『士民必知』(1895) is the Chinese translation of Homer Hulbert's "Knowledge Necessary for All"(1889 or 1891-1895) by Baek Nam-gyu(白南奎) and Lee Myeong-sang(李明翔), and both of them are government officials of State Council of Joseon(議政府主事). It says "The easternmost of the Country of Korea is 131° E." , while Takeshima/Liancourt Rocks is at 131°52′ E. , 37°14′ N. in the section of 朝鮮(Korea). Moreover, it cleary states that the easternmost islands of Joseon is Ulleungdo.
Hulbert(紇法) wrote this geography textbook in Korean Hangul and "it became the first standard textbook in Korean in Korea used by all schools in Korea", while Joseon officials translated it into Chinese(!?) and published it. The book is about the world geography.
King Dangun established the country during the time of the reign of the Chinese Emperor Yao. In its history, Gija sometimes splitted or merged the country into present. Current Dynasty is Lee and it is about 504 years from the first king, Taejong.
The Country of Korea lies from 35° N. to 43° N., and from 123° E. to 131° E. From south to north, it's 3000-ris and from east to west, it's 600-ris. The boundry of the country is Manchuria on the north, the Sea of Japan on the east, South Sea on the south and Balhae on the west. The area of the country is 9500(ris) and its topography is full of mountains. There is Baekdu Mountain, which is the biggest and the origin of all the mountains. As for the rivers, there are Nakdong River and Guem River on the south, Taedong River on the west and Yalu River on the north-east. The ports are Wonsan on the north-east, Pusan on the south-east and Incheon on the south-west. As for the islands, there is Jeju on the south and Ulleung on the east and Ganghwa on the south-west ..
Homer B. Hulbert first stepped on Korean soil in 1886 as a teacher for Royal English School(育英公院), which was the first government school in western style. The school introduced western fields of learning in its instruction such as English language, history, natural sciences, geography and mathematics.The last part of preface says that "大朝鮮開國五百四年乙未三月望議政府編史局主事金澤榮序" , meaning that Kim T'aek-yong, the historian and poet who worked for the division of history compilation of the State Council of Joseon, wrote this preface at the 504th year of the country of Great Joseon. According to Choson Shinbo(朝鮮新報), Kim was known for an anti-Japan activist and deplored to Japan, defected to China in 1908, and participated in the anti-Japanese movement. A lot of patriotism works were left.
Hullbert discovered that the school needs a world geography, and in 1891 published a book entitled "Sa-Min Pil-Ji(Knowledge Necessary for All)", which served as a primer for geography, astronomy and introduction of social systems, industries of all the countries. This book became the first standard textbook in Korean in Korea used by all schools in Korea. (The Hulbert Memorial Society)
As we have studied on this site, it is apparent that westerners like Hulbert who even defied Japan's control over Korea, as much as then Korean government, considered that the eastern most of Korea was Ulleungdo, not today's Takeshima/Liancourt Rocks.
The information of the book was originally introduced by GTOMR. Thank you.
1884～1894 - Map of Ulleungdo (鬱陵島) & Usando (于山島) (it shows an island off the east shore of Ulleungdo (鬱陵島) labeled as "Udo" (于島))
1893 - "Yeoljae Chwalyo" (輿載撮要 - 여재촬요) - Map of Samcheok (三陟) and Ulleungdo (鬱陵島)
1898 - Korean Map of Gangwondo & Ulleungdo （地圖 江原道 咸鏡道)
1899 - Korean Map: "Daehanjeondo" (大韓全圖) (玄采 大韓地誌)
1899 - "Takeshima in the Korean official map" by Funasugi Rikinobu (舩杉力修) - (5) 『大韓全図』(1899) , 『大韓輿地図』(1900 c.a.)
1899 - Sep 23 - "Hwangseong Sinmun" (皇城新聞) 1899 Sep 23: Ulleungdo Situation
1900 - "Uldo-gi" (鬱島記), by U Yong-jeong (禹用鼎)
1900 - Oct. 22 - A petition by 李乾夏 "鬱陵島를鬱島로改稱하고島監을郡守로改正에關한請議書", which excluded Dokdo from Uldo County.
1900 - Imperial Edict Makes Ulleungdo a County of Gangwon Province (大韓勅令第41号)
1901 - "Daehanjiji" (大韓地誌) Map of Korea's Gangwon Province (玄采)
1906 - Feb 20 & April 17 - "Official Documents of the Ministry of Internal Affairs Vol.1" - Korean government protested about land transaction in 竹邊浦
1906 - July - Korea Omits Dokdo from Uldo County (皇城新聞 「鬱島郡의 配置顛末」)
1906 - "Daehan Jiji" (大韓地誌) by Hyeon Chae (玄采)
Korean Eastern limits described in various books world wide exclude Takeshima/Dokdo from Korean Territory
The Territorial Recognitions which Western Maps of Japan Show for Takeshima/Liancour Rocks between 1880-1905 : Ver.1
1951 - August - Rusk's Letter - (A letter to the Korean Ambassador from US Secretary of State Dean Rusk ) ( As regards the island of Dokdo, otherwise known as Takeshima or Liancourt Rocks, this normally uninhabited rock formation was according to our information never treated as part of Korea and, since about 1905, has been under the jurisdiction of the Oki Islands Branch Office of Shimane Prefecture of Japan. The island does not appear ever before to have been claimed by Korea. )
1953 - Jul 22 - US Doc. Reconfirms Dean Rusk Letter (Memorandum by Mr. Robert A. Fearey of the Office of Northeast Asian Affairs） (With regard to the question of who has sovereignty over the Liancourt Rock (which are also known in Japanese as Takeshima, and in Korean as Dokdo), it may be of interest to recall that the United States position, contained in a note to the Republic of Korea's Ambassador date August 10, 1951 reads in part:
"....As regards the island of Dokdo, otherwise known as Takeshima or Liancourt Rocks, this normally uninhabited rock formation was according to our information never treated as part of Korea and, since about 1905, has been under the jurisdiction of the Oki Islands Branch Office of Shimane Prefecture of Japan. The island does not appear ever before to have been claimed by Korea......")1954 - Report of Van Fleet mission to the Far East (A secret report drafted by James Van Fleet, a US special mission ambassador, to U.S. President ) （the United States concluded that they remained under Japanese sovereignty and the Island was not included among the Islands that Japan released from its ownership under the Peace Treaty.）