 실행에 옮겼지만 보다 사정이 나빠 배가 표몰(漂沒)하여 사람들이 죽었으므로 그 백성을 되돌아오게 하였다. 조선 태종 때에 유민(流民)들이 많이 해도(海島)에 들어 가 살게 되자. 안무사(安撫使) 김인우를 보내어 40여 호를 찾아서 데리고 돌아 왔다. 이때 김인후가 돌아 와 말하기를 섬 안의 대나무는 크기가 깃대와 같고, 쥐는 크기가 고양이와 같고, 복숭아 열매는 크기가 됫박과 같다고 하였다. 세종 20년(1438)에 또 다시 만호(萬戶) 남호를 보내어 도망간 백성 기구생 등 70여 인을 사로잡아 울릉도에 사는 사람이 없도록 하고 도망을 주도한 자는 죽였다.
김인후는 삼척인이다. 지금 그의 자손들은 이족(吏族)이 되었는데 부중에 많이 산다. 김인후는 처음 남은 휘하의 군사였는데 군공을 세워 안인포(安仁浦) 만호(萬戶)와 판장기현사(判長鬐縣事)가 되었고 태종대에 안무사(安撫使)가 되었다.
The following is a June 3, 1794 record of Wolsong Commander Han Chang-guk's (韓昌國) 1794 inspection of Ulleungdo, as record in the Annals of King Jeongjo (正祖實錄).
The record is interesting for a couple of reasons. One reason is that it mentions a place called "Gajido" (可支島 - Sea Lion Island). Korea claims that Gajido was an old Korean name for "Dokdo" (Liancourt Rocks), but has no documents or maps to back up that claim. In fact, the Gajido in this report could not have been Liancourt Rocks since right after mentioning Gajido, the report said the inspection team traveled ten ri (4 kilometers) up a valley from the beach. There are no such valleys on Liancourts Rocks. In fact, the largest of the two islets that make up Liancourt Rocks is only about 300 meters long on average. Also, since Gajido was mentioned in this survey report of Ulleungdo, it seems almost certain that it was just a neighboring islet or rock of Ulleungdo, not Liancourt Rocks.
There is a rock off the southern tip of Ulleungdo today that is called "Gajae Bawui" (Sea Lion Rock), so it is possible that was the Gajido referred to in the report, but it is also possible that Gajido was off the north shore of Ulleungdo since after surveying the Gajido area they went to other areas on the northern shore. Still, it is unclear which of Ulleungdo's neighboring islets was Gajido, but it almost certainly was not "Dokdo" (Liancourt Rocks).
The other thing that is interesting about the report is that it mentions three other islands: "Bangpaedo" (防牌島), "Jukdo" (竹島), and "Ongdo" (瓮島). Bangpaedo was described as being to the north of Jeojeon-dong 楮田洞), Ongdo to the east, and Jukdo in the middle. It is not really clear where these three islands were because they were described as being within 100 paces of each other; however, there is an island about 2.2 kilometers off Ulleungdo's east shore called "Jukdo," and there is evidence that Ulleungdo's Gwaneumdo (觀音島) was once called "Bangpaedo" (防牌島). "Ongdo" (瓮島) is never mentioned in any other Ulleungdo inspection reports, so its location is unknown. By the way, the pure Korean word for "Ongdo" (瓮島) is "Dokseom," which means "Pot Island."
Gangwondo Governor Sim jin-hyeon Reports to the King
Since it is the practice to alternately designate a commander to inspect Ulleungdo once every two years, I have assigned Wolsong Commander (越松萬戶) Han Chang-guk (韓昌國) as the inspector. According to the Wolsong commander's written report, “On April 21st, we fortunately got a favorable wind, so we divided up and loaded food and provisions among four ships and set sail on the same day at between 1 and 3 p.m. (未時) with Japanese Interpreter Lee Bok-sang (李福祥) and eighty men under my command, including various ranks of civil servants and assistants.”
“In the middle of the sea, at between 5 and 7 p.m., we got a sudden wind from the north and heavy fog rolled in from all directions. We got rain and lightning. The four started out together were scattered, and we did not know which direction we were headed. The commander regained his wits, put on his military uniform, prayed to the sea god, and scattered food in the water to feed him. Then he ordered the sailors to hold up torches and call out to the other ships. Two ships held up torches and answered the call, but there was no sign of firelight from one ship.”
“Between 3 and 5 a.m. on the 22nd, the violent waves gradually lessened, and we could see the sails of two ships in the distance coming south. Then the assistants pointing toward the east said, 'That thing over there in the fog that looks like a threatening cloud is probably one of the island's high peaks.' When the commander looked carefully, it was, indeed, the shape of an island.”
“The commander, himself, beat the drum and urged the sailors on. We soon anchored at the Hwangto-gumi landing (黃土丘尾津) and went up the mountain to look around. It was about thirty ri from the valley to the central peak over a series of overlapping ridges. The waters from the valley came together to form a stream, and inside (the valley) is land for about sixty seom of paddies. The valley was narrow, and has a waterfall. The Hwangto-gumi Cave (黃土丘尾窟) was on the left and Byeongpung Rock (屛風石) was on the right. Up above was Hyangmok Pavilion (香木亭). The juniper trees (香木) there were scare because they had previously been cut every other year.”
“On the 24th, we arrived at Tong-gumi landing (桶丘尾津). The valley was shaped just like a wooden barrel. There was a rock in front about fifty paces offshore. It was tens of gil high. There were cliffs on all sides. There were rocks piled up at the valley entrance. We climbed with difficulty up the valley. The peaks were high the valley was deep. The trees reached to the sky, and the weeds were thick.”
“On the 25th, we arrived at the valley entrance of the Port of Jangjakji (長斫地浦). As expected, we found a bamboo grove, but the bamboo was both sparse and short. After we cut down some of the bigger bamboo, we headed southeast to Jeojeondong (楮田洞). Between the tens of ri from the valley entrance to the central peak, there were three areas wide enough for tens of seom of farmland. Also, there were three islands in front. The one to the north was called "Bangpaedo" (防牌島), the one in the middle "Jukdo," and the one to the east "Ongdo" (翁島). The distance between the islands was only about 100 paces, and the circumference of each was tens of pa (把). It was difficult to climb up and look because the rocks were steep and very towering. We slept there.
On the 26th, we changed direction (reversed course) and went to Gajido (可支島), where we surprised four or five sea lions that dashed out. They looked like water cows. Our riflemen all fired at once and got two of them. The geographical features of the cove landing (丘尾津) was the strangest thing. We went about ten ri into the valley, where we found the remains of what were clearly ancient dwellings. On both sides, the valley was deep difficult to climb up.
Next we looked around several places, including Jukam (竹巖), Hupoam (帿布巖), Gongam (孔巖), and Chusan (錐山). Then we went to Tonggumi (通邱尾) and made offerings to the mountain and sea (gods). We stayed there and waited for the wind.”
“Generally speaking, the circumference of the island is seventy to eighty ri from north to south and fifty to sixty ri from east to west. All four sides are stratified rock cliffs. There are remains of ancient dwelling in various places in the valleys around the island. Land suitable for rice paddies and fields total in the hundreds of "seom." Trees on the island included juniper, Korean nut pine, amur cork, old pine, mulberry, and hazel. The main species of plants are dropwort, mallow, mugwort, ramie, and paper mulberry. In addition, there are strange trees and grasses that were difficult to record because their names were unknown. Birds on the island included wild geese, hawks, seagulls, and white herons. Furry animals were cats and rats. Sea products were only brown seaweed and abalone.”
“On the 30th, we boarded our ship and set sail. On the 8th of the new month, we returned to our home base. The products from the island were two seal skins, three trunks of common Korean bamboo, two blocks of rosewood incense, five doi of red ocher, and one map, which were all packaged and sealed and given to our superiors.”
I send this together with the products to the Bibyeonsa (備邊司).
鬱陵島搜討, 間二年, 使邊將輪回擧行, 已有定式, 故搜討官越松萬戶韓昌國處, 發關分付矣。 該萬戶牒呈: “四月二十一日, 幸得順風, 糧饌雜物分, 載四隻船, 與倭學李福祥及上下員役、格軍八十名, 同日未時量, 到于大洋中, 則酉時, 北風猝起, 雲霧四塞, 驟雨霹靂, 一時齊發, 四船各自分散, 莫知所向。 萬戶收拾精神, 戎服禱海, 多散糧米, 以餽海神後, 使格軍輩, 擧火應之, 則二隻船擧火而應, 一隻船漠然無火矣。 二十二日寅時, 怒濤漸息, 只見遠海之中, 二隻船帆自南而來。 格軍輩擧手指東曰: ‘彼雲霧中隱隱如雲者, 疑是島中上峰也。’ 萬戶詳細遠望, 則果是島形也。 親自擊, 激勵格軍, 卽爲到泊於島之西面黃土丘尾津。 登山看審, 則自谷至中峰三十餘里, 而山形重疊, 谷水成川, 其中有可作水田六十餘石下種之地。 谷則狹窄, 有瀑布, 而左爲黃土丘尾窟, 右爲屛風石。 其上又有香木亭, 故斫取香木, 而以間年斫取之故, 漸就稀少。 二十四日到桶丘尾津, 則谷形如桶, 前有一巖在海中, 與島相距可爲五十步, 而高近數十丈, 周回皆是絶壁。 谷口巖石層層, 僅僅攀登而見之, 則山高谷深, 樹木參天, 雜草茂密, 通涉無路。 二十五日到長作地浦, 谷口果有竹田, 非但稀踈, 擧皆體小。 其中擇其稍大者斫取後, 仍向東南楮田洞, 則自洞口至中峰爲數十里許, 而洞裏廣闊基址, 顯有三處, 可作水田數十石下種之地。 前有三島, 在北曰防牌島, 在中曰竹島, 在東曰瓮島。 三島相距, 不過百餘步, 島之周回, 各爲數十把, 險巖嵂, 難以登覽, 仍爲止宿。 二十六日轉向可支島, 四五箇可支魚, 驚駭躍出, 形若水牛。 砲手齊放, 捉得二首, 而丘尾津山形, 最爲奇異, 入谷數里, 則昔日人家遺址, 宛然尙存。 左右山谷, 甚爲幽深, 難於登陟。 仍遍看竹巖、帿布巖、孔巖、錐山等諸處, 行到桶丘尾, 禱山祭海, 待風留住。 蓋島周回, 摠爲論之, 則南北七八十里許, 東西五六十里許。 環海則皆是層巖絶壁, 四方山谷, 則間有昔日人居之土址, 而田土可墾處, 合爲數百石下種之地。 樹木則香、栢、蘗、檜、桑、榛, 雜草則靑芹、葵、艾、苧、楮。 其餘異樹奇草, 不知名, 難以盡記。 羽蟲則雁、鷹、鷗、鷺, 毛蟲則貓、鼠, 海産則藿、鰒而已。 三十日發船, 初八日還鎭。 島中所産可支魚皮二令、篁竹三箇、紫檀香二吐莫、石間朱五升、圖形一本, 監封上使” 云。 幷上送于備邊司
Wonchun Governor Lee Chi-jung (李致中) Reports the Results of Ulleungdo Inspection
Wonchun Governor Lee Chi-jung (李致中) reports that the inspection of Ulleungdo was scheduled to take place in 1785, but because of the terrible famine in the Yeongdong region that year, the previous governor, Seo Jeong-su, petitioned the king and it was cancelled. This year's inspection was conducted by Wolsong Commander Kim Chang-yun (金昌胤), who submitted the following report:
On April 19, we checked the wind at the Kumi Naval Base in Pyeonghae. At between 11 a.m. and 1 p.m. on the 27th, eighty people, including Japanese interpreter Lee Yu-mun, various ranks of officials, sailors, and assistants all divided up, boarded four ships, and departed. Between 5 and 7 a.m. on the 28th, the assistants pointed toward something and said, ‘Below that dark cloud over there is the island’s tallest peak.’ Within a few hours, the island’s three tallest peaks were clearly visible. At about 3 a.m., the four boats assembled, and with mixed feelings of joy and sadness everyone talked about the fears and the dangers he had encountered. On the 29th, we raised anchor and landed at Jeojeon-dong (苧田洞), where everyone took baths and made offerings to the Mountain Spirit. Then we begin a thorough inspection.
It was about twenty ri from the village entrance (洞口) to the central peak, over a series of overlapping peaks that weave in and out. Three peaks were especially towering. This was the island’s main fortress. In a village there was still the obvious remains of a stone fortress that had a circumference of two to three ri. Inside the fortress were large and small stone pillars and foundation stones. Covered with plants such as ramie, the land was flat and wide enough to cultivate eight to nine seok (石) of fields or paddies.
We advanced to Gaji-gumi (可支仇味 - Sea Lion Cove), where we found two caves in the side of the mountain. It was difficult to calculate their depth. We surprised some sea lions that dashed out (of the caves), but before they could get into the water, all our riflemen fired at once and got two of them.
On May 1st., between 5 and 7 a.m., we changed direction and headed south toward the Japanese boat dock. From the entrance (of the Japanese boat dock) to the central peak it was about thirty ri of mountainous wasteland with clear remains of what included a stone fortress, stone pagodas, and stone-piled graves. We changed direction and headed forward and found a steep rock wall stretching out at the water’s edge that looked as if it had been craved out . When we arrived at the Jangjakji (長作地) bamboo forest, we found it sparse. The big bamboo that had been there was gone. We headed north and arrived at Cheonmagumi (天磨仇味).
At sunrise on the 2nd, we began a thourough inspection. One rock towering in the middle of the sea looked like the horns of a cow. It was called “Hujuk-am” (帿竹巖). Bangpaedo (防牌島) was to the east, about three ri from the main island.
On the 3rd, we arrived at Hyeunjakji (玄作地), where we found overlapping stone mountains and a rocky coastline. Chusan (錐山) had a strange shape and was made of a strange back rock. Jukam (竹巖) was two towering rocks that looked like “Hujuk” (帿竹). Next to Jukam was Gongam (孔巖), through the center of which a small transport boat could pass. When we arrived at Hwangtogumi (黃土仇味), we found overlapping peaks and a mountain stream. There was enough land to farm about thirty seok of rice paddies or tens of seok of fields. It was about thirty ri from the village to the central peak. Above “Cave Rock,” on the right and left, were written the names of previous inspectors.
On the 4th, we headed toward Hyangmok Pavilion (香木亭). The circumference of the entire island was about 120 ri. The distance from north to south was between seventy and eighty ri, and from east to west was sixty to seventy ri. All four sides of the island were cliffs and all of the mountains were steep. There were large and small streams falling and flowing down the valleys that looked like a silver rainbow 1,000 jang high. It looked like 10,000 pieces of jade had been spewed up into the air. Looking out from the Daepungso (大風所 - Wind-waiting Place), we saw the following trees: camellia, Oriental arborvitae, juniper, maple, hoinamu, kalopanax, paulownia, mulberry, elm, and birch. The birds were crow and seagull. The only wild animals we saw were cats and mice. The sea products were brown seaweed, abalone, and sea lions. After our search, between 3:30 and 4:30 p.m. on the same day, we all went up to the alter and respectfully made offerings to the sea god. Then we set sail and immediately returned.
Between 5 and 7 p.m. on the 5th, the commander’s ship arrived at Jangori in Wondeok-myeon, Samcheok. Between 7 and 9 p.m., the Japanese interpreter's two ships arrived and anchored. Between 9 and 11 p.m, Ha Bok’s ship also arrived. On the 7th, we returned to the Wind-waiting Place (大風所), and on the 8th, we returned to our camp.
The products brought back were two sea lion skins, three green bamboo trunks, two blocks of rosewood incense, five seung of red ocher, one map of the island, and a report, which were sent to the Bibyeonsa. That is why I am sending this.
July 4, 1786
原春監司 李致中狀啓鬱陵島搜討乙巳年爲次第而因嶺東慘歉前監司 徐鼎修狀聞停止今年搜討官當次越松萬戶 金昌胤牒呈內四月十九日候風于平海丘尾津二十七日午時分四船與倭學李裕文上下員役沙格竝八十名齊發二十八日卯時船格等指曰彼黑雲底乃島中上峯云云未過數時最高三峯宛然入望四更未四船同聚悲喜交極各陳危怖之狀二十九日解纜到苧田洞四船之人沐浴山祭後看審則自洞口至中峯二十餘里重峯疊嶂內外相連中有三峯最秀此是一島之主鎭而洞裏石城痕周可數三里宛然猶存城內有大錐巖小錐巖石礎苧田等處土地平衍可墾田畓八九石落前進可支仇味則山腰有兩石窟其深難測可支魚驚出投水之際砲手齊放捉得二首五月初一日卯時轉向南邊倭船滄則自洞口至中峯三十餘里皆是殘山石城石塔石葬等遺址宛然轉向前面巖壁削列水邊到長作地竹林處則竹林稀疏元無體大者北到天磨仇味初二日平明省審則有巖屹立水中狀如牛角名以帿竹巖束有防牌島距大島爲三里許初三日到玄作地石山重疊海邊則嚴石而已錐山則山形奇異石色怪黑竹巖則兩巖屹立狀如帿竹傍有孔巖中通小桶船到黃土 仇味則山形重疊谷水成川可畓三十餘石可田數十餘石自洞至中峯三十餘里左右土窟巖石上有前日搜討官等題名初四日轉向香木亭大抵一島周回可百二十餘里南北七八十里東西六七十里四面皆壁山形箇箇峻險大溪小澗或瀑或流千丈銀虹萬斗噴玉自待風所望見樹木則冬栢側栢香木楓木檜木木梧桐桑楡檀木羽蟲則島鷗毛族則鼠而已海族則甘藿 鰒魚 可支魚搜探後同日申時一行齊登壇上謹祭海神掛帆旋歸初五日酉時萬戶船還泊三陟遠德面長五里戌時倭學船二隻來泊亥時下卜船一隻又來初七轉泊待風所初八還鎭所可支魚皮二令靑竹三箇紫檀香二吐莫石間朱五升本島圖形一件牒呈上送備邊司緣由馳啓
鬱陵島在本縣正東海中右于山一云武陵一云羽陵一云艼陵周二百餘里東西七十餘里南北五十餘里三峯岌嶪聳空純是石山自本縣天晴而登高望見則如雲氣便風二日可到(倭舡漁探者時到)倭人謂之竹島與日本隱岐州相近自中峯至正東海濱三十餘里正西海濱四十餘里正南海濱二十餘里正北海濱二十餘里川溪六七竹田五六居址數十有楮田洞孔巖朱土窟石葬古址船泊處待風所島之南有四五小島島中皆石壁石澗洞壑甚多有狙鼠極大不知避人亦有桃李桑拓菜茹之屬珍木異草不知名者甚多○新羅智證王十三年于山國恃險不服遣何瑟羅軍主金異斯夫擊降之 高麗太祖十三年芋陵島遣白吉土豆貢方物 顯宗九年以于山國被東北女眞所寇廢農業遣李元龜賜農器 十年于山國民曾彼女眞虜掠來奔者悉令歸之 德宗元年羽陵城主遣子獻土物 仁宗十九年秋七月溟州道都監倉使李陽實遣人入蔚陵島取菓核木葉異常者以獻 毅宗十三年王聞鬱陵地廣土肥可以居民遣溟州道監倉使金柔立往視柔立回奏云島中有大山從山頂東至海一萬餘步西至海一萬三千餘步南至海一萬五千餘步北至海八千餘步有村落基址七所或有石佛鐵鍾石塔多生柴胡本石南草然多巖石民不可居遂寢其議 明宗時崔忠獻獻議以武陵土壤膏沃多珍木海錯遣使往觀之移東郡民以實之及使還多以珍木海錯進之後屢爲風濤所蕩覆舟因還其民居 忠穆王二年東界芋陵島人來朝 辛福五年倭人武陵島留半月而去○本朝 太宗朝聞流民逃于鬱陵島者甚多再命三陟人金麟雨爲安撫使刷出空其地麟雨言丰土地饒沃竹大如杠鼠大如猫桃核大於升凡物稱是 世宗元年武陵島民男婦共十七人行到京畿 平邱驛飢頓 上遣人救之 二十二年遣縣人萬戶南顥率數百人往搜連民盡俘金丸等七十餘人而還其地遂空 成宗二年有告別有三峯島者及遣朴宗元往覓之因風濤不得泊而還同行一舡泊鬱陵島只取大竹大鰒魚回啓云島中無居民矣肅宗二十八年三陟營將李浚明還自鬱陵島獻其圖形及紫檀香靑竹石間朱魚皮等物浚明乘舡于竹邊串兩晝夜而還 英宗十一年江原監司趙冣等啓言鬱陵地廣土沃有人居舊址而其西又有于山島亦廣闊○土産藿鰒可支魚大小雜魚柏木香木冬柏側柏黃柏梧桐楓檜欕桑楡篁竹朱土鷹烏鷰鳲貍鼠
Kangwon Governor Kim I-kyo Reports Deliberation of Punishment for Magistrates of Three Towns, Including Suncheon, for not Warning Boats Transpassing on Ulleungdo
As reported, the inspection of Ulleungdo is conducted every two years, and has traditionally been assigned as a shared duty. According to the written report of Wolsong Commander Lee Tae-geun (李泰根), he reached the island on April 7th, anchored, and then conducted a careful survey of its geography. Hwangto Cave (黃土窟 - Golden Clay Cave) was on the left, and Byeongpung Rock (屛風石) was on the right. It was almost thirty ri from Hwangto-gumi (黃土仇味 - Yellow Clay Cove) to the central peak (中峯). There were rows of towering peaks with clear mountain springs. Among them were remains of human dwellings and land for about forty seok of fields or paddies. Next to the village was Hyangmok Pavillion (落傍有香木亭), where they found shaved juniper and sea lion skins. This was the act of trespassers (潛船). Ten ri (4 km) to the north, there was a rock jutting prominently out of the middle of the sea. In the center was a hole that a boat could sail through. It was called "Gong-am" (孔巖 - "Hole Rock").
Next, they changed direction toward Chusan-am (錐山巖 - Chusan Rock), which was shaped like a standing gimlet (形果如立錐). To the south was Cheonjeo-gumi (天底仇味 - Cheonjeo Cove). From its opening the valley ran about 10 ri (4 km) inland. To the north was Usando (于山島 - "Usan Island"), which had a circumference of two to three ri. They went south to Dojang-gumi (都庄仇味 - Dojang Cove), where they went deep into the valley. There were bamboo groves, but much of the bamboo had been indiscriminately harvested by trespassers.
The remainder of the record talks mainly about the trespassers they found on the island and is not translated here.
狀啓以爲鬱陵島搜討間二年擧行故依例發關分付矣越松萬戶 李泰根牒呈以爲去三月二十六日與倭學 李馥祥及員役沙格幷七十二名分載四船發行四月初七日到泊于本島遍審島形則左有黃土窟右有屛風石自黃土 仇味至中峯似近三十里而群峯崎屹泉水淸冽間有人家居址可田可畓爲四十餘石落傍有香木亭而有香木之斫置者又有可支魚皮捉置者此是潛船之所爲北向十餘里矗石特立於大洋之中中有通船之孔名曰孔巖轉向錐山巖巖形果如立錐南有天底仇味 谷口深邃爲十餘里北有于山島周回爲二三里許南至都庄仇味深入谷口則有竹田而多被潛船之亂斫屢日環島詳細搜探則潛船捉得合爲十四隻事拯驚駭十四隻船主等欲爲縳來則萬戶帶去之東萊倭學 李馥祥 蔚珍沙格李己丑 興海沙格金允石等與潛船船主雄唱雌和非但顯有扶護之意潛船沙格等一百五十餘名都聚一處呼天曰必死聲動一島爻象危怖外雖若畏之狀而實有恃衆無忌之慮萬尸所領沙格亦皆暗聽倭學之指敎擧欲漫而彌縫手下聽令之員役只不過軍官鎭吏軍牢等合十一名而已實無抵當之勢不得捉來十二日四船還發十五日還鎭十四隻私船之潛入島中事係變怪而倭學之符同潛船欲爲扶護者拯爲痛駭李馥祥捧賂錢十兩全鰒二十貼一一摘發而李馥祥之欲爲防口員役十一名處所給全鰒五貼五串亦爲査出幷爲執留以待處分潛船十四隻船王等姓名年歲居住成冊一件及島中所産進上紫香元封二吐加封十吐可支魚皮二令靑竹三箇朱土六升本島圖形幷依例上送云自臣營上送于備邊司搜討法意本自嚴重而興陽 長興 順天等三邑私船之潛入島中採取禁物已是罔赦之罪及其現捉也締結倭學欲爲圖免互相綢繆不爲就捕者事未前有大關變怪東萊倭學 李馥祥則渠以搜討行帶率員役目見潛船居間捧賂欲其掩迹者究厥所爲節節痛惡興海沙格金允石蔚珍沙格李己丑等則甘聽倭學之指嗾同心和應之狀亦爲可駭故李馥祥 金允石 興陽船主金番金等長興船主鄭支平等順天船主全光 良守等十六名爲先移文于各該道使之一倂捉來與蔚珍沙格嚴覈得情照法嚴勘計料越松萬戶 李泰根則稱以彼衆我寡無以抵敵幷與船主而一任放過疲軟拯矣方自臣營拿致嚴棍癸亥年搜討時潛船十二隻之現捉者卽興陽 長興 順天等三邑之船漢也曾未幾何又出於三邑海堧頑俗之不畏法姑捨勿論當該地方官之不爲察飭誠極疏忽不可尋常置之興陽 長興 順天等三邑守令罪狀請令攸司稟處○義禁府啓言宋祥濂今方待命拿囚趙台錫 李時在任所請拿來允之
Gangwon Governor Jeong Won-yeong Reports Inspection of Ulleungdo
In accordance with the standing order to conduct biennial inspections of Ulleungdo, Samcheok Commander Ha Si-myeong (河始明) reported that on April 16th, he led Japanese interpretor Choi Gap-mun (崔甲文) and eighty more people, including officials and sailors, boarded four ships, and reached Ulleungdo on April 23th. Surveying the geography of the island, they saw Hwangto Cave (黄土窟 - "Golden Clay Cave") on the left and and Byeongpung Rock (屛風巖 - "Folding Screen Rock") on the right.
At five ri from Hwangto-gumi (黄土龜尾 - "Golden Clay Cove") toward the central peak, there was an area where fields and paddies could be cultivated. There were also old foundations of dwellings. From there they advanced to the the cove entrance, where there was a cliff with juniper trees on top that could be sealed and presented to the king, so they harvested them. Afterwards, they went to Pyeongtak-gumi (萍卓邱尾 -"High Duckweed Cove"), where there was a grove of large bamboo. The bamboo had been thinned out, but they harvested the largest among them. Then they headed east to Jangsa-gumi (長沙邱尾), where they saw from a distance a bamboo grove on top of the cliff, but it was all small bamboo. They entered the island and thoroughly inspected its interior for three days.
The circumference of the island is about eighty or ninety ri, and it is all rock mountains. The trees on the island include mulberry, pinenut, paulownia, elm, juniper, and hazelnut. The birds on the island include crow, sparrow, sea gull, and quail. The creeping animals are cats and rats. The sea products include brown seaweed, abalone, and various fish.
They went to Sea Lion Cave (可支魚窟), where they surprised seven or eight sea lions. They shot and clubbed them and got two of them before they could jump into the sea. On April 27th, they came back and anchored at Gangneung (江陵).
I am presenting 2 pieces of rosewood incense (紫檀香), which are sealed in this letter. In addition, there are ten more pieces of rosewood incense (紫檀香) , three green bamboo, six seung (升) of red ocher (石間朱), and two skins of sea lions (可支魚). As is the custom, we will send a map of the island, two skins of sealions, three green bamboo, six seung (升) of red ocher (石間朱), and twelve pieces of rosewood incense (紫檀香) to the Bibyeonsa (備邊司) after they are inventoried.
Gangwon Governor Yun Seong-tae (尹聲大) Reports to the King about Ulleungdo Inspection.
On April 8th, Samcheok Commander Lee Gyeong-jeong (李慶鼎) lead low-ranking officials (員役) to Ulleungdo's Hwangto-gumi (黄土龜尾 - "Golden Clay Cove"), where they anchored. Surveying the geography of the island, they saw Byeongpung Rock (屛風巖 - "Folding Screen Rock") on the right and Hwangto Cave (黄土窟 - "Golden Clay Cave") on the left. The juniper trees on the mountain peaks had not yet changed colors (非不交翠) and they were all short and small. They searched the whole day for juniper to present to the king, but barely harvested more than they started with. They then headed to Hyeonseok-gumi (玄石龜尾 - "Black Rock Cove"), where they saw a herd of about 110 sea lions mooing like cows. They got two of them with guns and clubs. They looked up and saw the highest peak, which they judged to be the so-called, Jusa-bong (朱砂峯 - "Cinnabar Peak"). Thus, they proceeded to inspect around the island without incident.
I am presenting a map of the island and 2 pieces of rosewood incense (紫檀香), which are sealed in this letter. As is the custom, the subjects of the king will send ten more pieces of rosewood incense (紫檀香) , three green bamboo, six seung (升) of red ocher (石間朱), and two sea lions (可支魚). After each is measured, they will be sent to the Bibyeonsa (備邊司).
We have examined the proposal by the Secretary of the State for Home Affairs, concerning an uninhabited island. As to the uninhabited island at 37º 9' 30" N and, 131º 55' E. and 85 nautical miles northwest of Oki Island, there were no traces of occupation by any other countries , and since a Japanese named Nakai Yozaburo recently petitoned to incorporate the island and then lend it to him since he began sea lion hunting at the island two years ago in the 36th year (of Meiji, 1903), built a hut for fishery, tranferred laborers, and got proper fishing gear, we need to clarify the prefecture to which it will belong and the name of the island.
The proposal suggested that the island be named Takeshima and put under the jurisdiction of the local government of Oki Island of Shimane Prefecture from now on. We have examined the matter and found that there is, in fact, occupation under international law, as it is clear from related documents that Nakai Yozaburo moved to the island in the 36th year of Meiji (1903) and has been engaging in fishery there; therefore, we think we can incorporate the island into Japanese territory and put it under the jurisdiction of the local government of Oki Island in Shimane Prefecture. Therefore, we submit that it is reasonable to allow the Cabinet to carry out the decision as proposed.
The Samcheok map shows the above labels right next to the island a fair distance from the shore, but the National Library of Korea map shows the above labels on or near the shore of Ulleungdo. I do not know what it means, but I have seen 倭船倉 written next to Usando (于山島) on a Korean map before, so maybe there was such a place on Ulleungdo's neighboring island. If anyone has any questions, just ask them.
I am a little disappointed that I could not get a good copy of the map for you, but I may go into Seoul tomorrow and try to find a book with the map in it. Anyway, it was not a wasted trip because I found something else that was kind of interesting that I will post about later.
"The Name of Our Dokdo Was Originally 'Muleung (武陵)"
(Seoul = Yonhap) Reporter Kim Seong-yong = Document analysis saying that our Dokdo was called "Muleungdo" (武陵島) for a long period stretching from the Silla period, through Koryo, and into Joseon has attracted the interest of the academic community.
Former head of the Metropolitan Air Quality Management Office and "Dokdo" researcher, Seonu Yeong-jun (55), who has recently received a doctorate from Seonggyungwan University, published a book on the 8th entitled, "Dokdo during the Koryo and Joseon Periods," which made public the result of his research on the names of Dokdo and its dominium.
According to the book, the first documentary evidence that both Ulleungdo and Dokdo were Korean land was in the "History of Koryo," when, in the 13th year of King Taejo (930 A.D.), "Uleungdo" (芋陵島) appeared. Uleungdo was an abbreviation of "The Two Islands of Usan/Muleung" (于山武陵二島), which was "one name two island" (二島一名) name for the islands Usanguk (于山國 - Ulleungdo) and Muleungdo (武陵島).
According to the "History of Koryo," in 930 A.D. Uleungdo sent Baek Gil and Todu with local products, and Baek Gil was made a jeongwui and Todu was made a jeongjo. (芋陵島遣白吉土豆貢方物拜 白吉爲正位土豆爲正朝)
During the Silla period, the formal name of Ulleungdo and Dokdo was "The Two Islands of Usan/Muleung," which was used together with its abbreviated name "Uleungdo." Dr. Seonu claimed that he has confirmed that the name, "The Two Islands of Usan/Muleung," was used formally in documents, but that "Uleungdo" was used in everyday life.
Before 512 A.D., the people who set up a country on Ulleungdo were cognizant of "Dokdo" and used it as an essential territory. At the time, the concept of "the two islands were not far apart, so they could be seen on a clear day" (二島相距不遠風日淸明卽可望見) was established.
Dr. Seonu said that in 512 A.D. Usanguk became a part of Silla, the name "Muleungdo" was formed, and then the written expression "The two islands of Usan/Muleung are in the sea due east of the hyeon" was established.
While the name "Uleungdo" (于陵島) was used for Ulleungdo and Dokdo in Silla and Usanguk, the name "Ulleungdo" started to be used as a dialect in the east coast region of Gangwon. In 1018 A.D., Usanguk fell, and the Gangwondo dialect name also became the commonly used name during the Koryo period.
Dr. Seonu determined that the final name for Ulleungdo and Dokdo went from "Muleungdo" (武陵島) to "The Two Islands of Usan/Muleung in the Sea Due East of the Hyeon" (于山武陵二島在縣正東海中), to "Uleungdo" (于陵島), to Ulleungdo (蔚陵島), to Ulleungdo (鬱陵島).
Since "Ulleungdo" (鬱陵島) was the very last name for Ulleungdo and Dokdo, it is assumed that when Kim Bu-sik was compiling the Samguksagi, he mistakenly wrote "Muleungdo" (蔚陵島) as "Ulleungdo" (鬱陵島).
On maps in the latter Joseon, Usando was shown as Ulleungdo's Jukdo (Daetseom), and it is believed that during the time of [King ] Jeongjo and [King] Kojong, the name "Songjukdo" [松竹島] applied to Dokdo, which demonstrated management and intent.
Dr. Seonu said, "When you look at the name transition of Dokdo, the possesion of Dokdo was already established during the time of Usanguk and continued unbroken through Silla, Koryo, and Joseon." He added, "Based on international law, Dokdo was never Japanese territory, and Japan only failed in its attempt to make it its territory."
Dr. Seonu advocates, "We need to use Dokdo's original name of "Muleung" as a basis and compose a 'Muleungdwon' [Muleungdo Garden?] using Dokdo and ecological technology. Then we have to occasionally promote a plan that uses 'a place of dreams and romance.'"
南北緯 百三十度 四十五分至三十五分
North-South Latitude: 130 degrees 45 minutes ~ 35 minutes
東西經 三十七度 三十四分至五十一分
East-West Longitude: 37 degrees 34 minutes ~ 51 minutes
Unless I am misunderstanding something, the geography text seems to have gotten the longitude and latitude mixed up. That would mean that the latitude should be 37 degrees 34 minutes ~ 51 minutes, and the longitude should be 130 degrees 45 minutes ~ 35 minutes. Excusing that mistake, the map gives the eastern-most boundary of Ulleungdo at an east longitude of 130 degrees 45 minutes. That measurement is off the actual location by about 11 minutes since Ulleungdo's Jukdo (竹島) is actually at an east longitude of approximately 130 degrees 56 minutes.
Korea claims that Liancourt Rocks (Dokdo) was also a part of Uldo County (鬱島郡) in 1907 and was called "Seokdo" (石島), but not only does this map of Ulleungdo not show Liancourt Rocks or any island named "Seokdo," it also tells us that Liancourt Rocks could not have been a part of Uldo county since Liancourt Rocks are located at a longitude of 131 degrees 52 minutes, which is much farther east of the eastern-most boundary of Ulleungdo given above. The name "Seokdo" (石島) was not a reference to Liancourt Rocks, but was simply a reference to the small, rock islets around Ulleungdo. The name "Seokdo" (石島) means "rock island" or "rock Islets". (See HERE.)
The geography of Korea, or Ch'sao Hsien ("Morning Calm," or "Fresh Morning"), is simple. It is a definite peninsula to the northeast of China, measuring roughly 600 miles from north to south and 135 from east to west. The coast line is about 1,740 miles. It lies between 34 degree 17' N. to 43 degree N. latitude and 124 degree 38' E. to 130 degree 33' E. longitude, and has an estimated area of upwards of 80,000 square miles, being somewhat smaller than Great Britain. Bounded on the north and west by the Tu-men and Am-nok, or Yalu, rivers, which divide it from the Russian and Chinese empires, and by the Yellow Sea, its eastern and southern limit is the Sea of Japan, a "silver streak", which has not been its salvation. Its northern frontier is only conterminous with that of Russia for 11 miles.
The raison d'etre of Ma-cha Tong, and the numerous coast villages which exist wherever a convenient shore and a protection for boats occur together, is the coast fishing. The fact that a floating population of over 8,000 Japanese fishermen make a living by fishing on the coast near Fusan shows that there is a redundant harvest to be reaped. The Korean fisherman is credited with utter want of enterprise, and Mr. Oiesen, in the Customs' report for Won-san for 1891, accuses him of "remaining content with such fish as will run into crudely and easily constructed traps, set out along the shore, which only require attention for an hour or so each day." I must, however, say that each village that I passed possessed from seven to twelve fishing junks, which were kept at sea. They are unseaworthy boats, and it is not surprising that they hug the shore. I believe that the fishing industry, with every other, is paralyzed by the complete insecurity of the earnings of labor and by the exactions of officials, and that the Korean fisherman does not care to earn money of which he will surely be deprived on any or no pretence, and that, along with the members of the industrial classes generally, he seeks the protection of poverty.
A Korean junk dose not impress one by its seaworthiness, and it is not surprising that the junkmen hug the shore and seek shelter whenever a good sailing breeze comes on. She is built without nails, iron, or preservative paint, and looks rather like a temporary and fortuitous aggregation of beams and pranks than a deliberate construction. Two tall, heavy masts fixed by wedges among the timbers at the bottom of the boat require frequent attention, as they are always swaying and threatening to come down. The sails are of matting, with a number of bamboos running transversely, with a cord attached to each, united into one sheet, by means of which tacking is effected, or rather might be. Practically, navigation consists is running before a light breeze, and dropping the mass of mats and bamboos on the confusion below whenever it freshens, varying the process by an easy pull at the sweeps, one at the stern and two working on pins in transverse beams amidships, which project 3 feet on each side. The junk is fitted with a rudder of enormous size, which from its position acts as a keel board. The price is from 60 to 80 dollars. This singular craft sails well before the wind, but under other circumstances is apt to become unmanageable.