竹島問題の歴史

8.6.08

Great Copy of Bak Seok-chang's 1711 Map of Ulleungdo

I do not know if anyone noticed, but Steve Barber has supplied us with an excellent copy of Bak Seok-chang's (朴錫昌) 1711 survey map of Ulleungdo (鬱陵島圖形), which clearly shows Usando (所謂 于山島) as a neighboring island. Moreover, the map also describes Usando as having "fields of haejang bamboo" (海長竹田), which eliminates any possibility that Usando was Liancourt Rocks (Dokdo/Takeshima) since Liancourt Rocks were just barren rocks without the soil needed to grow bamboo. In fact, Korea's Dokdo Museum Director has admitted that the Usando on this map and others were Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo (竹島), which is about 2.2 kilometers off Ulleungdo's east shore. (See HERE) The map also shows in the middle of the island the three prominent peaks of Ulleungdo, which earned it the nickname, "Sambongdo" (三峯島 - "Island of Three Peaks").

Anyway, thank you, Steve, and I hope others express their appreciation, as well.

(Double click on the map to see an extra large version.)

26 comments:

  1. Thanks Steve!! for the map. You are digging for your own grave.

    BTW Gerry, I thoroughly observed the site Kaneganese introduced and the site I mentioned. To follow is the result:

    The figures in the list show the followings:
    (1)Argonaut, (2)Dagelet or true Ulleungdo, (3)Liancourt rocks (Takeshima/Dokdo), (4)Oki islands, (5)country these islands belong (decided from the national border or colour to indicate nationality)

    1. 1873 (London, UK)
    (1)Tako sima or Argonaut P.D. (drawn in broken line)
    (2)Matu sima (Dagelet I. 4000) with Boussole Pk., Seal Pt.
    (3)Liancourt Rks. Discd by French (1849), Menelai & Olivutsa
    (4)OKI Is.
    (5)unknown (no colour: but the title of the map is Japan, so it may indicate that these are Japanese islands)

    2.1873 (New York, USA)
    (1)-
    (2)Dagelet or Matshushima
    (3)-
    (4)Oki island
    (5)Unknown (no colour: but the map has the following comment - "Note: The N.part of Corea is tributary to China, and the S. to Japan")

    3. 1879 (Edinburgh, UK)
    (1)-
    (2)Matsu sima (Dagelet I.)
    (3)Hornet Is.
    (4)Oki Is.
    (5)Japan (The colour of the (2)&(4) is the same as Japan, red.)

    4. 1881 (Philadelphia, USA)
    (1) -
    (2)Dagelet I. (Matsu-sima)
    (3) -
    (4)Oki Is.
    (5)Japan (The borderline is drawn just west of (2).)

    5. 1881 (Leipzig, Germany)
    (1) -
    (2)Matsu (Dagelet)
    (3)Hornet In.
    (4)Okino-schima
    (5)Japan (The colour of (2) & (4) is the same as Japan, yellow.)

    6. 1884 (Edingburgh, UK)
    (1)-
    (2)Matsu
    (3)-
    (4)Oki Is.
    (5)unknown. (Although (2) is coloured in green, the same colour as Korea, but Tsushima and Oki were also coloured in green. So the colour may not be indicative of teh nationality here.)

    7. 1884 (London, UK)
    (1)Taka Shima
    (2)Matsu Shima
    (3)Liancourt Rks.
    (4)OKI Is.
    (5)unknown (no colour)

    8. 1884 (Chicago, USA)
    (1)-
    (2)Dagelet or Matsusima
    (3)-
    (4)Oki Islands
    (5)unknown (no colour)

    9.1887 (Chicago, USA)
    (1)-
    (2)Dagelet or Matsusima
    (3)-
    (4)Oki islands
    (5)unknown (no colour)

    10. 1889 (Chicago, USA)
    (1)-
    (2)Dagelet or Matsusima
    (3)-
    (4)Oki Island
    (5)unknown (no colour)

    11. 1891 (Gotha, Germany)
    (1)-
    (2)Matsu shima (Dagelet I)
    (3)no name (but you can see the figure of the rocks)
    (4)-
    (5)Japan (The bordeline can be seen st just the west of Matsu shima).

    12. 1891 (Gotha, Germany)
    (1)-
    (2)Matsu Sima (dagelet I)
    (3)Liancourt In.(d.Franzosen), Hornet In.(d.Englander)
    (4)Oki In
    (5)Japan (The borderline can be seen just west of Matsu Sima).

    13. 1892 (Germany)
    (1)-
    (2) Matsu S. (Dagelet I.)
    (3)Liancourt In.
    (4) Oki In.
    (5)Japan (The colour of (2) & (4) is the same as Japan, yellow green).

    14. 1894 (Germany)
    (1)-
    (2)Matsu-shima (Dagelet I.)
    (3)Liancourt In. (Hornet In.)
    (4)Oki-shima
    (5)Japan (These islands are coloured in the same colour as Japan, red.)

    15. 1897 (Edinburgh, UK)
    (1)-
    (2)Matsu-shima (Dagelet)
    (3)Liancourt Is.
    (4)-
    (5)unknown (This map consists of two parts - Corea and Japan: (2) is seen in Corea's part, (3) is seen in Japan's part. But it is not decisive because Tsushima is also drawn in the Corea's part.)

    16. 1898 (Chicago, USA)
    (1)-
    (2)MATSU ISLd. (4000ft), with words such as Wismar (1888), Boussole Rk., Anchorage, Seal Pt.
    (3)Liancourt Rks.
    (4)OKI ISLES
    (5)unknown (no colour: but the title of this map indicates Japan, so the mapmaker may have meant that these islands may belong to Japan)

    17. 1898 (New York, USA)
    (1)-
    (2)Matsu I. (Dagelet I.)
    (3) no name (but you can see the figure of the two rocks)
    (4)Oki Is.
    (5)unknown (no colour: but basically it is a map of Japan, so the mapmaker may have meant that these islands belonged to Japan.)

    18. 1900 (Chicago, USA)
    (1)Taka Isl.
    (2)Matsu Isl.
    (3)Liancourt Rocks
    (4)OKI IS
    (5)unknown (no colour: basically it is a map of Japan, so the mapmaker may have meantt that these islands belonged to Japan.)

    19. 1901 (Paris, France)
    (1)-
    (2)Matsou Sima
    (3)-
    (4)Oki Sima
    (5)unknown (no colour)

    20. 1902 (Buffalo, USA)
    (1)Taka Shima
    (2)Matsu Shima
    (3)Hornet Is. (Liancourt Rocks)
    (4)Oki Is.
    (5)Japan (These islands were coloured in red, the sama colour as Japan).

    21. 1902 (Buffalo, USA)
    (1)-
    (2)Dagelet I. (Matsu)
    (3)-
    (4)-
    (5)Japan ((2) is colured in the same colour as Japan)

    22. 1904 (New York, USA)
    (1)Argonaut I. (Tako-simo)
    (2)Dagelet I.
    (3)Hornet Is. or Rks.
    (4)Oki Is.
    (5)Japan. ((1) is not coloured, but the colour of (2), (3), (4) is the same as Japan)

    23. 1904 (Chicago, USA)
    (1)TAKA I
    (2)MATSU I
    (3)LIANCOURT I. (To France), HORNET I.(TO England)
    (4)OKI IS.
    (5)Japan (The borderline is drawn between (1) and (2))

    24. 1904 (Chicago, USA)
    (1)Taka I
    (2)Dagelet I, Matsu I, Boussole Rocks
    (3)Liancourt Is (To France), Hornet I (To England)
    (4)Oki I.
    (5)unknown

    25. 1904 (New York, USA)
    (1)ARGONAUT I.
    (2)DAGELET I.
    (3)HORNET I.
    (4)OKI IS.
    (5)Japan (Although (1) is not coloured, the colour of (2), (3), (4) is the same as Japan, red.)

    26. 1906 (Leipzig, Germany)
    (1)-
    (2)Matsu-shima (Dagelet I.)
    (3)Liancourt In. (Hornet In.)
    (4)Oki-shima
    (5)Japan (Although (3) is not coloured, (2) and (4) are coloured in the same colour as Japan, red.)

    As a result, it is apparent that the western countries vaguely recognised that the islands that lies eastern than Ulleungdo belonged to Japan, although many mapmakers misunderstood that Ulleungdo also belonged to Japan (but this may be disturbance of the names of Takeshima - sometimes Takoshima or Takoshimo - and Matsushima).

    Anyway, Liancourt rocks were recognised worldwide as Japan's territory in 1890's before Korea's Seokdo document and the Shimane prefecture's incorporation in 1905. So any countries didn't refute when the Liancourt rocks were incorporated.

    The words of the Meiji government officer, "Every western country's map indicates that Hornet rocks belongs to our country", was right.

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  2. Thank you, Pacifist.

    By the way, while looking at this high-resolution 1711 map of Ulleungdo, I noticed that there are the same small drawings or Chinese character drawn at the shoreline of places labeled as 船舶所. At someplaces more than one appears. Does it look like a Chinese character to you?

    Also, I think that Bak Seok-chang drew the five rocks south of Usando because there were rocks south of Ulleungdo, as this 1917 Japanese map of Ulleungdo shows. He just exaggerated their size, just as he exaggerated the size of the rocks on the north shore. They may have not been rock peaks, as those on the north shore, but they were still rocks.

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  3. Correction: "Also, I think that Bak Seok-chang drew the five rocks south of Usando because there were rocks south of Usando,...."

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  4. Good evening,Mr.Bevers,

    About same small drawings or Chinese character drawn at the shoreline of places labeled as 船舶所,it looks like chinese charactor 「路」(road or path).

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  5. Thank you, Chaamiey. I think you are right.

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  6. Wow! This is a great map.


    "I noticed that there are the same small drawings or Chinese character drawn at the shoreline of places labeled as 船舶所. "
    It looks like "路" to me, too. Without this high resolution map, we wouldn't know about this.

    I think those islands were drawn exaggerated because those were the landmarks for the othre inspectors who would first come to the island as GTOMR suggested before. And it had been inherited by Korean maps of Ulleungdo later on, and possibly in 1900 Imperial Ordinance No.41.


    Thank you, pacifist. That's great.

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  7. dokdo-takeshima.com8/6/08 22:20

    Actually, I don't see how I'm digging "My own grave" at all Pacifist. This map's been floating around for a long time.

    First let me point out the problems of this map and how they relate to Gerry's interpretation the So-called Usando.

    First look at the rocks to the North of Ulleungdo. Of course the first rock is Gong Am or Elephant rock. Next to Gong Am is probably Ddan Rock. To the East are of course the Three Angels Rocks.

    However, next we have two tall towers of rocks. These two towers are always shown apart from the Three Angles Rocks. They are probably Bukjeobawi and Cheotdae Bawi or Jang Am on Ulleungdo's shore. You can see many examples of this rock pattern on all maps of Ulleungdo. Notice how Jukdo Islet is always between the Three Angels and North of the two towers on Uleungdo's East coast. This was typical of either modern maps or older maps based on actual surveys.

    Notice Three Angles to the North and two towers on the East of Ulleungdo. These are early 20th Century maps of Ulleungdo.
    UlleungdoIsland1
    UlleungdoIsland2

    Note the same pattern on Japanese maps of the 19th Century also based on actual surveys of Ulleungdo Island. Again Jukdo is North of the two towers. Also Jukdo is between the Three Angels and these towers.
    UlleungdoIsland3
    UlleungdoIsland4
    UlleungdoIsland5
    UlleungdoIsland6

    The same pattern is shown on Lee Gyuwon's survey map. Three Angels to the northeast Jukdo Islet and then the two towers to the South.
    UlleungdoIsland7

    The five phantom islands to the South are a dead giveaway this map is not an accurate survey of Ulleungdo's surrounding islands, but rather a detailed survey of the islands fields and topography as the Korean Historians say. Only if Bak Seok Chang didn't know the difference between both North and South or left and right could he have made such huge errors.

    It's clear by the coloration on this map the "So-called Usando" is not Jukdo as well. We can observe the other rocks are colored and textured with lines while "Usando" is left clear like the phantoms to the South. Note the huge size of the phantom islands.
    It's not a coincidence "The So-Called Usando" contains the exact phrase "fields of hae-jang bamboo" on the island as well. This is part of the 1693 survey done previously. With this map Bak Seok Chang effectively gave this island the name Usando. This is shown by his usage of term So-Wi Usando, meaning the Ulleungdo Island's surrounding area was being "rediscovered" But was this the Usando of the ancient Koreans?

    In 1693 the first real survey taken before this 1711 map was drawn both Jukdo and the island 300ri to the East were nameless. At this point any one of Korea's surrounding islets could have been given the name Usando as one shown by the various map made thereafter. Anyongbok chose to name the island far off as Usando NOT Jukdo Islet. Whatever the So-called Usando is on the 1711 Map it is not Jukdo Islet when we compare other maps we can say are also based on surveys.

    Again when we look due North from Cheotdae Rock off of Jeodong Harbour there is no possible way we could confuse Jukdo Island as being South of this behemoth.
    JukdoNorth

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  8. Steve,

    I can't understand what you are mentioning.

    Please look at he first map you introduced (from アジア歴史資料センター). There are five small islets or rocks in the southern part (looking from Jukdo) - two rocks besides 小芋洞, two rocks besides the southern cape and one more rock besides 通九尾.

    Bak Seok Chang's map also shows five islets or rocks at southern part looking from Jukdo (so-called Usando) - although the location of the rocks are slightly different, one rock at slightly southern place from Jukdo (so-called Usando) which may be near to 小芋洞 in the later maps, two rocks at the south, two more rocks at southwest which maybe close to 通九尾 in the later maps.

    Considering the age, this map is almost correct. You can't deny the fact - "so-called usando" in the map is definitely today's Jukdo.

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  9. Steve Barber,

    Even Korean scholars and the Dokdo Museum Director have admitted that the Usando on the map was Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo. See HERE.

    As for the two rocks just north of Usando, they may have been Gwaneumdo (觀音島) and the cape pointing out to Gwaneumdo. In 1882, Ulleungdo Inspector Lee Gyu-won drew them in a similar way.

    As for the five rocks south of Usando, the rock just south of Usando was probably Bukjeobawi (北苧岩 -북저암). The next four rocks could have been either "Suwoi Rocks" (水雷岩) near Sin-ri (新里), the rock off the southern tip of Ulleungdo at Seal Point, or "Geobuk Bawui" (거북바위).

    Steve, there are more rocks offshore of Ulleungdo than just the ones on the northern shore. They are rocks, not islands, but the rocks off the northern shore have been referred to as islands, too. At any rate, they are not "phantom"; they exist.

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  10. Gerry;
    I already posted last year in Occidentalism that they reported Jukdo and Gwaneumdo are on south.

    They said it Jukdo and Gwaneumdo southcoast of Ulluengdo
    『 啓本草』5月9日条
    「又有一浦 名船板邱尾 南邊洋中 有二小島 形如臥牛 而左右回旋 勢若相抱
    一曰竹島 一曰島項 只有叢竹而已 日暮 下陸」

    Check it 船板邱尾 on 鬱陵島外圖 on east part.
    (Left is east/Downside is north)

    Full map of 鬱陵島外圖

    it is very strange ,they reported Jukdo and Gwanumdo is southcoast, although their map draw those on northeast.

    In addition, it is interesting similar design between Lee's map and 大韓全図. Turn the 大韓全圖 90 degree to CCW(left),suppliment map of 大韓地誌, you can got to know the map is same design with 鬱陵島外図 by 李奎遠in 1882.

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  11. TO paciifist.
    When checking European n American map, it is better to check not only Takeshima-Argonaut n Matsushima-Dagelet but also Fanglintao n Chain chan tao nearby Chosun peninsula.

    As far as I know, Fangling tau shown up around 1730's, which is copied map in China by europeans, based on the information of 輿地勝覧

    After 1788, La perouse found Dagelet and Dagelet is shown up on western map with Fanglingtau and Chainchain tau.

    Arond 1800 to 1870,(but some map published around 1890's also) there drawn four island, Argonaut, Dagelet, Fanglingtau,Thcain chain tau on the same map,

    later I will upload western map list.

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  12. Thank you .
    I've always thought you are a true friend of Japan. I was right.

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  13. I mean, Thank you Steve.

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  14. gtomr,

    Thanks, please show us the information.

    BTW, I got several old maps through e-Bay which were made in Germany and USA in the late 19th century. When they arrived (they are on their way) and I found some new information, I will report about it again.

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  15. dokdo-takeshima.com10/6/08 00:43

    Gerry, as I've said there is no way the island labelled as "So-Called Usando" was Jukdo Islet as based on Bak Seok Chang's survey.

    The map shows O.K. positions with most features all except for this island you insist is Jukdo.

    If you look to the north of "So-Called Usando" you can see a bay called "So-called JeoJeonDong" (佇田洞) This area is currently called Naesujeon Beach 乃守田. This beach is about 3kms almost directly South of Jukdo Islet.

    Naesujeon1

    In 1794 Shim Jin Hyeon surveyed Ulleungdo and stood at Jeojeongdong (then spelled 著田洞) and recorded three islands were in front of him. Bangpaedo (Gwaneumdo) to the North, Jukdo in the middle and Ongdo (Bukjeobawi) was to the East.

    Here is a picture looking almost directly North from Naesujeon to Jukdo. I took this photo last summer. You can see the tip of Gwaneumdo from this beach. Just to the right of this frame is Bukjeobawi.

    Naesujeon2

    Here is another picture of Naesujeon to Jukdo. Again this is even more North of Jeodong where the map has "So-Called Usando" drawn.

    Naesujeon3

    Further South from the "So-called Jeojeondong" (Naesujeon) again is a bay that would be today's Jeodong harbour. From what I understand Bak Chang Seok's marker stone labelled on this map was found in Jeodong Harbour when they were doing construction on the breakwater. Thus I would say the bay in front of this "So-Called Usando" is a Jeodong when we reference it with Naesujeon Beach to the North

    There is no way Jukdo Isand would be mapped in front of Jeodong Harbour Gerry. The "So-Called Usando" from I would say the island was appended when Bak Chang Seok referenced the earlier report from 1693 that stated "there was an island to the East with Haejang Bamboo..." You can also see the character "East" right next to the islet as the previous report stated.

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  16. dokdo-takeshima.com10/6/08 14:00

    Actually Gerry, I stand corrected.

    Bak Seok Chang's marker stone was found at the bottom of Dodong Harbour when they were developing the harbour many years ago. A friend of mine from Ulleungdo said it was found in 1937.

    From this we know the identity of the bay directly in front of "So-Called Usando" as Dodong. It is not possible Bak Seok Chang would have considered Jukdo Islet to be due East of Dodong Harbour. Jukdo Islet isn't even visible from the Dodong Harbour because of the large point that juts out between Dodong and Jeodong.

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  17. Steve Barber,

    You need to be corrected on many things, Steve, but let's start with two.

    First, the marker is the evidence that Bak Seok-chang did, in fact, inspect Ulleungdo, which means his map was drawn from direct observation.

    Second, you seem to have the reasoning capacity of a potato. Just because Bak Seok-chang's marker was left at Dodong, does not mean he did his survey from under a tree on Dodong beach. Stop being dense.

    Didn't you read the article, Steve? Korean scholars and the head of Dokdo Museum have even admitted that the Usando on Bak's 1711 map was Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo, which is about 2.2 kilometers off Ulleungdo's east shore. See HERE.

    Here is the quote from the article:

    Dokdo Museum Director Lee Seung-jin said, “After confirming the three old maps, it is obvious to anyone that they showed Jukdo, not Dokdo; and even in our country’s academic circles, it is judged to be Jukdo. By not showing the complete map and by showing only an enlarged section, they are trying to cover up their forced claims."

    Yes, obvious to anyone, except Steve Barber.

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  18. "Bak Seok Chang's marker stone was found at the bottom of Dodong Harbour when they were developing the harbour many years ago. A friend of mine from Ulleungdo said it was found in 1937."

    Wow!! If that is true, it perfectly explains why there was no "刻石立標" label on Lee's 1882 map. And it makes more plausible other 2 non-identified map was made in 1800s.

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  19. Before I saw the newspaper which they found "刻石立標" on some websites, I m not sure it is Korea history online or Kyujjangak sites.

    Where was the newspaper, anyone know that?

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  20. dokdo-takeshima.com10/6/08 22:45

    Gerry, since when did you start following the opinions of the Dokdo director? Better yet when do think I started to? If I followed the opinions of Korean historians I would be stating Dokdo was Korean land since the year 512.

    The Northeast History Foundation stated a similar response to my opinion and I agree with that some details on this map such as the five phantom islands and the "So-Called Usando" are not based on actual survey but handed down data.

    I base my views on some facts.

    First other features on this map show Bak Seok Chang was not confused about direction. There was no reason for him to make such a glaring error on this chart. Bak Seok Chang drew Gong Am, Three Angels Rocks, Jeojeondong and Dodong in reasonbly good locations. There is no reason he would locate Jukdo in front of Dodong harbour. To make such as error one would have to be very confused which wasn't the case.

    Gerry, have you even been to Dodong Harbour? Well I have. Dodong is steep walls on each side. This explains why the marker fell into to harbour to begin with. Bak Seok Chang's map shows he placed the rock at the mouth of a harbour or bay. The same marker was found at Dodong. Thus we know without a doubt the bay he labelled with the "Carved Stone Marker" is Dodong Harbour. Period.

    Dodong-cliffs

    There is no way to see Jukdo Islet from Dodong Harbour. In addition to walk North or South from Dodong can only be achieved now because they installed cement walkways along the shore. There is no "beach" just sheer rock face shoreline. To the South these sidewalks are still in ruin because of hurricane Maemi. Bak Seok Chang drew an island called "So-Called Usando" slightly southeast to Dodong Harbour. It's not clear why, but this island is NOT Jukdo Islet from his 1711.

    Do some maps show Jukdo as Usando? Maybe I dunno. But Bak Seok Chang's map does not. It shows "So-Called Usando" as the Haejang Bamboo Island due East from a 1693 previous survey. This map explains how Chosun's surveyors became confused about the identity of Usando. Most, if not all maps of made by Chosun had similar errors as this map. This map being the earliest example of these, we know the origin of "So-Called Usando" from Chosun cartographers was not based originally on Jukdo Island at all.

    This also leads us to believe this map is based in part by predessors especially when we factor in the ever present "phantom five" ghost islands to the South. The map is a bust.......

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  21. Steve Barber (Dokdo-Takeshima),

    As far as I know, this was the first time that the Dokdo Museum Director had admitted that Usando on any Korean map was Jukdo, so I think he was the one who started agreeing with me, not vice versa.

    There are, at least, five rocks south of Usando, and, in fact, the map you linked to HERE showed five rocks south of Usando. Two are just east of Jeodong, two are just off the southern tip of Ulleungdo, and one is off the southwest shore.

    There are also two more near Shinri that are not shown on the map, so those rocks or islets to the south of Usando can be accounted for.

    The Northeast History Foundation is a Korean organization that I consider to be little more but a propaganda machine. For example, they said that they thought the map was made from heresay, and not from an actual survey, but the marker left on Ulleungdo is solid evidence that there was a survey. Why did they ignore that evidence? And even if we ignore all the evidence and assume the map was based on heresay, then what would that mean? It would mean that the heresay was that there was an island off the east shore of Ulleungdo called "Usando" that had "fields of haejang (海長竹田) bamboo on it. The fact that it had bamboo on it would eliminate any possibility that it could have been Liancourt Rocks (Dokdo/Takeshima) since Liancourt Rocks did not have the soil to grow bamboo, yet the foundation still put Dokdo in parenthesis next to Usando.

    By the way, the Northeast Asian Foundation did not even know what "haejang bamboo" (海長竹田) when they were trying to refute my article. They translated it as "tall bamboo along the coastline," when, in fact, it was a special kind of bamboo that can grow up to six meters tall. They used their mistranslation as part of their reason for saying that there was no real survey done. Here is what the Northeast Asia Foundation wrote about the 1711 map. (Also, see HERE.):

    The part that says, “The so-called Usando” is just written on the outline of an island, similar to four islands to the south, which is different from islets like Samseon Rocks and Elephant Rock on the north side of the island. Actually, there are no islands to the south of Ulleungdo. It is assumed that the map was not made from an actual survey, but was made based on hearsay.

    Concerning “haejangjukjeon, the so-called Usando,” it is believed that the inspector did not conduct a “concrete” investigation, but just followed the coastline and drew Jukdo (Bamboo Island), with its tall bamboo, and Usando (Dokdo), which was determined clearly at that time by the activities of An Yong-bok.


    Notice that they contradicted themselves. First, they suggested that no survey was done, but then they try to dismise the "fields of haejang bamboo" label by saying that the surveyor just followed the coastline and draw Jukdo. Are they saying that there was a survey or was not a survey?

    Their argument makes no sense, just like yours, Steve, because the marker found on Ulleungdo is solid evidence that there was a survey, and survey maps prove that there were, and are, rocks south of Usando.

    Anyway, at least, you should be comforted to know that you are not the only potatohead in Korea.

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  22. dokdo-takeshima.com11/6/08 01:03

    Gerry, quit rambling on a tirade about the Northeast Asia History Institute and stick with the tour will ya?

    Your rock excuse doesn't wash at all. The islands Bak drew are huge, they are alomost the same size as Usando.

    Nobody is saying Bak Seok Chang didn't go on a survey. That is the whole issue here. The point is, knowing he was on the island it is not possible he made these errors based on the other reference points he gives on the map. You are trying to tell us despite the fact Bak Seok Chang mapped other prominent places on Ulleungdo accurately he totally lost his bearing and drew Jukdo Islet totally out place. This is rubbish.

    I've been to Dodong Harbour, twice. I've stayed on Naesujeon Beach for days. I've climbed up to Seokpo Observation point looked all directions. I've toured Ulleungdo Island perimeter by boat and taxi as well as the interior. All of the major points on Ullengdo I've been there. Twice. Ulleungdo is not a big island. You can walk from Naesujeon to Jeodong in about 30 minutes. You can hike from Jeodong to Dodong only a little while. Everything is up or downhill but Ulleungdo is not a big place. Bak Seok Chang could have been wacked out on speed and not made the errors you are trying to say he did.

    Again Gerry, look at the own map you posted and ask yourself the question. Knowing Bak Seok Chang accurately marked Gong Am, Three Angels Rocks, Jeojeondong, Dodong Harbour in the correct locations how much sense does it make he would mark such a prominent island 4kms too far South on the wrong side of all landmarks and waypoints he already located??
    Jukdo4kmsSouth?

    It's no coincidence Bak Seok Chang quoted the same Haejang Bamboo phrase on his map. It is an earlier reference. It's no coincidence he drew this island exactly due East as in the other survey and it's no coincidence this map has the phantom five rocks like other maps. They are incorrect hand-me-down flaws.

    To think Bak Seok Chang thought Jukdo Islet was directly in front of Dodong Harbour is nonsense.

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  23. Steve Barber (Dokdo-Takshima),

    The rocks on the northern shore are also drawn huge. In fact, they were drawn bigger than the rocks on the southern shore, and Elephant Rock was drawn even bigger than Usando, so size is irrelevant here. The islands and islets were drawn to give their general locations, not relative size.

    Moreover, your visiting Ulleungdo is also irrelevant since it does not change any of the historical facts. It is clear to me, and probably others, that you are just mentioning it to draw attention off the map, which very clearly shows Usando as a neighboring island of Ulleungdo with "fields of haejang bamboo."

    If the Usando on the map was not Jukdo, then where is Jukdo on the map?

    By the way, did you get any good pictures of Dokdo from one of Ulleungdo's mountain peaks while you were there?

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  24. Gerry,

    Is his name " Bak Seok-chang(朴昌錫)", or "Bak Chang-seok(朴錫昌)" ? I'm confused.

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  25. Hi Kaneganese,

    Yes, I was also confused because the Seoul National University site HERE gave his name as Bak Chang-seok (朴昌錫), but the name written on the map is actually Bak Seok-chang (朴錫昌). See HERE.

    In Korean, 昌 is pronounced as "chang," and 錫 is pronounced as "seok."

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  26. Thanks, Gerry

    I'm going to use Bak Seok-chang (朴錫昌) from now on.

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