British Publication "China Pilot," 4th Edition, 1864

The following is an excerpt from the 4th edition of the China Pilot, which was published by Hydrographic Office of the British Admiralty in 1864:

Table of Contents

Chapter I. Monsoons, Typhoons, Gales, Currents, and Tides in the China Sea, and on the East Coast of China; and General Remarks on Making Passages. Chapter II. Approaches to Canton River, including Hong Kong. The Chu Kiang or Canton River; the Si Kiang or West River; and the Western Channels of Canton River. Chapter III. East Coast of China. Hong Kong to Amoy. Chapter IV. East Coast of China. Amoy to the White Dog Islands, including the Pescadores Islands. Chapter V. East Coast of China. White Dog Islands to Nimrod Sound. Chapter VI. East Coast of China. Nimrod Sound to the Yang-tse Kiang, including the Chusan Archipelago. Chapter VII. East Coast of China. The Yang-tse Kiang Chapter VIII. East Coast of China. From the Yang-tse Kiang to Pe-chili Strait. The North Coast of the Yellow Sea. Chapter IX. Gulfs of Pe-chili and Liau-tung. Chapter X. West, South-West, and South Coasts of Korea. Chapter XI. Pratas Island and Reef. North Coast of Luzon. Babuyan, Bashi, Formosa, Meiaco-sima, and Lu-chu Islands; and Islands S.E., East, and North of the Lu-chu Group. Chapter XII. Japan Islands; Comprising the South Coasts of Kiusiu and Sikok; the South-East and East Coasts of Nipon; and the Seto Uchi or Inland Sea. Chapter XIII. Japan Islands. The West Coasts of Nipon and Kiusiu; and Directions from the Yang-tse Kiang to Nagasaki, &c. Chapter XIV. Japan Islands. Tsugar Strait, and South Coast of Yezo. The Kuril Islands, and South-East Coast of Kamchatka. Chapter XV. Sea of Japan; Gulf of Tartary; Gulf and River of Amur; Saghlin Island; La Perouse Strait; and Sea of Okhotsk.

In Chapter 15, Pages 590 - 591

The SEA of JAPAN, bounded on the east and south by the Japan islands, and on the west and north-west by the coasts of Korea and Manchuria, is about 900 miles long, N.N.E. and S.S.W., and 600 miles East and West, at its broadest part. Surrounded by land on all sides, this sea is only accessible by the following narrow passages: To the south by the Korea Strait, which connects it with the China Sea; to the east by Laperouse and Tsugar straits, by which it communicates with the Pacific; and to the north by the Gulf of Tartary, through which it communicates with the Sea of Okhotsk by the Gulf of Amur(page 556).

GULF of TARTARY. From Cape Disappointment, in lat. 45°40.5′N., the coast of Manchuria trends to the north-east, and forms with the west coast of Saghalin island a long channel named the Gulf of Tartary, which communicates with the Gulf of Amur to the northward by Tartar Strait. This strait may be considered to begin on the parallel of about 51°N.; on the parallel of Castries bay the coasts of Manchuria and Saghalin converge rapidly; and abreast of Cape Catherine, in 51°57′N., they are only 7 miles apart; 17 miles farther north, between Capes Lazaref and Pogobi, they approach to within 3.5 miles; and this is the gorge of the strait, and the entrance into the Gulf of Amur.

LIANCOURT ROCKS are named after the French ship Liancourt, which discovered them in 1849; they were also called Menalai and Olivutsa rocks by the Russian frigate Pallas in 1854, and Hornet islands by H.M.S. Hornet in 1855. Captain Forsyth, of the latter vessel, gives their position as lat. 37°14′N., long. 131°55′E., and describes them as being two barren rocky islets, about a mile in extent N.W. by W. and S.E. by E., and a quarter of a mile apart, and apparently joined together by a reef. The western islet, elevated about 410 feet above the sea, has a sugar-loaf form; the easternmost is much lower and flat-topped. The water appeared deep close-to, but they are dangerous from their position, being directly in the track of vessels steering up the Sea of Japan for Hakodadi.

MATSU SIMA, or Dagelet island, is a collection of sharp conical hills, well clothed with wood, supporting an imposing peak in the centre, in lat. 37°30′N., long. 130°53′E. It is 18 miles in circumference, and in shape approximates a semicircle, the northern side, its diameter, running nearly E. by N. and W. by S. 6.25 miles. From each end the coast trends rather abruptly to the southward, curving gradually to the east and west, with several slight sinuosities until meeting at Seal Point, the south extreme of the island, off which is a small rock. There are several detached rocks along its shores, principally, however, on the north and east sides, some reaching an elevation of 400 to 500 feet. They are all, like the island, steep-to, and the lead affords no warning, but none of them are more than a quarter of a mile from the cliffs, except the Boussole rock, the largest, which is 7 cables from the east shore of the island. Hole rock on the north shore is remarkable, from having a large hole, or rather a natural archway through it, while nearly abreast it on the shore is a smooth but very steep sugar-loaf, apparently of bare granite, about 800 feet high. The sides of the island are so steep, that soundings could only be obtained by the Actaeon's boats, almost at the base of the cliffs, while in the ship at 4 miles to the southward no bottom could be found at 400 fathoms, and 2.25 miles north none at 366 fathoms. Landing may be effected in fine weather, with difficulty, on some small shingly beaches, which occur at intervals, but the greater part of the island is quite inaccessible. During the spring and summer months some Koreans reside on the island, and build junks which they take across to the mainland; they also collect and dry large quantities of shell-fish. Except a few iron clamps, their boats are all wood-fastened, and they do not appear to appreciate the value of seasoned timber, as they were using quite green wood.

ARGONAUT ISLAND. H.M.S. Actaeon in June 1859 passed over the position given to Argonaut as nearly as, from the want of observations, it was possible to judge; the weather was rather thick, but a radius of 5 miles, at least, could be commanded, and nothing was seen. This island has been searched for by both French and Russian ships of war, but has not been found; whalers also ignore its existence; it may therefore with confidence be expunged from the charts. Its supposed discoverers, probably, owing to current, were much out in their reckoning, and sighting Dagelet re-named it. The Actaeon experienced a weak current setting to the northward. A Russian gunboat at an earlier period of the year visited Dagelet, and after obtaining observations left, under sail, in a light breeze, to pass over the supposed position of Argonaut. A dense fog ensued, and about the time when, if Argonaut existed, it might have been expected to be seen, land was made; fortunately an opportunity offered of obtaining observations, when it was discovered that the island was still Dagelet, a proof of her having experienced a strong south-westerly current.


  1. "The SEA of JAPAN, bounded on the east and south by the Japan islands, and on the west and north-west by the coasts of Korea and Manchuria"
    One thing I find interesting is it is good evidence that Westeners called "The SEA of JAPAN" well before the Meiji Restoration.

    It is one of many proofs that debunk pro-Korean's ridiculous arguments that both Takeshima/Liancourt Rocks/Dokdo and The Sea of Japan/East Sea are the outcome of Japanese Military expansion, which is a bold lie.

  2. From which edition Seal Point has been discribed in China pilot first? If you know please let me know,
    Is there any discription about Seal Point on Dagelet, on 2nd and 3rd Eddition?
    British Publication "China Pilot," 2nd Edition (1858)
    British Publication "China Pilot," 3rd Edition (1861)
    As far as I know, there are Seal Point ,on the Map of 1863.Japan NIPON Kyusiu and Sikok and the Part of Korea
    So I guess there are discription about Seal point before 1863.

    British Publication "China Pilot," 4th Edition, 1864
    There are discription about Seal Point.

  3. Adam Johann von Krusenstern's map, 1809-1813.
    Reise um die Welt in den Jahren 1803, 1804, 1805 und 1806 auf Befehl Seiner Kaiserliche Majesta"t Alexanders des Ersten auf den Schiffen Nadeschda und Newa"

    Im not sure because it is too vague image, but I guess it is only Dagelet(Ulluendo) on his maps.
    1.World Map
    2.World map enlarge
    3.Map of Japan

    Or, 1822 edition of Krusenstern's Atlas is different from the book above and there are Takeshiima and Matsushima discribed??

  4. I cannot recognize the Russian word around Dagelet, seems to be O.Aaxeresze( I dont know it is correct or not) on Krusestern Map above 1807.

    A Korean scolor insist that Krusestern's 1827 Map contains Takeshima and Matsushima on his "Pacific sea chart collection", but I cannot find the charts.
    Lee, Kwanse's report.20NOB2007
    As far as I know there are first map with Takeshima and Matusshima from 1840's Sebold map.

    Anyone do you know Krusestern Map on 1827 with Takehsima and Matsushima?

  5. sorry that name is "Atlas of the Pacific" published on 1827. Thank you.

  6. From the atlas: Atlas Iuzhnogo moria by Captain Kruzensh,1826
    1826 Sankt-Peterburg,

    General'naia karta Iuzhnogo moria. List 2.(General Map)
    Argonaut and Dagelet

    Karta poluostrova Koreia. (Map of Korea)
    Tchain-chan tau and Fang-lin-tau, Argonaut and Dagelet

    Karta ostrovov Iaponskikh. 1826 (Map of Japan)
    Argonaut and Dagelet

  7. China pilot 3rd Edition 1861
    Original document here.
    I recomend using Browser to save the PDF files. Using "flip book" or "Djvu" would be easily freezed.

  8. Anyone please let me know where can I read Pallada's logbook on 1854, and La perouse's log book around Dagelet-Ulleungdo?

  9. Anyone please advice if you know the U.K Actaeon's logbook on Dagelet which they saw so many seals. As far as I know, there are the Boussole Rock and Seal Point on European Maps after the Actaeon's report, Althuogh La Perouse's Plan de Eile dagelet have some adjuctive island wihout paticular name.

  10. The description of Actaon at Dagelet Island.(quote from; On the coast of Cathay and Gipango forty years ago, A record of surveying service in the China Yellow and Japan Seas and the seabord of Korea and Manchuria,
    Blakeney, William, R.N 1902
    .) They reported there are many seals on Dagelet.


    "The Actaeon have to for a few hours off Dagelet Island, which emerges in solitary grandeur from the floor(2.000 feet deep) of the Japanse Sea, and rises to 4,000 feet above it. It lies 100 miles distant from the mainland of Korea, is clothed with forest from the verge of perpendicular cliffs of 500 feet, and is 20 miles in circumference. On every side were herds of seals, filling the air with sorrowful sounding cries, perhaps from terror at our appearing. We could make no headway through the dense undergrowth. La Perouse discovered this island in 1786, but there is no record of his landing.
    A few half-starved Korean fisherman were collecting sea-slugs, etc., for Chinese epicureans, but had only a ramshackleold junk in which to make the passage across a stormy sea in almost perpetual fog. A weild and lonely spot is Dagelet Island.

  11. The description landing on Dagelet by Arthor Adams with H.M.S Samarang. 1846-49, discovery tour around Sea of Japan.Also there are reports about seals on Ulluengdo.
    From ; Arthor Adams, Travels of a naturalist in Japan and Manchuria (1870) page 174-178.

    We proceeded next to Dagelet Island where we arrived on the 28th June, at which period the weather was in every way favourable for its examination. It is one of the discoveries of La Perouse, and named after the astronomer of the Astrolabe. As we pulled towards the island I found the description of the renowned navigator very exact. “Very steep,” as he says, “but covered with fine trees from the sea-shore to the summit. A rampart of bare rock nearly as perpendicular as a wall completely surrouds it, except seven little sandy coves at which it is possible to land.”
    We saw the grand central peak towering four thousand feet above us, partially enveloped in clouds. Around its base were huge, detached rocks, some of them four or five hundred feet high, one resembling a sugar-loaf, and another a rude arch. Within a little distance from the shore, numbers of sea-bears, of a reddish-brown colour, came up repeatedly and barked around the boat. The mad pranks and uproarious conduct of these strange ursine creatures offered a striking contrast to the placid demeanour of the gentle Phocae, or common seals, which only raised their round hears above the water, wounderingly gazed around, and quitly sank again below the surface. Shoals of black-fish rose up further off, baring their dark rouded backs; while several right-whales were spouting in the far distance. Some flying-fish leapt from the water, pursued by a large fish of the mackerel tribe, a noticeable fact,- four seals and flying-fish are not usually seen together. As we neared the island the wave-beaten limestone barrier, weather-stained and variegated with encrusting lichens, towered up from the surface of the sea, crowned with fit-trees, sycamores, and junipers. The officers of the “Boussole” in La Perouse’s voyage did not land, and we were probably the first Europeans who had ever set foot on the island.
    The shore is composed of great limestone boulders, worn round by the action of the waves; the tidal rocks are covered with barnacles and limpets; and I observed that Monodonta neritoides, had taken the place of M. Labeo, which is the common species on the mainland. The barnacles are Pollicipes and Conia, and the Littorina or periwinkle is similar to that of the mainland.
    As we landed in a little bay we perceived three poor Koreans at work. We observed that they were engaged with adze and saw in repairing a dilapidated boat exactly as La Perouse found those he saw eighty years ago. They had dried vast nnumbers of haliotis or sea-ears, which they string upon rattans for the Chinese market, and sell at the rate of three hundred for a dollar. They likewise collect great heaps of dried seals’ flesh, near which I found a dermaster, a silpha, a nitidula, and a staphylinus,-all carrion-beetles.
    We made our way into the densely-wooded interior by means of the dried-up watercourses, which form steep, rough paths among the trees. Fringing the shore were gigantic Archangelicae, on the milk-white umbels of which flies, beetles, and bees were numerous. A species of Cissus was trailing over the great round boulders, and here and there was a vinic loaded with bunches of small sour grapes. The common thyme and Scrophularia, a little yellow Sedum, and a large blue aster, enlivened the edges of the rocks. The wood was composed of sycamores and junipers, with the Sambucus japonicus, the berries of which are red and not black, as in the common elder. I was curious about the denizens of so small and isolated an island. The birds I observed were cormorants, hawks, gulls, pigeons, blackbirds, sparrows, and small birds like willow-wrens. The Korean fisherman dry large quantities of petrels, leaving their skins in mouldering heaps along the shore. The only indication of a manual I met with was the skull of a cat, which may have belonged either to a wild species from the mountainous interior of the island, or to a domestic animal wrecked in a junk. I found among molluses the very peculiar slug of the mainland, a creature with the mantle covering the whole of its back; a little shining land-shell, named Zua, and two species of snails. The only reptile I noticed was a small snake coiled up under a stone. Under the dead fallen leaves and flat stones, I found a centipede about four inches in length; besides two kings of “thousand-legs.” And a large, brown wood-louse, called Armadillidium by naturalists. As for the beetles, they were too numerous to mentin. We enjoyed a refectin in a small secluded cove, and them pulled partly round the island, admiring many rocky pinnacles and off-lying rugged arches, and then rejoined the ship, which was standing off and waiting for the boat.

  12. Thank you, GTOMR, for posting the descriptions of Ulleungdo. I am surprised that Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo was not mentioned in "Travels of a Naturalist in Japan and Manchuria." Also, that is the first time that I have read that Ulleungdo had snakes.

  13. Gerry,
    U.K Admiraly chart on 1863, #2347JAPAN(NIPON,KIUSIU & SIKOK  KOREA 「Japan is compiled from a Japanese Government Map])
    It draw Boussole Rock and Seal Point,
    China Pilot Vol3 ,1861 don't have Boussolr Rk and Seal Point
    U.K Admirarity chart on 1855 #2347 Japan (same title, but different year) and attached map on "Narrative of the Expedition of an American Squadron to the China Seas and Japan(by Mattew Perry)" have no detail drawings of Ulluengdo's adjunctive rocks on those maps.

    I had thought the ulleungdo descriptions are quoted from H.M.S Samarang, Actaeon and Pallada'ss logbooks or reports, though those book in my previous comments on this post had no mentioned about Boussole Rocks.(There are Seal description on Ulluengdo)So we maybe need to check logbooks itself. I guess

    I cannot find the degital archive of Renseignements hydrographiques sur les ?les Bash?e, les ?les Formose et Lou-Tchou, la Cor?e, la Mer du Japon, les ?les du Japon (Ports d'Hakodaki, Ne-e-Gate, ... Yedo) et la Mer d'Okhotsk (French Edition) (Paperback), published on 1860 by French admirary.and Description des i?les et des passages compris entre la partie nord de l'i?le Luc?on et les i?les du Japon. on 1860.
    Someone plese upload those contents of Dagelet, Argonaut and Liacnourt rocks.

  14. Now I found that Houriru Rock on 大日本国沿海略図 by Katsu Kaisyu(勝海舟) map 1867, Houriru Rock is from Boussole Rock.



    I guess they misunderstand Boussole Rock and Hole Rock, or miswritting of ソ(そ/So) and ン(ん/N)because similar charactor.
    Aldo misunderstand "Hole" and "Bou" because resemble pronunciation for Japanese.Maybe informaiton of his map is quoted from China pilot and Admirarity Chart #2347".

  15. U.K Hydro Officer replies me that
    There are Boussole Rock(Jukdo) and Seal Point(south Cape) on H.M.S Actaeon's chart of Dagelet 1859. (UKHO Ref: D7467).
    And they replied as follows;
    I have located the survey conducted by HMS Actaeon in 1859 of Dagelet Island (UKHO Ref: D7467), low resolution images attached, and reviewed several Sailing Directions including the China Pilot first edition (1855); second edition (1858), third edition (1861) and fourth edition (1864). It would appear that details from HMS Actaeon's work are not included until the 1864 Edition.

    I also knew that Pallada visit Dagelet so we need to check Pallada's description as well.

  16. Anyone have a information about Detailed chart of Dagelet by Corvette Vitjaz on 1889 (Russia,К-ВАз 2/71)?

    Also have information about Fligate New York on 1902 (The States) around Liancourt Rocks and Dagelet?


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