竹島問題の歴史

15.6.08

1891 & 1894 American maps of Japan



Above are two maps of Japan that were drawn in 1891 and 1894. Though the maps look identical, they were published by different companies. The one on the left was published by People’s Publishing Co. in Chicago in 1891, and the one on the right was published by Cram Universal in 1894. Cram Universal published another map in 1892 that was almost identical to the above maps. The copyright may have been given to the latter publishing company. (Double click on the maps to enlarge.)


The two maps above show two islands in the Sea of Japan labeled as “Matsu Sima (Dagelet Isl.)” and “Hornet Is.” Matsu Sima was located at about 130 degree 50’ E, which coincides with the Korean island of Ulleungdo, and Hornet Island locates at about 132 degree E, which coincides with Liancourt Rocks (131 degree 52’ E). Although the two islands were not colored, it does not mean that the islands were not believed to belong to Japan since the map also showed the Japanese islands of Tanega Sima and Yakuno Sima as also uncolored. So this is more evidence that the Seokdo in the 1900 Edict #41 could not have been Liancourt Rocks.

12 comments:

  1. I agree that the "Seokdo" is the 1900 edict was not referring to Liancourt Rocks, but I do not see how these two maps is more evidence of that. Simply because Liancourt Rocks are not labeled "Seokdo"?

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  2. Pacifist,

    Are you sure the Liancourt Rocks on the map is not colored pink, as is Japan?

    I am looking at the map from a different computer, and it looks like the rocks may be colored pink, while Ulleungdo is left uncolored. Do you have the original maps and a magnifying glass so that you can check?

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  3. By the way, I am referring to the 1894 map.

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  4. Gerry,

    Thanks for your comment.

    The map is entitled as "Japan" and the islands in the map were indicated as Japanese territory, which means American people believed that Matsu Sima (Ulleungdo) and Hornet island (Liancourt Rocks) to be Japanese territory in the early 1890's (1891-1894), as well as in the late 1890's.

    So I think this is one of the evidence to show that the world recognised Liancourt Rocks NOT to be Korean territory.

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  5. Gerry,

    I will have the 1894 map (it's on the way to me) but as far as I observe these maps in my computer (I have three versons of the map), it seems to me uncoloured.

    I will report about it after I receive my copy (1894 version).

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  6. Pacifist,

    Ulleungdo and Liancourt Rocks are not colored on the map while other Japanese islands are, so I do not think you could claim the mapmaker believed Ulleungdo and Liancourt Rocks to be Japanese territory based simply on the fact that they appear on a map of Japan.

    The islands appear because when you show the Japanese mainland, the Sea of Japan and the islands in it are naturally shown, as well. But that does not mean the islands are Japanese, just as it does not mean that the islands are Korean territory if they just happen to appear on a Korean map. If the islands were colored the same color as the rest of Japan's territory, then you might be able to make the claim.

    From what I see, the map appears to be quite accurate since it does not show either Ulleungdo or Liancourt Rocks to be part of Japan in 1894. Even though Japan most likely considered Liancourt Rocks to be within her territory, the islands were not formally incorporated until 1905, which may explain why they were left uncolored.

    You mentioned that the Japanese island of Yakuno Sima was also left uncolored. Do you know when Yakuno Sima was formally incorporated? Is it possible that the island was left uncolored because it had not yet been formally incorporated into Japanese territory in 1894?

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  7. Gerry,

    The southwest islands (Nansei shoto) are lands of Satsuma clan from ancient times. The islands you can see in the map are one of them and are called as Ohsumi archipelago. The most famous island in the archipelago is Yakuno Sima (today we call it Yakushima), where thousands-old ceders are growing. And Tanegashima is famous for its history - it was the land where the first gun (rifle) was introduced from Portugal to Japan in 1453.

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  8. Gerry,

    Yakushima (Yakuno Sima in the map) is one of the world heritages.
    You can see the photos here (although the text was written in Japanese):

    http://www.tabian.com/tiikibetu/kyusyu/kagosima/yakusima/

    And from Wiki:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yakushima

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  9. Gerry,

    Yakushima and Tanegashima cannot be outside of Japan in 1894. They were goverened by central Japanese government from at least early 8 century and very important part of Shimazu clan in Edo era.

    I think those colouring is for regional, not territorial. Those uncoloured islands shows that American mapmaker were not sure which region of Japan they belong to just like Nagakubo Sekisui did so ( Though Nagakubo put annotation to make it clear that Takeshima is within Japan). Being left uncoloured doesn't simply mean that those islands are not included in the country of the subject of the map, unless you are not Prof. Hosaka. As we can clearly see, not all the islands (ex. Amami islands, Ryukyu islands and Ogasawara islands - Bonin islands) of Japan doesn't appear on the map. Though It doesn't necesarry mean all the islands on the map are Japanese territory, it is very important that Ulleungdo were not named in Korean nor annotated that Korean teritory just like they did on mainland (COREA and Russian MARITEME PROVINCE). Moreover, they are not colorued in yellow which is the same colour with mainland of Korea.

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  10. Thanks Kaneganese for your comment!

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  11. By the way, I'm not going to say that those maps are the clear evidence that American considered Matsushima(Ulleungdo) and Liancourt Rocks to be Japanese territory at all, but those foreign maps surely help us to understand the situation of the recognition of the islands by Korean government and Japanese government around 1900. (Korean government did ask British and French to help them to inspect Ulleungdo when they issue the Imperial Ordinance no.41.)

    From what I see, the map appears to be quite accurate since it does not show either Matsushima(Ulleungdo) or Liancourt Rocks to be any of regions of Japan, though it were included in the map of Japan in 1894. It explains that why Meiji government formally incorporated Lianclurt Rocks into Shimane prefecture and followed international law by not incorporating Ulleungdo into Japan.

    It may explain why they were left uncoloured and the complex incorporation procedure by Meiji government in 1905. Remember, Meiji government stated that " there were no traces of occupation by any other countries.....So we think that we may make it belong to Japan and put it under the jurisdiction of the local government of Oki island of Shimane prefecture."

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  12. You are welcome, pacifist. And thank you for posting those interesting maps. It gave me a big hints for understanding of the situation of Japanese government in 1905.

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