竹島問題の歴史

9.7.15

Ongdo (옹도), Janggundo (장군도), & Dokdo (독도) all mean "Jar Island"

 
General Rock (將軍巖 - 장군암),
1882 Korean map
Ongdo (瓮島 - 옹도), Janggun Rock (將軍巖 - 장군암), and Dokdo (독도 ) can all refer to the same rock off the east shore of Ulleungdo.
 
In his 1794 Ulleungdo inspection report, Han Chang-guk (韓昌國 - 한창국) wrote the following to describe the view from near Ulleungdo's Jeojeondong (楮田洞 - 저전동), which is on the east shore of Ulleungdo and was most likely the port town of Jeodong (苧洞 - 저동):
There were three islands in front (前有三島). The one to the north was called  (在北曰) "Bangpaedo" (防牌島). The one in the middle was called (在中曰) "Jukdo" (竹島). And the one to the east was called (在東曰瓮) "Ongdo" (瓮島). The distance between the three islands (三島相距) was only about 100 paces (不過百餘步), and the circumference of each was tens of pa (島之周回, 各爲數十把). They were so steep and towering (險巖嵂, it was difficult to climb up and look (難以登覽, so we stopped and slept (仍爲止宿).
Though the distances and some of the measurements of the islands in the report make no sense, the islands line up fairly well with either islands or rocks off the east shore of Ulleungdo. Bangpaedo" (防牌島 - 방패도) was most likely Gwaneumdo (觀音島 - 관음도), the northernmost island off the east shore of Ulleungdo. Jukdo (竹島) was almost certainly present-day Jukdo (竹島 - 죽도), which is southeast of Gwaneumdo. And Ongdo (瓮島 - 옹도) was most likely referring to Bukjeo Rock (北苧巖 - 북저암), which is the most prominent rock offshore of Jeodong (苧洞 - 저동).

Tourist Map of the Northeast Section of Ulleungdo, showing Kwaneumdo, Jukdo, and Bukjeo Rock

The Chinese character 瓮 (옹) in the name 瓮島 (옹도) means "jar" or "pot." The pure Korean word for "jar" can be either "독" or "장군." The Korean word for "chamber pot," for example, is 오줌 장군. Therefore, the island or rock referred to as 瓮島 (옹도) in the 1794 report on Ulleungdo could also be written as either "독도" or "장군도."

In 1882, Ulleungdo Inspector Lee Gyu-won (李奎遠 - 이규원) made a map of Ulleungdo. Among the rocks and islets he drew off the east shore of Ulleungdo, one was labeled "Janggun Rock" (將軍巖 - 장군암), which translates as "General Rock." However, the Sino-Korean word for "general" and the pure Korean word for "jar" are both pronounced "janggun" (장군). Since pure Korean words have no Chinese characters, Inspector Lee would have had to select Chinese characters to represent the sound for place names on Ulleungdo with pure Korean names.

When the poor Korean islanders on Ulleungdo told Inspector Lee that the name of the rock off the east shore of Ulleungdo was called "Janggun Rock" (장군암), they most likely did not mean "General Rock," but rather "Jar Rock," since that was the name given to one of the rocks in the 1794 inspection. Inspector Lee wrote the characters 將軍巖 (장군암) to represent the sound of the rock's name, not its meaning.



Portion of Inspector Lee Gyu-won's 1882 Map of Ulleungdo

In 1948, when the Korean men of the Patriotic Old Men's Assocition wrote to General MacArthur to claim "Docksum" (Dokdo) was Korean territory, they wrote the following:
Japan, however, never dismiss the fishering profit around the island "Ulneungdo," but planned to occupy a corner of it by some means and became to find out a small island called "Docksum" (Dokdo) in the Korean name, meaning a small pot-shaped island, near the Ulneungdo, where whales gathered.
You can read the full letter from the Patriotic Old Men's Association HERE.

As you can see, Koreans in 1948 believed the name "Dokdo" (독도) meant "Pot Island," not "Lonely Island (獨島 - 독도), which has the same pronunciation and is how Koreans write the name of the island today. They also believed the reason it was called "Dokdo" was that it was "pot-shaped," but anyone who has seen photos of Liancourt Rocks knows they are not shaped like a pot. Famed Korean historian Choi Nam-seon (崔南善) said the same thing in a 1950s newspaper article, explaining that the name "독섬" (독도 - Dok Island) meant "甕形小嶼" (옹형소서), which translates as "a small, pot-shaped island."

1950s Newspaper Article by Choi Nam Seon (崔南善)

The interesting thing about Choi Nam-seon is that in his 1948 book, "General Knowledge of the the Joseon Kingdom," he wrote that Korea's eastern-most island was Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo (竹島 - 죽도), not Japan's "Jukdo" (竹島 - 죽도), which is 92 kilometers away from Ulleungdo's Jukdo. To help ensure there was no mistaking it, Mr. Choi even wrote the longitude as 130° 56' 23" E, which is the same longitude  as Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo. Here is the quote from the book:
Adding Islands-- 
Most Eastern -- 130° 56' 23" E (Jukdo, Ulleungdo, North Gyeongsang Province) 
島嶼를 넣어서 
極東 --  東經 130° 56' 23" (慶尙北道 鬱陵島 竹島)


 Conclusion

Ulleungdo had a neighboring islet just off its eastern shore named "Jar Island" or "Pot Island," which can be written as either Dokdo (독도), Janggundo (장군도), or Ongdo (옹도 - 瓮島), so it is true that Ulleungdo had a neighboring "Pot Island," but it was not Liancourt Rocks. It was one of the rocky islets just off the eastern shore of Ulleungdo, and really the only island off the eastern shore of Ulleungdo that looks like an overturned pot is Ulleungdo's Jukdo (竹島), which is only about 2 kilometers off Ulleungdo's eastern shore.

12 comments:

  1. Gerry,

    It is a very interesting idea.

    "Ongdo" (瓮島) can be called "Dokdo" (독도).

    I think it could be also called독섬.



    崔南善『鬱陵島と獨島』ソウル新聞→崔南善全集

    Yabutaro- san’s site
    http://outdoor.geocities.jp/yabutarou01/a.html

    697p line5

    「鬱陵本島のすぐ近く(側近)にもまた別個のトクソムがある。」

    「鬱陵本島의 아주 側近에도 또 別個의 독섬이 있다.」

    ソウル新聞連載 1953年8月10日~9月7日
    『六堂 崔南善全集2 韓国史2 檀君古朝鮮其他』(玄岩社)(1973年刊)679~

    ReplyDelete
  2. Matsu,

    島 (도) is the Sino-Korean word for "island," and 섬 is the pure Korean word, so 독도 and 독섬 are the same word.

    ReplyDelete
  3. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
  4. First, see what a Korean pot looks like. You will find amazing resemblance with Liancourt Rocks. http://blog.naver.com/isoword/220132035210

    Second, there are at least two Jangguns in Korean, and the monument-like stone's name Janggun means military general. And a container called Janggun is a wooden one looking like a barrel. It is smaller than a European barrel, but looks almost the same. Koreans carried human manure fertilizer in Jangguns.

    Third, Ongdo and Dokdo are not the same and not interchangeable. There are many ways to write Dokseom, but there is no bridge linking Ongdo and Dokdo directly. A pure Korean word Dokseom can be written many ways because of the various uses of Dok in Korean. Besides Ongdo (瓮pot), Dokdo (獨lone), and Seokdo (石rock), it can also be written another Dokdo(毒島 Poison Island). No matter how it is written, Koreans 100 years ago around Ulleungdo were suppose to read it with its real name Dokseom. The real name of today's Jukdo was Tae Seom, and that of today's Kwaneumdo was Seom Mok.

    ReplyDelete
  5. 参照にある画像は此方です。まともに応対するのも馬鹿らしく感じます。

    http://ceravill.co.kr/youngcart4/data/item/2012111002_s

    And a container called Janggun is a wooden one looking like a barrel.
    It is smaller than a European barrel, but looks almost the same.

    うーん参った。これが木で造った樽だと理解している。
    朝鮮で木の樽が作れりゃ苦労はなかったでしょうに、こんな程度の理解とは絶句です。
    醤甕のことを勘違いしているのでしょう。屎尿用にも使われましたが、日本語では、カメ・ミカ・タシラカ・モタイ・ヘイシ(甕・瓶・瓮)などと言いますが、どれも皆、もちろん焼き物です。

    ReplyDelete
  6. 甕 means a big pot containing bulk kimchi or bulk bean paste. When it is put upside down, the shape is very similar to 男島 of Liancourt Rocks. 장군(將軍) means a general, just the same as Shogun. There is another word 장군 pronounced the same, but it means a barrel containing human excrement fertilizer. It is smaller than western barrel, and Koreans carried it on an A frame (지게). 장군 is wooden, and far from a pot.

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  7. 독도 cannot mean a pot island, but 독섬 can. Take a look at my explanation at this link. Ordinary Koreans are not good at their own language, because the lost track of how their grandfathers used Chinese characters.

    http://blog.naver.com/isoword/110148407217

    ReplyDelete
  8. 독섬 can be 甕島, 石島 or 獨島. When it is written 甕島, a Korean of that time read it either 독섬 or 옹도. If written 石島, it could be read 석도, 돌섬, or 독섬. If written 獨島, the reading is 독도 or 독섬. When it is pronounced 독섬, one would write it according to the writer's association with the characteristic of Liancourt Rocks. If he thinks it looks like a pot, then he would write 甕島. If he thinks it is a rock island, he would write it 石島. If he thinks it is alone far away, he would write 獨島. But those who knows the real name 석도 will always read it 석도, however it is written. Chinese characters were only a tool to convey the name. Chinese letter itself was not pronounce as usual, when the real name was known.

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  9. Korean scholars are not explaining it very well. 石島 cannot be any other island than Liancourt Rocks. It is that there is no way to prove it. But it is Japan who has the obligation to disprove it. Korea has no obligation to prove it. Unless Japan effectively disproves it, 石島 is Dokdo. That's one of various things I wanted to establish in my blog. Gerry, you really need to read my blog before going too far. You are scratching totally useless parts of the logic.

    ReplyDelete
  10. You may guess I am a Korean patriot. The truth is the opposite. I am a pro-Japan renegade. I did this for the honor of Japan. Think of what honor truly means. Stealing some other people's possession is not honor -- unless you admire Genghis Khan :)

    ReplyDelete
  11. ( ^,_ゝ^)松さん・鐘ヶ音是さん・他の皆さんに質問があります。
    苧浦の老姑岩、鎗岩は現在でも容易に同定できますが、その西側にあったという将軍岩は、今はもう存在しないように思えます。本島海岸部の崖が丸く曲がっていますが、それと描かれた絵とは餘りにも乖離していて違うようです。将軍岩に該当する巌礁がどれであるのか、皆さんのご意見をお聞かせ下さい。
    欝陵島の海岸を写した古写真が在れば判るかもしれません。入港する船舶の障礙となるために爆破されたとか、或いは米軍の射爆訓練の目標となって無くなってしまったのでしょうか。
    それにしても、pro-Japan renegade様で、甕が木で作られたと思っている方が居られるとは恐れ入りました。

    ReplyDelete
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