竹島問題の歴史

24.11.07

1662 - Cheokjuji (陟州誌) - Ulleungdo (鬱陵島)

Below is a description of Ulleungdo (鬱陵島 - 울릉도) from the "Cheokjuji" (陟州誌 - 척주지), which was a text written by Heo Mok (許穆 - 허목) in 1662. Heo Mok's pen name was Misu (眉叟), but he was also called "the old man of Taeryeong" (台嶺老人). He never took the civil service exam, yet, at the age of 81, he was appointed as "U-euijeong" (右議政), which was one of the top positions in the Joseon government. Before he became the U-euijeong, he was the "Dohobusa" (都護府使) for Samcheok (三陟), which means he was in charge of the Samcheok area. He lived from 1595 to 1682. His picture is on the left. You can read more about Heo Mok in Korean HERE.
The "Cheokjuji" (陟州誌) is a fairly long text that describes the geography, history, and customs of the Samcheok area. In fact, Cheokju (陟州) was the name for Samcheok during the Koryo period. The "Cheokjuji" is regarded as the best of the area chronicles written by an individual during the Joseon period.
The "Cheokjuji" not only describes the Samcheok area, but it also describes Ulleungdo in an appendix at the end of the text, which I found interesting. For example, Ulleungdo was described as being made up of three peaks, which is more evidence that another name for Ulleungdo was "Sambongdo" (三峯島), which means "Island of Three Peaks." Korea claims that Sambongdo was an old Korean name for "Dokdo" (Liancourt Rocks), but this document and several others suggest that Sambongdo was Ulleungdo, not Liancourt Rocks. Another thing I found interesting was the description of "Usan" (于山 - 우산), which was described as being just another name for Ulleungdo. In fact, the text made it quite clear that Usan (于山) and Ulleung (鬱陵) were referring to one and the same island. Here is how Usan was described in the text:
或云于山鬱陵一島方百里在海中蔚珎之東
Also called Usan (于山), Ulleungdo has an area of 100 ri and is in the middle of the sea east of Uljin (蔚珎).
Notice that Usan/Ulleung was described as "one island" (一島) in 1662, which means the description of being able to see it on a clear day was a description of the view of Ulleungdo from the Korean mainland and not a description of the view of "Dokdo" (Liancourt Rocks) from Ulleungdo. Korea claims that "Usan" was an old Korean name for Liancourt Rocks (Dokdo), but this document says that Usan was just another name for Ulleungdo. Actually, I am not sure if the text was saying that another name for the island was "Usan" (于山) or "Usan-Ulleung" (于山鬱陵), but it does not really matter since either name would still be referring to just "one island" (一島). The fact that the author of the text was in charge of the Samcheok area and obviously had a great deal of knowledge about its geography and history gives even more credence to the description of Ulleungdo, as it was known in 1662. Again, this record says that Usan was just another name for Ulleungdo, not a separate island.
The following is my English translation of the text. The Korean translation was done by Samcheok University Professor Bae Jae-hong, who has published his translation of the entire "Cheokjuji" text:
Appendix
Ulleung (鬱陵) or Uleung (羽陵) is in the middle of the sea and is made up three mountain peaks that are tall and steep. Among them the southern peak is the smallest by a small bit. When the sea is clear, you can see the dense trees and all the white beaches below the mountains. They say that if you have a fair wind, you can travel there in one day.
Also called Usan (于山), Ulleungdo has an area of 100 ri and is in the middle of the sea east of Uljin (蔚珎).
In the 13th year of Koryo's Taejo (930 A.D.), Usanguk (于山國) envoy Baek Gil To (白吉圡) brought tribute of the local products. [The "History of Koryo" (高麗史) says that two people came from Usanguk, Baek Gil (白吉) and To Du (土豆), so it is likely that the 豆 character was omitted in error.]
In the 13th year of Eujong (1159 A.D.), it was said that Ulleungdo land was fertile and grains grew well, so Myeongju-do (溟州道) grain storehouse supervisor (監倉使) Kim Yu-rip (金柔立) was sent there to investigate. He returned and reported that the island had a large mountain at its center and that it was about 10,000 paces from its peak to the eastern shore, about 15,000 to the southern shore, and about 8,000 to the northern shore. On the east and north sides, there were remains of villages that total in the dozens. The were a few stones Buddhas, stone pagodas, and a metal bell. There were lots of Chinese hare's ear (柴胡), Angelica tenuisima Nakai (藁本), and moorwort (石南草).
Later, Choi Chung-heon proposed that people from Donggun (東郡) move there, but when he attempted to carry out his plan, the sea conditions were bad, a boat sank, and people died, so he had the people return. During the time of Joseon's Taejong (太宗), when displaced people went to live on the island, Anmusa Kim In-u (安撫使 金麟雨) was sent to search them out. He brought back about forty families. When Kim In-u returned, he said that bamboo on the island was as big as a flagpole, rats were as big as cats, and peaches were as big as a gourd bowl. In the 20th year of Sejong (1438), Commander Namho (南灝) was sent again to capture about seventy people who had run away to the island, including Kim Gu-saeng (金九生). All the people living on the island were removed and their leaders were killed.
Kim In-u (金麟雨) was from Samcheok (三陟). His decendents are now government officials and many live in the administrative distict (府中). Kim In-u was originally a soldier under Nameum (南誾), but he distinguished himself as a soldier and was made commander of Anin-po (安仁浦 - Port Anin) and Panjanggi Hyeunsa (判長鬐縣事). During the time of Taejong (太宗), he became an anmusa (安撫使).
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부(附)

울릉(鬱陵)은 혹 우릉(羽陵)이라고 하는데 바다 가운데에 세 산봉우리로 이루어져 있으며 높고 험준하다. 그 중 남쪽 봉우리는 조금 낮다. 바다가 맑게 게이면 나무가 우거져 무성한 것을 바라볼 수 있고, 산 아래는 모두 흰모래이다. 바람이 수조로우면 하루만에 건너 갈 수 있다고 한다.

혹 우산(于山)이라고도 하는 울릉도는 길이가 사방 100리로 울진 동쪽 바다 가운데에 있다.

고려 태조 13년(930)에 우산국(于山國) 사신(使臣) 백길, 토두가 그 지방의 토산물을 바쳤다.

의종 13년(1159)에 울릉도는 토지가 기름져 곡식이 잘 됨으로 백성을 살게 할 수 있다고 하여 명주도(溟州道) 감창사(監倉使) 김유립으로 하여금 가서 살펴보도록 하였다. 그가 돌아와서 아뢰기를 섬 가운데에 큰산이 있는데 산 정상에서 동쪽 해안까지는 만여 보(步)이고 남쪽 해안까지는 만 오천여 보, 북쪽 해안까지는 팔천여 보이며, 동쪽과 북쪽에는 모두 옛 촌락 터가 있는데 합하여 수 십여 곳이나 되고 가끔은 석불(石佛), 석탑(石塔), 철종(鐵鍾) 등도 있으며 시로(柴胡), 고본(藳本), 석남초(石南草) 등이 많다고 하였다.

그 후에 최충헌이 동군(東郡)의 백성을 이주시킬 것을 제의하여 이를 실행에 옮겼지만 보다 사정이 나빠 배가 표몰(漂沒)하여 사람들이 죽었으므로 그 백성을 되돌아오게 하였다. 조선 태종 때에 유민(流民)들이 많이 해도(海島)에 들어 가 살게 되자. 안무사(安撫使) 김인우를 보내어 40여 호를 찾아서 데리고 돌아 왔다. 이때 김인후가 돌아 와 말하기를 섬 안의 대나무는 크기가 깃대와 같고, 쥐는 크기가 고양이와 같고, 복숭아 열매는 크기가 됫박과 같다고 하였다. 세종 20년(1438)에 또 다시 만호(萬戶) 남호를 보내어 도망간 백성 기구생 등 70여 인을 사로잡아 울릉도에 사는 사람이 없도록 하고 도망을 주도한 자는 죽였다.

김인후는 삼척인이다. 지금 그의 자손들은 이족(吏族)이 되었는데 부중에 많이 산다. 김인후는 처음 남은 휘하의 군사였는데 군공을 세워 안인포(安仁浦) 만호(萬戶)와 판장기현사(判長鬐縣事)가 되었고 태종대에 안무사(安撫使)가 되었다.
1662 - Cheokjuji - Ulleungdo 3

13 comments:

  1. Gerry,

    Thank you for introducing us an interesting document. Do you have a Chinese transcription? I thought I would write it, but there are many Chinese letters we don't normally use.

    So, even the governor for 三陟 recognized 于山 and 鬱陵(羽陵) is a one island. think that in the early 1000's, Ulleundo and neibouring island was called as 于山國 and later, the main island was started to be called as 鬱(羽,蔚,芋)陵島. And when Choson dynasty sent inspector to the island in 1400's, they found Jukdo and started to call 鬱陵島 as 于山(島) and 竹嶼 as 武陵(島). But after a while, the dynasty got unfamiliar with the geography of Ulleundo and lost the track of Jukdo. But the description in the documents and the rumor that there is another fertile island near Ulleundo remained and it made Korean confused. I think this is the reason there are many documents that seems to be unsure of 于山島 and 鬱陵島 are one island with two names or two islands. (1452 「高麗史」, 1454 「世宗実録」 地理志, 1481 「東国輿地勝覧」, 1530 「新増東国輿地勝覧」, 1656 柳馨遠「東国輿地志」)

    "鬱陵或曰羽陵海中三峯岌●南峯差卑海晴則山木森然可望山下皆白沙風便一日可渡云"
    And this sentense itself is also interesting since it says not only that there were 三峯 in Ulleundo, but also whe the sea is clear, you can see the dense trees and all the white beaches below the mountains. It suggest that the conception that Ulleundo was visible from main island was the common sence in those days. Korean says that the description from 「世宗実録」地理志 in 1454 (于山武陵二島在縣正東海中二島相去不遠風日清明則可望見) is a proof that Usando was visible from 武陵(Ulleundo), but it clearly shows that this claim today was not common among Korean in 1600s.

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  2. Kaneganese,

    I am sorry, but I do not have a Chinese transcription.

    Heo Mok was the Samcheok "Dohobusa" (都護府使), which should probably be translated as "magistrate" rather than "governor." By the way, I think a "dohobusa" was one step above a "hyeon" (縣)magistrate. For example, I think there were only about seven "dohobusas" in Gangwon Province, which may mean it was about the size of a county or bigger.

    Yes, in 1454 it was于山武陵二島, but in 1662 it was 于山鬱陵一島. In other words, in 1454, they thought of Usan and Ulleung as two islands, but in 1662, they thought of them as one island. However, they both were talking about the same thing, the distance from the Korean coast to Ulleungdo, not the distance from Ulleungdo to Liancourt Rocks (Dokdo/Takeshima). I think this document comfirms that.

    I am now trying to translate the 1863 document HERE. I have already found one mistake in the transcription I got from the Seoul National University site, so if you see any other mistakes in the Chinese transcription, please let me know. By the way, how would you translate the following:

    倭舡漁探者時到

    I hope you had a nice weekend.

    ReplyDelete
  3. Gerry,

    "Heo Mok was the Samcheok "Dohobusa" (都護府使), which should probably be translated as "magistrate" rather than "governor." "

    Thank you.

    "However, they both were talking about the same thing, the distance from the Korean coast to Ulleungdo, not the distance from Ulleungdo to Liancourt Rocks (Dokdo/Takeshima). "

    I totally agree. I think Korean are making use of their own ancesters' confusion of two islands' names in the past in order to insist their claim. If they continue this illogical and intentional misreading, it's going to invite more confusion in the future. It's not good for their own sake.

    "倭舡漁探者時到"

    I would translate it as "Japanese fishermen on the boats came to catch fishes from time to time".

    We had a long weekend, three days in a row, and beautiful autumun sunshine in Japan. I think that's why everyone is quiet.

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  4. Kaneganese,

    Thank you for the translation. That is similar to what I also was thinking; however, in the context of the passage, I think 倭舡漁探者時到 should be translated as "from the time Japanese boats came to fish, they have called the island 'Takeshima.'" What do you think?

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  5. Gerry,

    "(倭舡漁探者時到)倭人謂之竹島與日本隱岐州相近"( "from the time Japanese boats came to fish, they have called the island 'Takeshima.'")

    Mmmmm. It's possible, but I think if he meant the way you think, he would have rather written as 倭舡漁探者"到時".

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  6. ”Notice that Usan/Ulleung was described as "one island" (一島) in 1662, which means the description of being able to see it on a clear day was a description of the view of Ulleungdo from the Korean mainland and not a description of the view of "Dokdo"”

    That's exactly what professor shimojou says.
    He argues that Korean geographer had the proper way how to spot and describe the Korean islands off the Korean coast and how to read the description---by the distance (and the direction )from the local government. (Otherwise you can not spot the islands.He gives some examples from old books of Korean geography in his book, but I don't have his book now)
    That is how and why Korean were able to claim Ulleungdo as their territory when the dispute took place between Japan and Korea.

    Korea is now using another criteria
    for claiming Dokdo for their convenience.

    ReplyDelete
  7. Ponta wrote;
    "That's exactly what professor shimojou says."

    I agree. And that that's exactly what Gerry came to as a conclusion about the similar description in 世宗実録「地理志」in 1454.
    "Lies, Half-truths, & Dokdo Video, Part 1"

    Though pro-Korean accuse Gerry that his claim is same as "Japanese right wingers", but the truth is, it is the only conclusion if you follow the rule of the document. And Choson officials did that too in the first place in 1695, as Ponta says. It was recorded in many documents.

    1695年9月25日 - 「肅宗実録」
    "時遣公差, 往來搜檢事, 我國《輿地勝覽》, 詳記新羅、高麗及本朝太宗、世宗、成宗三朝, 屢遣官人於島中之事。 "

    1726年 - 「粛宗実録」二十年8月13日/『通航一覧』巻137
    "朝鮮国礼曹参判李番、奉復日本国対馬大守平公閣下、槎使鼎来、恵□随至、良用慰荷弊邦江原道蔚珍県有属島、名曰蔚陵、在本県東海中、而風濤危険、船路無便、故中年移其民空其地、而時遣公差往来捜検矣、<<本島峰巒樹木、自陸地歴々望見、<<而凡其山川紆曲、地形濶狭、民居遺址、土物所産、<<倶戴於我国輿地勝覧書<<、歴代相伝、事跡昭然..."

    ReplyDelete
  8. There are Usan/Ulleung was described as "one island twin name on the maps.
    1.光(広?)輿図 江原道 関東圖
    2.地乘 江原道 15423


    Just ask yr opinion.Is there "southern-coast small five adjunctive rocks" on this map below? or just a bug? I feel it is five rocks.
    18世紀末期1787-1800 朝鮮八道地圖 彩色写本4709圭-2

    To Yabatarou
    I read yr Yahoo post and there are other Ullungdo detail maps not listed in your site.
    1.朝鮮古分道地圖 三 高麗大学図書館
    2.『海東地圖』大東總圖

    ReplyDelete
  9. I'm amazed at the1 skill of gtomr to find these rare maps.
    especially, "海東地図" is interesting.

    Does somebody know about the island at northwest of ullengdo (堅造島)? Usan locates at west of Ulleungdo, although there are Japanese ships harbor houses (?) as the word "倭船倉可居" shows...
    Quite interesting.

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  10. Wow! Thanks GTOMR. I had never seen that 關東圖 map before. That is quite interesting. However, I do not think it is part of the 光輿圖. The Koryo Univ. map is also interesting.

    As for that one map you asked about, I cannot even tell if Ulleungdo is on the map. Everything is too small.

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  11. I'm sorry, GTOMR. You were right. The map is listed on the Gwangyeodo (光輿圖) atlas.

    ReplyDelete
  12. Kaneganese
    Thank you for the follow-up
    Right It is interesting that the two researchers who studied this issue in a most detailed way reached the same conclusion. On the other hand it might be natural:for, as Gerry said on Sankei, there is only one truth.

    New maps,and new documents every day!
    Keep it up Gtomr,kaneganese,pacifist,Gerry, Yosaburo, oh yes, and Steve.

    ReplyDelete
  13. Thank you, Ponta.
    (And thank you for your occasional comments for back up when it "rains", too.)

    "New maps,and new documents every day!"

    It's unbelievable how far we reached from last year, isn't it ? It seems to be a long time ago even the last Takeshima day and the article thing we (you, mostly) were doing 10 month ago...

    BTW, he is not Yosaburo, but Yabutarou.(^_^)

    ReplyDelete