竹島問題の歴史

25.12.09

1823 - "Haedong Yeoksa sok" (海東繹史續)



The above page is from the 1823 Korean text Haedong Yeoksa sok (海東繹史續), which translates as "History of Korea - Supplement." It is also called Haedong Yeoksa Jirigo (海東繹史地理考) since it was the geography supplement to the Haedong Yeoksa (海東繹史). The text is stored in the National Library of Korea.

Korean historican Han Chi-yun (韓致奫) had spent about ten years writting seventy volumes of the Haedong Yeoksa (海東繹史), but he died in 1814 before he completed the geography portion (地理考) of the text. Han Chi-yun's nephew, Han Jin-seo, took over his uncle's work and completed the 15-volume geography section in 1823.

The document seems to be saying that Songdo (松島) and Usando (于山島) were just different names Ulleungdo (鬱陵島), which may help explain why Lee Gyu-won told King Kojong in 1882 that Usando was just another name for Ulleungdo. The following is a translation of the above text:
松島 于山島 鬱陵島


[兩朝平攘錄] 萬歷二十五年倭分屯松島蔚山釜山鎭書 謹案文獻備考于山島卽倭所謂松島也 輿地勝覽 于山鬱陵本一島地方百里新羅智證王時討服其國在今蔚珍縣正東海中水道提綱 蔚珍東海曰千山島曰 陵島千山卽于山之誤陵卽鬱陵也. 拾遺記 蓬萊山 高二萬里有鬱夷國王維送日本晁監序扶桑 若薺鬱島如萍鬱夷鬱島似指鬱陵島也.


Songdo, Usando, Ulleungdo

In the Yangjo Pyeongyang Rok (兩朝平攘錄), in 1597, the Japanese set up bases at Songdo (松島), Ulsan (蔚山), and Busan (釜山). I, Jinseo (鎭書), think that in the Munheon Bigo (文獻備考), Usando (于山島) is what the Japanese call Songdo (松島). In the Yeoji Seungram (輿地勝覽), Usan/Ulleungdo were originally one island with an area of 100 ri. During the time of King Jijeung of Silla (新羅智證王), that country was conquered and subjugated and was due east of what is now Uljin-hyeon (蔚珍縣). In the Sudo Jegang (水道提綱), east of Uljin is "千山島" (Cheonsando) and "菀陵島" (Wanleungdo). The 千山 (Cheonsan) was just a mistake for 于山 (Usan), and 菀陵 was just 鬱陵.

.

In the Seupyugi (拾遺記), Mount Bongrae (蓬萊山) is 20,000 ri high. There is Uliguk (鬱夷國). In Wang Yu's "Sending a forward to Japan's Nakamaro" (送日本晁監序), Japan (扶桑) is like shepherd's purse (薺). Uldo (鬱島) is like duckweed (萍). Uli (鬱夷) and Uldo (鬱島) seem to refer to Ulleungdo (鬱陵島).

UPDATE:

Later, in the same text is the following:

蔚珍城東其東南隔海曰千山島謹案 千當作于 曰菀陵島. 東三十度極三十六度八分. 又西南數十里經平海城東南有小水口 水西出奉化城東大山. 合兩源流百里入海口正爲千山島.

On the east side of Uljin Fort (蔚珍城), in the sea to the southeast, are "Cheonsando" (千山島), of which I think 千 (천) should be corrected to 于 (우), and "Wanreungdo" (菀陵島), which is east 30 degrees, north 36 degrees 8 minutes. Also, some tens of ri to the southeast is the east side of Pyeonghae Fort (平海城). To the southeast of there is the mouth of a small river. The water flows from the west, from a big mountain east of the Bonghwa Fort (奉化城). Two sources merge and flow 100 ri to the sea. Just at the mouth of the river is Cheonsando (口正爲千山島).

The Cheonsando (千山島) being referred to in the above passage is the one that appears just offshore of Pyeonghae (平海) on Chinese and many old Western maps of Korea. It seems that Wanreungdo (莞陵島), for which coordinates are given, may be considered a separate island. You can read the original below or go HERE, where you can find it on the third page.

31 comments:

  1. The quote from Wang Yu's "送日本晁監序" is strange. Does anyone know what he meant by the quote? In other words, why was he comparing Japan and Ulleungdo to plants?

    Also, how would the name of the text, 送日本晁監序, translate in English?

    ReplyDelete
  2. Wow, this is very interesting.

    Thanks, Gerry.

    First of all, yes, it seems that the author think Matsushima is Usando and they are other names of Ulleungdo.

    And "送日本晁監序" seems to be quoated from the Chinese verse which was sent to Abeno Nakamaro, a famous Japanese student to 唐, from 王維, a famous Poet when Nakamaro left for Japan. "晁監" means Nakamaro. So it says that "I send a forward to Abeno Nakamaro"

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abe_no_Nakamaro

    This is the whole verse.

    送秘書晁監還日本國

    秘書晁監(てうかん)の日本国に還るを送る        王維

    積水不可極
    積水 極むべからず
    大海原は果てしなく

    安知滄海東
    安(いづく)んぞ知らん滄海(さうかい)の東
    海の東はいかならん

    九州何處遠
    九州 何(いづ)れの処か遠き
    世界の遠く果てまでも

    萬里若乘空
    万里空に乗ずるが若(ごと)し
    はるかに空に乗るごとし

    向國惟看日
    国に向かひて惟だ日を看
    お日様たよりにふるさとへ

    歸帆但信風
    帰帆 但だ風を信ず
    帰国の船は風まかせ

    鰲身映天黒
    鰲身(がうしん) 天に映じて黒く
    くろぐろ光る亀の甲

    魚眼射波紅
    魚眼 波を射て紅なり
    ちらちら揺れる魚の眼

    郷樹扶桑外
    郷樹 扶桑の外
    里の山の木遠くにて

    主人孤島中
    主人 孤島の中
    主は島の中へゆく

    別離方異域
    別離 方(まさ)に異域
    海を隔てて別れれば

    音信若爲通
    音信,若爲(いかん)して通ぜん
    知らせを伝える文もなし


    秘書晁監 … 阿倍仲麻呂。中国名は晁衡。この詩は仲麻呂の帰国の際に詠まれた。

    (http://www.tufs.ac.jp/ts/personal/choes/etc/kansi/meisi.html)

    ReplyDelete
  3. Mr.Bevers,

    [兩朝平攘錄] 萬歷二十五年倭分屯松島蔚山釜山鎭書 謹案文獻備考卽倭



    [兩朝平攘錄] 萬歷二十五年倭分屯松島蔚山釜山鎭書 謹案文獻備考<于山島>卽倭




    今蔚珍縣正東海中提綱水道 提綱 蔚珍東隣海曰千山島曰 菀陵島千山卽于

        ↓

    今蔚珍縣正東海中××水道 提綱 蔚珍東「隔」海曰千山島曰 菀陵島千山卽于


    2009.12.26

    ReplyDelete
  4. Thank you Kaneganese & Chaamiey.

    Is 鬱島 mentioned in the poem? Because I do not see it. Can either of you understand why the poem is comparing Japan and 鬱島 to plants?

    ReplyDelete
  5. 積水不可極
    安知滄海東
    九州何處遠
    萬里若乘空
    向國惟看日
    歸帆但信風
    鰲身映天黒
    魚眼射波紅
    郷樹扶桑外
    主人孤島中
    別離方異域
    音信若爲通



    鬱島 is not mentioned in the poem.

    ReplyDelete
  6. I think in Chinese book "拾遺記", it says that there is 蓬萊山, a mountain where the enlightened person/ wizard live in the eastern sea. And the "鬱夷國" is also mentioned. Since Japan's Matsushima is Usando=Ulleungdo and those two locate to the east of Korea, the author seems to be unsure Ulleungdo is Japan's or Korea's. I have no idea why the author brought 王維's poem, but it says that Nakamaro went back to Japan(扶桑), where there are trees, among the lonely islands over the sea. I think the author used this an analogy for Ulldungdo and Japan, since both of them locate to the east of Korea and Ullungdo is lonely island like floating weed(萍) and Japan is the land where the weed (薺) grows. This is the best I could do, Gerry. I hope more informed person about Chinese poem may give us advice.

    ReplyDelete
  7. Thank you, Chaamiey and Kaneganese. It is strange that 鬱島 is that mentioned in the poem.

    By the way, I have added another section from the 海東譯史續 to the post. However, there are two Chinese characters that I was unsure of and replaced with a *. Could either of you tell me what those characters are?

    ReplyDelete
  8. First one is "業". And second one is "江" or "工", I think.

    This is Chaamiey's expertise.

    ReplyDelete
  9. Happy Christmas, everybody!

    I'm here with new nickname MC a.k.a. myCoree.

    Previous nickname gave myself a little burdensome feeling. So, I changed it.



    These days there are many good historical data in this site. It makes my heart fluttering.

    I found some wrong characters and translations.

    蔚珍城東其東南隣海曰千山島謹* 千當作于 曰莞陵島. 東三十度極三十六度八分. 又西南數十里經平海城東南有小水口 水西出奉化城東大山. 合兩源流百里入海*口正爲千山島.
    ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓

    蔚珍城東其東南"隔"海曰千山島"謹案"千當作于 曰"菀陵島". 東三十度極三十六度八分. 又西南數十里經平海城東南有小水口 水西出奉化城東大山. 合兩源流百里入海*口正爲千山島.



    謹案 : 삼가 생각컨대(i'm not sure but I think)
    菀陵島 : 원릉도(莞⇒菀)

    signal fire fort ⇒ Bonghwa Fort(봉화군. County?)

    曰 = so-called (just my guess!)

    *口 = 江口??? (Anyway, but it doesn't make sense to everybody.)

    ReplyDelete
  10. Oh, I've found the translation in Korean. 해동역사 속집 제14권 지리고14 산수2☜click)


    又東南折而西南百里經蔚珍城東其東南"隔"海曰千山島"謹案"千當作于 曰"菀陵島". 東三十度極三十六度八分. 又西南數十里經平海城東南有小水口 水西出奉化城東大山. 合兩源流百里入海*口正爲千山島.

    여기에서 또다시 동남쪽으로 가다가 꺾어져서 서남쪽으로 100리를 가면 울진성(蔚珍城)의 동쪽을 지나게 되는데, 그 동남쪽 바다 건너에는 천산도(千山島) -삼가 살펴보건대, 우산도(于山島)로 되어야 한다.- 가 있으며, 완릉도(菀陵島)라고도 한다. -동경 30도, 북위 36도 8분이다.- 여기에서 또다시 서남쪽으로 수십 리를 가면 평해성(平海城) 동남쪽을 지나는데, 소수구가 있다. -물은 서쪽에 있는 봉화성(奉化城)의 동쪽에 있는 큰 산에서 나와 두 개의 근원이 합해져서 동쪽으로 100리를 흘러 바다로 들어간다. 해구는 바로 천산도가 된다.-

    The author of 海東繹史 confessed his own confusion about the identity of 松島,千山島,菀陵島.

    By the way, in 東國輿地勝覽, it was written :
    于山島 鬱陵島 一云武陵 一云羽陵 "二島"在縣正東海中 三峯岌嶪撑空 南峯稍卑 風日淸明則峯頭樹木 及山根沙渚 歷歷可見 風便則二日可到 一說于山鬱陵 本一島

    ReplyDelete
  11. Hi, MC. It is good to see you, again. Thank you for the corrections.

    Kaneganese & MC,

    As for 江口, it would make sense, but 江 cannot be abbreviated to 匕, can it? Also, the text was using 水 instead of 江, so I do not see why the writer would suddenly switch.

    I think 匕 is an abbreviation 尼, which used to be used as a 토씨 (助詞) meaning 니 in Korean. 니 is just a sentence ending sometimes used when conveying information based on experience. However, what is confusing is that I think it should have come before the period.

    Anyway, it does not seem to be that important to the meaning of the sentence.

    ReplyDelete
  12. Gerry,

    又東南折而西南百里。經蔚珍城東。其東南隔海。曰千山島(謹案千當作于)。曰菀陵島(東三十度 極三十六度八分)。
    又西南數十里。經平海城東南。有小水口。(水西出奉化城東大山。合兩源流百里 入海*口正爲千山島)

    ( )shows small letters

    The last sentence,

    水 西出奉化城 東大山。合兩源流 百里入海。 *口正爲千山島。

    -물은 서쪽에 있는 봉화성(奉化城)의 동쪽에 있는 큰 산에서 나와
    두 개의 근원이 합해져서
    동쪽으로 100리를 흘러 바다로 들어간다.
    해구는 바로 천산도가 된다.

    In this sentence,
    해구 is 海口

    So,
    百里入海。 *口正爲千山島。

    should be

    百里入海。「海口」正為千山島。

    “匕” would be “々”.

    “々” means the same letter as above, just like 人々 and 村々。
    This is 海々  ~海。海~


    This is very interesting because千山島 (which should be「于山島」as the author says)
    is located at「海口」near 平海城.

    The author(韓鎭書) never thought千山島=「于山島」is 獨島.

    ReplyDelete
  13. More important is,

    蔚珍城東、其東南、隔海曰千山島(謹案 千當作于) 曰菀陵島(東三十度 極三十六度八分)

    울진성(蔚珍城)의 동쪽을 지나게 되는데,그 동남쪽 바다 건너에는 천산도(千山島) (삼가 살펴보건대, 우산도(于山島)로 되어야 한다.)- 가 있으며, 완릉도(菀陵島)라고도 한다. (동경 30도, 북위 36도 8분이다.)

    This Korean translation says
    千山島(should be于山島)is the same island as 菀陵島(=鬱陵島)

    =천산도(千山島) (삼가 살펴보건대, 우산도(于山島)로 되어야 한다.)- 가 있으며 완릉도(菀陵島)라고도 한다
    千山島(于山島とすべきである)があるが、菀陵島とも言う。

    And 菀陵島 is located
    동경 30도, 북위 36도 8분이다. 東経30度 北緯36度8分

    This 「東経30度」 is from 北京。

    I wonder how many kilometers for 1 degree.


    And more to say,
    There is no mention about the island located more east.

    So, the author(韓鎭書) never knew about Dokdo(獨島).

    ReplyDelete
  14. Thank you, Matsu.

    What you said about 々 is very interesting to me because I had seen that mark before in Japanese documents, but did not know what it meant. Wikipedia describes it HERE, but does not say that it was also used in Korea.

    Even though it would make sense if 匕, or whatever the character is, was a shorthand saying to repeat the character in front of it, how do you know that the character in the text is the Korean equivalent of 々? Have you read that somewhere or seen it on the Internet? I am just very curious and interesting in learning about it.

    I saw the Korean translation, but it is not clear that the Chinese was saying the two islands were the same, which is why I wrote them separately.

    Also, why would the writer describe 千山島 as being at the mouth of the river, but not 菀陵島? I think it is because the writer had already used a coordinate to give the location of 菀陵島.

    However, there are many documents and maps from the 1800s, such as this 1884-1894 map, that describe Ulleungdo as being east of Pyeonghae (平海) and Usando as being east of Samcheok (三陟), which is north of Pyeonghae.

    It seems like people were pretty confused back then.

    ReplyDelete
  15. 水道提綱 and 海東繹史
    here

    ReplyDelete
  16. Thank you GTOMR,

    It says 東流 百里入海。海口 正對千山島.
    So the word is 海。

    http://archive.wul.waseda.ac.jp/kosho/ru05/ru05_00112/ru05_00112_0008/ru05_00112_0008_p0052.jpg

    I thought the small letters are notes by 韓鎭書, but it seems to be original by 齊召南『水道提綱』.

    又東南、経江陵城東。又南百里、経三渉浦東。又東南、折而西南百里、経蔚珍城東。其東南隔海、曰千山島、曰菀陵島(東十三度、極三十六度八分)。
    又南西数十里、経平海城東南、有小水口(水 西出奉化城東大山、合両源。 東流 百里入海。海口 正對千山島)。

    The text which Gerry has shown (韓鎭書『海東繹史續』)is 海口 正「為」千山島,
    But this text is 海口 正「對」千山島.

    This text doesn’t have 謹案 千當作于,
    So, this is 韓鎭書’s note.
    He also says for 三渉, 謹案 渉當作陟.

    韓鎭書 knew the names of Korean place, and corrected as Chinese geographer 齊召南 didn’t know.

    More important is,
    This text says 菀陵島“East 13 degree”(東十三度 極三十六度八分),

    北京 is about 116度20分。
    116度20分+13度=129度20分。

    So, 東十三度 may be right, and 東三十度 as 韓鎭書『海東繹史續』says is a mistake.


    On these facts I would like to say again;

    千山島=于山島 is located at「海口」
    韓鎭書 never thought 千山島=「于山島」is 獨島.

    There is no mention about the island located more east,
    Both 韓鎭書,the Korean Geographer, and 齊召南,the Chinese geographer, never knew about Dokdo(獨島).


    韓鎭書 didn’t take much attention about territories in the East Sea, as he mistakes the longitude of 菀陵島(鬱陵島).


    Below is about 『水道提綱』(1761年)
    ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・
    http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E9%BD%90%E5%8F%AC%E5%8D%97

    齊召南(1703年-1768年),
    乾隆二十六年(1761年)完成《水道提綱》28卷。
    ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・
    水道提綱

    http://kanji.zinbun.kyoto-u.ac.jp/db-machine/ShikoTeiyo/0150301.html

    水道提綱 二十八卷
    國朝 (means 清) 齊召南 撰。
    召南 字次風。台州人。乾隆丙辰。召試博學鴻詞。授翰林院編修。官至禮部侍郞。
    歴代史書。各志地理。而水道則自水經以外無專書。郭璞所注。久佚不傳。酈道元所注。詳於北而略於南。且距今千載。陵谷改移。卽所述北方諸水。亦多非其舊。
    國初。餘姚黃宗羲作今水經一卷。篇幅寥寥。粗具梗概。且塞外諸水。頗有舛譌。不足以資考證。
    召南官翰林時。預修大淸一統志。外藩蒙古諸部。是所分校。故於西北地形。多能考驗。且天下輿圖。備於書局。又得以博考旁稽。乃參以耳目見聞。互相鉤校。以成是編。
    首以海。次爲盛京至京東諸水。次爲直沽所匯諸水。次爲北運河。次爲河。及入河諸水。次爲淮。及入淮諸水。次爲江。及入江諸水。次爲江南運河。及太湖入海港浦。次爲浙江閩江粵江。次雲南諸水。次爲西藏諸水。次漠北阿爾泰以南水。及黑龍江松花諸江。次東北海朝鮮諸水。次塞北漠南諸水。而終以西域諸水。
    大抵通津所注。往往袤延數千里。不可限以疆域。
    召南所敍。不以郡邑爲分。惟以巨川爲綱。而以所會衆流爲目。故曰提綱。
    其源流分合。方隅曲折。則統以今日水道爲主。不屑屑附會於古義。而沿革同異。亦卽互見於其閒。
    其自序譏古來記地理者。志在藝文。情侈觀覽。或於神仙荒怪。遙續山海。或於洞天梵宇。揄揚仙佛。或於游蹤偶及。逞異炫奇。形容文飾。祇以供詞賦之用。故所敍錄。頗爲詳核。與水經注之模山範水。其命意固殊矣。然非召南生逢聖代。當敷天砥屬之時。亦不能於數萬里外。聞古人之所未聞。言之如指諸掌也。

    ReplyDelete
  17. I think 「松島 于山島 鬱陵島」 would be parted as below;

    『兩朝平攘錄』萬歷二十五年、倭 分屯 松島・蔚山・釜山。
    鎭書(=韓鎭書=The Author) 謹案(considers)。
    『文獻備考』、于山島 卽 倭所謂松島也。
    『輿地勝覽』、于山 鬱陵 本一島。地方百里。新羅智證王時討服其國。在今蔚珍縣正東海中。
    『水道提綱』、 蔚珍東 隔海、 曰千山島 曰 菀陵島。
    (The Author considers)千山 卽于山之誤。菀陵 卽鬱陵也。

    『拾遺記』、 蓬萊山 高二萬里。有「鬱夷」國。
    『王維 送日本晁監 序』、扶桑 若薺「鬱島」如萍「鬱夷」。
    (The Author considers)「鬱島」似指 鬱陵島也。
    …………………………………………….

    韓鎭書, the author of 『海東繹史續』, thought 于山=鬱陵 according to『輿地勝覽』于山 鬱陵 本一島。
    He also thought 于山島 =倭所謂松島, according to『文獻備考』于山島 卽 倭所謂松島也。
    So, he thought 松島=于山島=鬱陵島.

    I think that’s why the Korean translation says 于山島 is also called 鬱陵島.

    천산도(千山島) (삼가 살펴보건대, 우산도(于山島)로 되어야 한다) 가 있으며 완릉도(菀陵島)라고도 한다.
    千山島(于山島とすべきである)があるが、菀陵島とも言う。
    …………………………………………….

    The books referred in「松島 于山島 鬱陵島」are as follows;

    『兩朝平攘錄』(1606年)
    http://kanji.zinbun.kyoto-u.ac.jp/db-machine/ShikoTeiyo/0119101.html

    兩朝平攘錄 五卷

    明 諸葛元聲 撰。元聲 會稽人。是書 凡紀 五大事。
    考明史載隆慶五年三月己丑。封諳達爲順義王。六月甲寅。順義王諳達貢馬。告廟受賀。丙辰。諳達執趙全餘黨十三人來獻。此書卷一紀其事。
    又萬歷元年九月丙戌。四川都掌蠻平。此書卷二紀其事。
    又萬歷二十年三月戊辰。寧夏致仕副總兵哱拜殺巡撫党馨。副使石繼芳。據城反。壬申。總督魏學曾討寧夏賊。秋七月。以葉夢熊代之。九月壬申。寧夏賊平。十一月壬辰。御午門受寧夏俘。此書第三卷紀其事。
    又萬歷二十年五月。倭犯朝鮮。二十一年正月。李如松攻倭於平壤。克之。四月。倭使小西飛納款。二十四年九月。平秀吉復攻朝鮮。二十六年十二月。總兵官陳璘破倭於乙山。朝鮮平。此書第四卷紀其事。
    又萬歷二十五年七月。楊應龍叛。掠合江綦江。二十八年二月。李化龍帥師分路進討播州。六月。克海龍囤。楊應龍自縊。播州平。是書第五卷紀其事。
    卷首有萬歷丙午商濬序。考丙午爲萬歷三十四年。則元聲之成是書。得之目睹爲多也。
    ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・
    This book was written in 萬歷三十四年 丙午(1606) by諸葛元聲 who was a會稽人.

    Vol4 of the book(此書第四卷)is about 豊臣秀吉’s invasion.
    萬歷二十五年(1597) is the year of his second invasion (丁酉再乱).

    I wonder if this “松島” really means 鬱陵島.
    I want to see the original text.

    ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・
    『文獻備考』『輿地勝覽』are famous books for us.

    ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・
    『拾遺記』(4世紀)
    http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E6%8B%BE%E9%81%BA%E8%A8%98
    『拾遺記』(しゅういき)は、中国の後秦の王嘉が撰した志怪小説集。10巻。上古より東晋に及ぶ小説稗伝の類を収めている。撰者・王嘉は、隴西郡安陽県の出身で、字は子年。当時、未来の事を予言する能力を持つ者として著名であったが、390年頃に、後秦主の姚萇の機嫌を損ねて誅せられた。
    ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・
    『王維 送日本晁監 序』(8世紀)

    序 is the “introduction” for the poem.
    We don’t yet have the full text of the “introduction”
    When we have it, it will be more clear.

    王維(701~761)
    中国詩史の黄金時代盛唐において李白,杜甫と鼎立する王維は,諸才にあふれ,画をよくし,音楽の造詣も深い博学多芸の文化人として知られる.その作風は平静淡白,絵画的描写にすぐれ,常に田園の美をうたって自然詩の世界を創造完成した.
    http://www.iwanami.co.jp/.BOOKS/32/4/3200310.html

    晁監 =阿倍 仲麻呂(あべのなかまろ)(698~770)
    奈良時代の遣唐留学生。唐で科挙に合格し、唐朝諸官を歴任して高官に登ったが、日本への帰国を果たせなかった。中国名は晁衡(ちょうこう、または朝衡)。
    http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E9%98%BF%E5%80%8D%E4%BB%B2%E9%BA%BB%E5%91%82
    「天の原 ふりさけみれば 春日なる 三笠の山に いでし月かも」(百人一首)
    I remember a famous cake called “Mikasa-yama” which means a full moon.

    ReplyDelete
  18. Very clear and logical analysis, Matsu.

    On a different topic, I want to ask you again if you know if the character in the document was the Korean equivalent to Japan's 々, or were you just suggesting that it might be.

    I am asking because it was not clear to me from what you wrote. I am also asking because I am trying to teach myself to read old Chinese writing, so this is an interesting topic for me.

    Even if you are sure, I think your guess was a good one.

    ReplyDelete
  19. Correction, Matsu. I meant to write the following:

    "Even if you are unsure, I think your guess was a good one."

    ReplyDelete
  20. 面倒なので全部読まずに書き込みます。


    鬱陵島を菀陵島と言い于山島を千山島とするのは中国で描かれた朝鮮半島図に使われた表現です。
    中国で描かれた朝鮮半島図を元に作られたのが18世紀のフランスの地理学者ダンビルの地図なわけですが、鬱陵島を菀陵島の中国語読みである”Fan-ling-tao”と表記し、于山島を千山島の中国語読みである”Tchian-chan-tao”と表記しています。
    ダンビルの地図では”Fan-ling-tao”と”Tchian-chan-tao”は朝鮮半島のすぐそばに描かれています。ダンビルの地図の元となった中国の朝鮮半島図もそのようなもであったと推測できます。
    ” 合兩源流百里入海匕口正爲千山島”と言う文章は、中国の朝鮮半島図に千山島が半島のすぐそばにあるのを見て書かれた文章であると推測できます。

    ”[兩朝平攘錄] 萬歷二十五年倭分屯松島蔚山釜山鎭書”の松島はいわゆる朝鮮出兵の際に日本軍が駐屯した朝鮮半島近海の島であって鬱陵島・于山島とは無関係の島と考えます。
    おそらく千山島=千山島が蔚山の近くにある地図があったのと『文獻備考』に”于山島卽倭所謂松島也”とあったために別々の松島を同じ島であると勘違いしたのでしょう。

    ReplyDelete
  21. 下のサイトにこんな記述があります。

    ”一方、明・朝鮮連合水軍は、20日朝、倭橋城の東南沖に出動し、 松島という小島にある倭軍の食糧庫を押収した。”

    http://fukubara.web.infoseek.co.jp/2009/2009_08_14b.htm

    ReplyDelete
  22. Gerry.

    You skipped this part (just before the one you selected) :

    竹島
    (大淸一統志) 竹島在慶州西南濱海. 明萬曆二十五年. 倭泊於釜山. 往來竹島. 漸逼粱山熊川.旣而.奪梁山遂入慶州 (謹按島在蔚山府南.)

    죽도.
    《대청일통지》에는 다음과 같이 되어 있다.
    죽도는 경주의 서남쪽 바닷가에 있다. 만력 25년에 왜적들이 부산에 배를 정박시키고는 죽도를 왕래하면서 점차 양산(梁山), 웅천(熊川)을 핍박하였다. 얼마 뒤에 양산을 빼앗고서 마침내 경주로 들어왔다. -삼가 살펴보건대, 죽도는 울산부의 남쪽에 있다.
    松島 于山島 鬱陵島
    [兩朝平攘錄] 萬歷二十五年倭分屯松島蔚山釜山...
    송도 우산도 울릉도.
    《양조평양록》에는 다음과 같이 되어 있다.
    만력 25년에 왜적들이 송도, 울산, 부산에 나누어 주둔해 있었다....



    You've only found the latter part. The former part 竹島 is not different from Old Takeshima which Japanese called. At the south-western direction from Kyeongju, and at the southern direction from Ulsan, you can't find any island at all suitable to come and go.

    In my opinion, the author Jinseo(鎭書) just described a map like 淸朝日統之圖, which draw Takeshima(竹シマ), Matsushima(松シマ), Ulleung(蔚陵), Jasanshima(子山シマ).

    Upper part map(☜click) : you can find 蔚陵, 子山シマ with yellow color.

    Lower park map(☜click) : you can find 竹シマ, 松シマ with yellow color.

    Combined map(☜click) : you can find 蔚陵, 子山シマ, 竹シマ and 松シマ with yellow color. And, you will find the position of 竹シマ.



    So, the scholars in those days regarded all of the four island names as those of Korean soil, not Japanese.

    ReplyDelete
  23. Gerry,

    I am so happy to hear from you that it is a “Very clear and logical analysis”
    Thank you very much.

    For 々, actually it is only my guess.
    I found the Korean translation saying 해구 which is 海口.
    So I guessed it means the same letter as above.

    I remember somewhere I saw the way 漢文 writing using something like
    〻 or 〃 for the meaning ” the same letter as above” as the explanation you have already shown.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iteration_mark

    So I think it is 漢文(Chinese classic) origin and also used in Korea.

    ReplyDelete
  24. Yabutarou さん

    貴重な情報ありがとうございます。

    私もこの [兩朝平攘錄] 萬歷二十五年 倭分屯 松島、蔚山、釜山。
    の松島は鬱陵島とは関係がないと思います。

    ただ順天のような西南地方の海岸でなく、蔚山、釜山の近くにも、ひょっとして松島というところがあったのではないか、とも思います。
    竹島問題とは直接関係がなくなるとも思いますが、原文をみたいなあ、と思います。

    I agree with Yabutarou that 松島 in 兩朝平攘錄 has no relation with 鬱陵島.

    ReplyDelete
  25. MC,

    竹島
    (大淸一統志) 竹島在慶州西南濱海. 明萬曆二十五年. 倭泊於釜山. 往來竹島. 漸逼粱山熊川.旣而.奪梁山遂入慶州 (謹按島在蔚山府南.)

    I think this竹島 is金海竹島倭城,
    build by 鍋島直茂・勝茂 at the time of 壬辰倭乱.

    http://www.castle7.org/wajou/kimechukuto.htm

    http://www.heritagebusan.com/webj/0109/jap.htm

    ReplyDelete
  26. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
  27. matsu.

    You showed a good data. Thank you.
    明萬曆二十五年 means 1597 A.D.
    鎭書 appended the 金海竹島倭城 record to 竹島.
    But, 金海竹島倭城 is neither an island nor a similar one to it. As you can see here(click), it is located inside the land.
    He made a mistake by combining some in-land fort records with an out-land island name. But, it seems clear to me that he regarded the 竹島 as an island.


    I will write down the name of islands listed there(click) :

    ... ...
    右境內山 (At the right part of this line, mountains within border are listed.)

    獐子島, 蓆島, 椒島, 椵島, 葦島, 大靑嶼, 小靑嶼, 夢金島, 弼足島, 汝也九尾, 白翎島, 喬桐島, 覺華島, 硯子島, 大富島, 蛤窟, 紫燕島, 麻田島, 古寺島, ...... 九龍島, 鼓金島, 加德島, 楸子島, 閒山島, 漆山島,
    竹島, 松島, 于山島, 鬱陵島,
    絶影島, 國島, 豬島, 熊島, 卯島, 薪島, 連島, 花島, 沙島,

    島嶼. (At the right part of this line, bid and small islands are listed.)
    ... ...

    竹島 was listed one of the island, not the other one.

    ReplyDelete
  28. Thanks, Matsu.

    It seems like Korea would have a similar character, but I just have not found it explained, anywhere.

    MC,

    I saw the 竹島 description, but it did not make any sense to me since it was talking about 竹島 being in the sea southwest of Kyeongju (竹島在慶州西南濱海). The problem with that is that there is no sea southwest of Kyeongju, unless you go all the way to the southern coast.

    However, after reading Matsu's post on the Japanese fort at Kimhae's Jukdo (金海竹島倭城), which was southwest of Kyeongju, it suddenly makes sense. I did not know it either, but, apparently, there was a spur of Mount Garak (駕洛山) that jutted out into a tributary of the Nakdong River. At the end of the spur was a place called "Jukdo" (竹島), where boats moored. I think Han Jin-seo just assumed, as we did, that it was an island.

    Your map is very interesting, but there seems to be a lot of mistakes on it. For example it shows Gyeongsang province (慶尙道) drawn in the northwest corner of the Korean peninsula instead of the southeast corner.

    It shows Ulleungdo (蔚陵) east of Gangneung (江陵), which is correct, but it shows Jasando (子山), which was probably supposed to be Usando (于山島), north of Ulleungdo.

    Jukdo (竹シマ) and what lonks to be Songdo (松シマ) were drawn southeast of Koje Island (巨濟), which is southwest of Busan. Jin-seo did not describe Jukdo and Songdo as being there.

    I think Jin-seo may have used Chinese maps or documents to get his information for "Wanreungdo" (菀陵島) and Cheonsando (千山島) because Chinese maps mistakenly put the two islands just offshore of Pyeonghae.

    ReplyDelete
  29. Gerry. I have not much time to comment. Sorry.



    竹島
    (大淸一統志) 竹島在慶州西南濱海. 明萬曆二十五年. 倭泊於釜山. 往來竹島. 漸逼粱山熊川.旣而.奪梁山遂入慶州 (謹按島在蔚山府南.)


    He quoted "竹島在慶州西南濱海" and added his own opinion "謹按島在蔚山府南".

    慶州西南(southwest of Kyeongju) is the right direction toward 金海竹島倭城.

    And, as far as I know, 金海竹島倭城 looks like a small peninsula which contacted water in three direction out of four except one .


    But, 慶州西南(southwest of Kyeongju) doesn't match at all with 蔚山府南(south of Ulsan). He couldn't find any island suitable in 慶州西南濱海. So, he thought 慶州西南濱海 was neither the right position nor the right derection and assumed that the island lies southward from Ulsan(謹按島在蔚山府南).


    About that map, I think the territorial recognition is more important than the position of some islands or provinces.

    ReplyDelete
  30. MC,

    I thought you posted the map to show that Jin-seo had gotten his information from Chinese maps?

    Anyway, THIS MAP also shows a 竹島 southeast of Tsushima (對馬)

    ReplyDelete
  31. Gerry.
    He quotted various records from many books mainly from Chenese books. He compared his island list with many documents and books. And, he made his own decision different from those records, which resulted in many mistakes, as you know.
    He had written down the main islands within Korean border roughly counterclockwise from west sea through south to east. So, the 竹島, 松島, 于山島, 鬱陵島, 絶影島, 國島, 豬島, 熊島, 卯島, 薪島, 連島, 花島, 沙島 were treated as located in south-east or east of Korean peninsula.
    I've confirmed the 竹島 at the south-western direction from Tsushima(對馬) at the map you showed. I think it is no relation with 'Ulleungdo'. I've found the 竹島 at another map here :
    Kyushu Univ.
    第五巻catalog
    朝鮮国渡海の図1
    . I think 'the 竹島' you showed to me is a real island located near Tsushima, very far from 'Old Takeshima'.

    ReplyDelete