竹島問題の歴史

18.11.07

1807 May 12 - Lee Tae-gun (李泰根) Inspects Ulleungdo

The following is a May 12, 1807 record of Wolsong Commander Lee Tae-gun's (越松萬戶 李泰根) inspection of Ulleungdo, as recorded in the Ilseongrok (日省錄), which was a Korean record of daily affairs of state from 1760 to 1910.

The record talks about trespassers on Ulleungdo harvesting juniper, bamboo, and seal lions. It also seems to say that the island of Usan (于山島 - Usando) was north of Cheonjeo-gumi (天底仇味 - Cheonjeo Cove), which seems to have been a mistake since Cheonjeo-gumi was on the north shore of Ulleungdo and Usando would have been east of there. (Old Korean maps show Usando off Ulleungdo's northeast shore.) At any rate, this 1807 report says that Usando was a neighboring island of Ulleungdo, which is more evidence against the Korean claim that Usando was the old Korean name for "Dokdo" (Liancourt Rocks). Liancourt Rocks is ninety-two kilometers southeast of Ulleungdo.
Kangwon Governor Kim I-kyo Reports Deliberation of Punishment for Magistrates of Three Towns, Including Suncheon, for not Warning Boats Transpassing on Ulleungdo
As reported, the inspection of Ulleungdo is conducted every two years, and has traditionally been assigned as a shared duty. According to the written report of Wolsong Commander Lee Tae-geun (李泰根), he reached the island on April 7th, anchored, and then conducted a careful survey of its geography. Hwangto Cave (黃土窟 - Golden Clay Cave) was on the left, and Byeongpung Rock (屛風石) was on the right. It was almost thirty ri from Hwangto-gumi (黃土仇味 - Yellow Clay Cove) to the central peak (中峯). There were rows of towering peaks with clear mountain springs. Among them were remains of human dwellings and land for about forty seok of fields or paddies. Next to the village was Hyangmok Pavillion (落傍有香木亭), where they found shaved juniper and sea lion skins. This was the act of trespassers (潛船). Ten ri (4 km) to the north, there was a rock jutting prominently out of the middle of the sea. In the center was a hole that a boat could sail through. It was called "Gong-am" (孔巖 - "Hole Rock").
Next, they changed direction toward Chusan-am (錐山巖 - Chusan Rock), which was shaped like a standing gimlet (形果如立錐). To the south was Cheonjeo-gumi (天底仇味 - Cheonjeo Cove). From its opening the valley ran about 10 ri (4 km) inland. To the north was Usando (于山島 - "Usan Island"), which had a circumference of two to three ri. They went south to Dojang-gumi (都庄仇味 - Dojang Cove), where they went deep into the valley. There were bamboo groves, but much of the bamboo had been indiscriminately harvested by trespassers.
The remainder of the record talks mainly about the trespassers they found on the island and is not translated here.
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江原監司 金履喬以鬱陵島潛船不飭之順天等三邑守令論罪馳啓
狀啓以爲鬱陵島搜討間二年擧行故依例發關分付矣越松萬戶 李泰根牒呈以爲去三月二十六日與倭學 李馥祥及員役沙格幷七十二名分載四船發行四月初七日到泊于本島遍審島形則左有黃土窟右有屛風石自黃土 仇味至中峯似近三十里而群峯崎屹泉水淸冽間有人家居址可田可畓爲四十餘石落傍有香木亭而有香木之斫置者又有可支魚皮捉置者此是潛船之所爲北向十餘里矗石特立於大洋之中中有通船之孔名曰孔巖轉向錐山巖巖形果如立錐南有天底仇味 谷口深邃爲十餘里北有于山島周回爲二三里許南至都庄仇味深入谷口則有竹田而多被潛船之亂斫屢日環島詳細搜探則潛船捉得合爲十四隻事拯驚駭十四隻船主等欲爲縳來則萬戶帶去之東萊倭學 李馥祥 蔚珍沙格李己丑 興海沙格金允石等與潛船船主雄唱雌和非但顯有扶護之意潛船沙格等一百五十餘名都聚一處呼天曰必死聲動一島爻象危怖外雖若畏之狀而實有恃衆無忌之慮萬尸所領沙格亦皆暗聽倭學之指敎擧欲漫而彌縫手下聽令之員役只不過軍官鎭吏軍牢等合十一名而已實無抵當之勢不得捉來十二日四船還發十五日還鎭十四隻私船之潛入島中事係變怪而倭學之符同潛船欲爲扶護者拯爲痛駭李馥祥捧賂錢十兩全鰒二十貼一一摘發而李馥祥之欲爲防口員役十一名處所給全鰒五貼五串亦爲査出幷爲執留以待處分潛船十四隻船王等姓名年歲居住成冊一件及島中所産進上紫香元封二吐加封十吐可支魚皮二令靑竹三箇朱土六升本島圖形幷依例上送云自臣營上送于備邊司搜討法意本自嚴重而興陽 長興 順天等三邑私船之潛入島中採取禁物已是罔赦之罪及其現捉也締結倭學欲爲圖免互相綢繆不爲就捕者事未前有大關變怪東萊倭學 李馥祥則渠以搜討行帶率員役目見潛船居間捧賂欲其掩迹者究厥所爲節節痛惡興海沙格金允石蔚珍沙格李己丑等則甘聽倭學之指嗾同心和應之狀亦爲可駭故李馥祥 金允石 興陽船主金番金等長興船主鄭支平等順天船主全光 良守等十六名爲先移文于各該道使之一倂捉來與蔚珍沙格嚴覈得情照法嚴勘計料越松萬戶 李泰根則稱以彼衆我寡無以抵敵幷與船主而一任放過疲軟拯矣方自臣營拿致嚴棍癸亥年搜討時潛船十二隻之現捉者卽興陽 長興 順天等三邑之船漢也曾未幾何又出於三邑海堧頑俗之不畏法姑捨勿論當該地方官之不爲察飭誠極疏忽不可尋常置之興陽 長興 順天等三邑守令罪狀請令攸司稟處○義禁府啓言宋祥濂今方待命拿囚趙台錫 李時在任所請拿來允之

1807 May 12 - Record of Ulleungdo Inspection a1

1807 May 12 - Record of Ulleungdo Inspection a2

1807 May 12 - Record of Ulleungdo Inspection A3

33 comments:

  1. yabutarou0117/11/07 23:32

    これをすべて訳すとなると丸一日かかってしまうので地形について述べた下の部分だけ訳せばよいと思います。


    四月初七日到泊于本島遍審島形則左有黃土窟右有屛風石自黃土 仇味至中峯似近三十里而群峯崎屹泉水淸冽間有人家居址可田可畓爲四十餘石落傍有香木亭而有香木之斫置者又有可支魚皮捉置者此是潛船之所爲北向十餘里矗石特立於大洋之中中有通船之孔名曰孔巖轉向錐山巖巖形果如立錐南有天底仇味 谷口深邃爲十餘里北有于山島周回爲二三里許南至都庄仇味深入谷口則有竹田而多被潛船之亂斫屢日


    すいません。私はもう寝ます。。

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  2. Is there anobody who can read these Chinese text?

    I can only understand there is Usando at north and its circumference is 2-3 ri (o.8~1.2km).

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  3. Gerry,

    As Yabutarou told, it's a bit too long for us, so can we make it short like an important part as he suggested?

    This is my translation, here we go.

    "On the 7th of April, we reached and stayed at this island. I inspected whole island. And there were 黃土窟 on the right and 屛風石 on the left. From 黃土仇味 to the middle mountain(中峯), it is almost 30 ri. And there are water fountains in the groups of montains. Between the clear streams, there are the ruins of the houses. And there are possible farming or paddy fielding site which could yeild almost 40 石. At the bottom of there, there is "香木亭"(aromatic tree hut?) and there also are someone's trace of shaved aromatic trees or sea lion skins hunged, This must be the act of dormant.

    Then we took the route to the 10 ri North, there is a rocks prominently jotting straight in the middle of the ochean. Among those, a rock which has a hole so that ship can sail, and the rock is called 孔巖. Then we went to the direction of 錐山巖. The shape of the rock was like a fruit or a pyramid . To the south, there is 天底仇味. The opening of the valley is deep and almost 10 ri. (Or at the 10 ri north of here, ) there is Usando in the north. The circumference of the island is 2-3 ri.

    Then we went south and reached to 都庄仇味. At the openig of the deep valley, there were bamboo fields. And there are many dormant squatters who yeilds knives often...."

    I hope Yabutarou would check my translation tomorrow...

    Yabutarouさん、いつでもよいのでちょっと目を通していただけますか?面倒くさいので、直接訳してしまいました。

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  4. Gerry,

    If there is a part in which you are interested especially, please let me know. I'll do it tomorrow. Or do you want me to translate them all? I can do that, though it will take some time.

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  5. Excuse me, every one.
    This is not related to thsi topic (sorry), but I added a few photos in the posting "Where have all the usnados gone?":

    http://dokdo-or-takeshima.blogspot.com/2007/10/where-have-all-usandos-gone.html

    I added photos of 朝鮮常識問答 and 朝鮮常識, please see them. Thanks.

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  6. Thank you, Kaneganese.

    This 1807 report is interesting because it mentions Usando as a neighboring island of Ulleungdo, without, of course, mentioning Jukdo, which was just an alternate name for Usando.

    It is too late for me to start editing it tonight, but I will do it tomorrow.

    Good night, everyone.

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  7. yabutarou0118/11/07 20:10

    四月初七日に本島に到着し宿泊しました。島の形状をあまねく調査したところ、左に黄土窟右に屏風石があり、黄土仇味より中峯まで三十里位でした。そして山々がそびえ立ち清らかで冷たい泉の水のある所に人家の跡と田や畑として耕作可能な土地があり四十余りの石落となっていました(石落、意味不明)。傍らには香木亭があり香木が削って置いてあり、又捕らえたアシカの皮も置いてありましたがこれは密航船のしわざでした。北に向かって十里余りの海中に中央に舟の通れる穴のある石が聳え立っていて其の名をを孔巖といいます。そして錐山巖に向かっていきました。この巖はきりが立っているような形をしていました。南には天底仇味があり、谷の入り口は奥深く十里余りありました。北には于山島があり一周二三里ほどの大きさでした。南に行き着いた所に都庄仇味があり谷の入り口から奥のほうまで立ち入ってみると竹林がありましたが密航船によって乱雑に叩き切られていました。

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  8. Gerry,

    I corrected some part after Yabutarou gave me a translation.

    "On the 7th of April, we reached and stayed at this island. I inspected shapes of the whole island, and there were 黃土窟 on the right and 屛風石 on the left. From 黃土仇味 to the middle mountain(中峯), it is almost 30 ri. Mountais are rising. Where there are clear and cold fountains, we found the ruins of the houses, possible farming or paddy fielding site which could yeild almost 40 石(or 石落←not sure the meaning). Near there, there is "香木亭"(janiper tree hut?) and there also are someone's trace of shaved aromatic trees or sea lion skins hunged. This must be the act of squatters (潛船).

    10 -ri north , there is a rock prominently jotting straight in the middle of the ochean, which has a hole so that ship can sail through, and it is called 孔巖. Then we went to the direction of 錐山巖. The shape of the rock was like a pyramid (or standing gimlet?). In the south, there is 天底仇味. The opening of the valley is deep and almost 10 ri. There is Usando in the north. The circumference of the island is 2-3 ri.

    Then we went south and reached to 都庄仇味. When we went into deep valley, there were bamboo fields. But those squatters And there are many dormant squatters already cut them disorderly."

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  9. Kaneganese, Pacifist, or Yabutarou:

    I want to translate the title of the 1807 record, but I am not sure if I have it right. Here is what I think it might be saying:

    "Kangwon Governor Kim I-kyo (江原監司 金履喬) Reports Deliberation of Punishment (論罪) for Magistrates of Three Towns (三邑守令), Including Suncheon (順天等), for not Giving Warnings to those Boats Transpassing on Ulleungdo (鬱陵島潛船不飭)"

    What do you think?

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  10. Gerry,

    I think it is good.

    I read through briefly, and it looks like there were so many squatters on the island. In Japanese documents, those Korean squatters had guns and threatens Japanese who come near the island.

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  11. Gerry,

    You are a far better translater of Chinese text than I am.

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  12. Thank you.

    Pacifist,

    I really doubt that I am better than you. My translations are just guesses. I only know just a little bit of the grammar. That is why I need you guys to give me a rough translation.

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  13. Could someone please check my edits for mistakes?

    Good night.

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  14. Gerry,

    Below are what I noticed.

    日星錄→○省○?

    In between rows of rugged peaks and clear mountain springs,

    There was rows of rising, or towering peaks. Where there are clear mountain springs,

    juniper → shaved juniper

    but they had all been indiscriminately harvested by trespassers.
    (The original doesn't say "all". So maybe "many" would be better? )

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  15. Thanks, Kaneganese. I have made the changes.

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  16. Gerry,

    Sorry, I wasn't clear enough.

    There were rows of towering peaks, where there were clear mountain springs. They found remains of human dwellings and land for about forty seok of fields or paddies.

    There were rows of towering peaks. Where there were clear mountain springs, they found remains of human dwellings and land for about forty seok of fields or paddies.

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  17. Wait...

    "自黃土 仇味至中峯似近三十里而群峯崎屹泉水淸冽間有人家居址可田可畓爲四十餘石"

    It should be more like...

    It was almost thirty ri from Hwangto-gumi (黃土仇味 - Yellow Clay Cove) to the central peak (中峯), and there were rows of towering peaks. Among clear mountain springs, they found remains of human dwellings and land for about forty seok of fields or paddies.

    What do you think?

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  18. Kaneganese,

    I cannot tell if the human dwellings were among the clear mountain springs or between both the rows of mountain peaks and mountain springs. What to you think of this translation?

    There were rows of towering peaks with clear mountain springs. Among them were remains of human dwellings and land for about forty seok of fields or paddies.

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  19. I'm not sure that the "而群峯崎屹" and "泉水淸冽間有人家居址可田可畓爲四十餘石" are one sentence, or two. But if you look the place( the remains of human dwellings = 黄土坎?) from lower side, it must have looked like being between the peaks. So you can say the dwellings are also between peaks, I guess.

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  20. Kaneganese,

    "Remains of human dwellings" is 人家居址. Also, if you look at this Korean Map from the 1750s, you will see a place marked as 寬豁, which means "wide valley." I think that is the area he was referring to in the report. Anyway, it is not really important in the Dokdo/Takeshima debate, but it is interesting to compare these things.

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  21. Gerry,

    Oh, sorry for my confusing previous comment. Actually, I think we are talking about the same place. I wanted to suggest that the place where they found "人家居址" must be "黄土坎", which is a tiny tableland which locates between 台霞港 and 聖人峰 in 1918 Japanese map. I think it is the same place as "寬豁" you mentioned. (I really like this 1918 map since I can imagine the 3-D spectacle from those contour lines.)

    Anyway, I agree that it's really exciting that we can identify the place names of the old maps from documents and others. And we can see the pattern of the inspection lead by Choson officals by deciphering many documents and maps in datail. I'm really glad that you always introduce those important documents to us.

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  22. Hi,

    I made the letter of the 1711 鬱陵島図形 map a text.

    http://outdoor.geocities.jp/yabutarou01/1.html

    And this is the big map of the modern 鬱陵島island.

    http://outdoor.geocities.jp/yabutarou01/map.html

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  23. Thank you for the maps, Yabutarou. I really like that big modern map of Ulleungdo.

    By the way, I noticed you put a question mark (?) next to the semi-circle to the right of Usando on the 1711 map. Well, I do not think that was drawn on the map. I think it is just on the film. Notice how it runs off the edge of the map.

    Anyway, thank you for those links.

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  24. Yabutarouさん

    鬱陵島の大きな現代地図、ありがとうございました。漢字で書かれていれば助かったんですが、贅沢はいえませんね。1711年の場所名も参考にさせて頂きます。

    ところで、以前話していた安龍福以前の竹嶼が于山島と呼ばれた事は無い、というお話ですが、ちょっとそれについての検証ページを公開してみたので、ご覧になってご意見いただけませんか? 結論としては、仰る通り確かに鬱陵島の総称としての于山島もしくは于山国以外で、竹嶼が于山(島)と呼ばれた証拠はありませんね。この調子で、三峯島、竹島一件以降の文献についてもリストアップしていきたいと思っています。

    512 - 1694 竹島一件以前の韓国(朝鮮)古文書に於ける鬱陵島と竹嶼の名称の変遷についての悉皆的分析の試み (Experimental analysis for the transition of names of Ulleundo and Jukdo in Korean old documents before Ahn Yong Bok's incident in 1696.)

    Gerry,

    The above is my experimental analysis of the name of Jukdo before Ahn's incident.

    By the way, do you really think the semi-circle near the Usando in 1711 map was not original? It is very important information for him since he is trying to show Kwanundo was recognized as an island by official inspector in Choson.

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  25. Sorry, the link doesn't work. I will post it later.

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  26. Kaneganse,

    No, I do not think it was drawn on the map because you can see it run off the edge of the map. I think it was just something on the microfilm glass or lens.

    The 1711 map of Ulleungdo is essentially a square map, I think Kwaneumdo was the northeast corner of that square. I do not believe they considered it an island in 1711.

    Also, to analyze the 1711 map, I think you need to count every protrusion on the shoreline of that map to find the locations on a modern map. For example, if you start at the northeast corner (Gwaneumdo) of the 1711 map and count the protrusions going west, you should notice that the forth protusion is just opposion Elephant Rock (穴岩). If you look at a modern map and count four protrusions to the west from Gwaneumdo, you will also end up just opposition Elephant Rock. The northwest corner of the island is four more protrutions west of Elephant Rock. You can find similar protrutions on a modern map, and you can go around the whole island doing the same thing, while confirming your location by the streams and other features drawn on the map.

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  27. yabutarou0121/11/07 08:01

    Gerry,

    By the way, I noticed you put a question mark (?) next to the semi-circle to the right of Usando on the 1711 map. Well, I do not think that was drawn on the map. I think it is just on the film. Notice how it runs off the edge of the map.

    I see . If so , Can I understand that this 1711 鬱陵島図形 map represent small islands of 6 Island as well as a circular 鬱陵島 map?

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  28. Yabutarou,

    Yes, it looks like the 1711 map has the same five small islands off the southern shore of Ulleungdo, as are found on other maps of the island, including Kim Jeong-ho's maps. I think the two middle islands just off the southern (南, 牛) tip of the 1711 map may include the rock that Koreans today call "Gajae Bawui" (Sea Lion Rock) and mark the southern tip of the island, near where Gadu-bong (可頭峰) is today. Or maybe those five islands were just been mistakes?

    By the way, do you think my translation of the following is correct or did I got it wrong?

    鬱陵島在本縣正東海中右于山

    "Ulleungdo is in the middle of the sea due east of this Hyeon and west of Usan."

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  29. 鬱陵島在本縣正東海中右于山

    Gerry, I couldn't find that 右 means "west" in some Japanese dictionaries. A dictionary says that it is south if you face east (so it is west if you face south)...

    The word "右" usually direct "right", so it is also used as the word to point the sentence or word just the writer has written.

    So cloudn't it be; "Ulleungdo locates in this prefecture (懸) just east in the sea, and Usan does so" ???

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  30. In the modern maps by European or Japanese,, the prominent south rocks on the map are;
    ・Gajae Bawui" (Sea Lion Rock)nearby Cape Seal.
    ・Lion Rock獅子岩(鳳巖Phoenix)nearby 南陽洞.
    ・(There seems to be another one camel-like rock nearby Lion Rock)、
    ・A rock nearby 香木亭
    ・Turtle Rock亀岩 in 通桶尾.

    Only one Japanese map there has the small five southcoast rocks,朝鮮輿地図 in 1894.

    Chosun SotokuFu Map on 1918 has some other rocks nearby 可支仇味(see:Map in 1882), though I have lack of information about.

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  31. This comment has been removed by the author.

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  32. Sry for double post;
    There are another Japanese map containing small 5 southerncoast rocks on the map 竹嶋松島図 (No.8440) and 竹島松島圖 (in 竹島考圖説),though it is related or unrelated with small 5southerncoast rocks on Korean maps.

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