竹島問題の歴史

17.1.08

2007 - "Takeshima in Japanese map (1)" by Funasugi Rikinobu _1

In this article, the Japanese maps are examined based on "The right of owning Dokdo for South Korea that Japanese old map proves" of the Korean professor Yuji Hosaka. Mr. Hosaka has enumerated three Japanese maps 「嘉永新増 大日本国郡輿地全図 (1849), 「校正大日本輿地全図」(latter term of Edo period), 「改正日本輿地路程全図」(1779).

1) 「嘉永新増 大日本国郡輿地全図」 (1849)

Takashiba Eisanyu (高柴英三雄) is a person in Edo Iigura(江戸飯倉) town 4, and this map is a Japanese map published by 蔦屋吉蔵 who lived in Edo South Denma town 1 in 1849. He is assumed to be a map editor since he had edited and revised various picture maps like Edo map 「嘉永改正府郷御江戸絵図」(1849), 「芝愛宕下西ノ久保辺絵図」(1849), 「駿河台小川町図」(1849), 「日本橋北神田辺之絵図」(1850), or other maps like 「改正銅鐫安房国全図」(1879: revision), 「下野国輿地全図」,「尾張国輿地全図」 etc,.

A digital version of this drawing is open to the public on the homepage of the Tohoku University library's Kano pocket edition. The point by Mr. Hosaka, "Dokdo has come off the map though there is an Oki island when studying the map" is incorrect. Matsushima (present Takeshima) and Takeshima (present Ulleundo) are drawn on the west side of Oki islands (Figure 1). However, Takeshima is the south, Matsushima is the north, and the position is inaccurate. However, it is colored in Takeshima and Matsushima, and it is understood that Takashiba recognized both islands within Japanese territory since there is no description of Choson on those islands.

Another point by Mr. Hosaka "And, when the map, on which the entire Japan was drawn, was made at that time, such all those maps should be governmental manufactured or official licensed since the permission of Shogunate Government of Edo was necessary" is important. As a rule, the publication had received the inspection by the Shogunate though it was not able to be said that there was no pirate edition at all. In 1712 (享保6年), the Shogunate placed the order to have publishers report their publishing to the "Bugyosho" (奉行所 : magistrate place). The person who tried to publish the book first had to hand in the drafts and application to "Nengyoji"(年行事 : bakufu supervisors), then if the draft was decided to be good enough to be published, then he had to apply to the "Machidoshiyori"(町年寄 : Town Officials) next, and the applications were passed from 町年寄 to 奉行所, finally to "Gakumonsho"(学問所 : School District). If the 学問所 admitted there were no problems, one were allowed to be licenced to publish (Emori, 1955). .

Actually, the discontinuation was ordered to Hayashi Shihei (林子平)'s map 『三国通覧図説』 in 1792 (寛政4年), six years after it was published in 1786 (天明6年). In the decision sentence by the shogunate for the prohibition of the publish or sale of Hayashi's 『三国通覧図説』, the reason was clearly written that 「地理相違之絵図相添書写又は板行に致し(He had drawn the geographically inaccurate picture maps on the paper attached or the carved on the board)」. Not only Hayashi, but also publisher Suharaya Ichibee(須原屋市兵衛) and even four officers who examined his map became objects for the punishment.

In addition "Tenpo Reform"(天保の改革) strengthened restriction for the publications, and all the drafts of the books were examined at the town magistrate and it was passed to the study place "Gakumonsho"(学問所 : School District), then "Tenmonkata"(天文方 : Astronomical Institute ) and "Igakukan" (医学館 : a Medical School managed directly by the Tokugawa Government) too. It also required to submit the books after it was allowed and published. In other words, the restriction for the prior inspection system and dedication system for the published books as a key point was delivered (Fujita and Sato, 1987). According to 「市中取締類集( the compilation for the town management cases)」 in 1853 (嘉永6年), when Suzuki Hikojirou (鈴木彦次郎 or 驥園), the retainer of Toda Tadanobu (戸田忠偲) , the "Hatamoto"(旗本 : direct retainers of the Shogun) ,applied the publication of the map 「大日本国郡輿地路程全図」, Astronomical Institute permitted on condition that the latitude and longitude line be deleted. In fact, this map has omitted the latitude and longitude line, though the graticule of latitude and longitude are omitted though the longitude is written.

1849 「嘉永新増 大日本国郡輿地全図」
(property of Tohoku University)

日本側作製地図にみる竹島(1)(Takeshima in the Japanese map (1)」 by associate professor Funasugi Rikinobu (舩杉力修) of Shimane University.
Translated by Kaneganese.
Courtesy of Web Takeshima Research Center.

* The abstract of the sentence to Hayashi Shihei and his book which prohibiting the publication of his inaccurate map is as follows ;
"其方儀縦令利欲に不致共一己之名聞に拘り取留も無之風聞又は推察を以て異国より日本を襲う事可有之趣奇怪 異説等取交せ著述致し、且つ右之内には御要害等之儀も認入、其外地理相違之絵図相添書写又は板行に致し室 町二丁目権八店市兵衛へ差使し候始末不憚公儀仕方不届之至に付(中略)蟄居申付並板行物板木共に召上可申 (『六無斎遺草』一八一頁所載)(-248) "

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