竹島問題の歴史

11.4.08

19th c. Map of Ulleungdo: "Ulleungdo Dohyeong" (鬱陵島圖形), property of Samcheok Museum

Below is an old Korean map of Ulleungdo called the "Ulleungdo Dohyeong" (鬱陵島 圖形), which is believed to have been made sometime in the 19th century. The map is significant because it is one of the first Korean maps to show Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Gwaneumdo (觀音島), which was labeled as 小于島 (Small Udo). Previous maps had typically shown Ulleungdo with only one neighboring island called "Usando" (于山島), which is labeled on this map as 大于島 (Big Udo). The map is displayed in the Samcheok Municipal Museum (三陟市立博物館), which is a small but nice museum. ENLARGED MAP LINK


Interesting Characteristics of the Map

One interesting characteristic of the map is that Ulleungdo was drawn upside down, which means that the north side of the island appears at the bottom of the map. Another interesting characteristic is that the map was one of the first Korean maps to use the word "gumi" (仇味) as part of some of the placenames on the island. "Gumi" was the Korean word for "cove." The map is also the only old Korean map to have listed the products that Ulleungdo inspectors brought back from the island. However, probably the most interesting characteristic of the map is that it was one of the first Korean maps to show Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Gwaneumdo (觀音島), which is only about 100 meters on Ulleungdo's northeast shore and is Ulleungdo's second largest neighboring island.

Prior to the above map, old Korean maps typically showed Ulleungdo with only one neighboring island, which was called "Usando" (于山島). Koreans claim that Usando was the old Korean name for Liancourt Rocks (Dokdo/Takeshima), but old Korean maps and documents show that Usando was almost certainly Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo (竹島), which is about two kilometers off of Ulleungdo's east shore and is Ulleungdo's largest neighboring island. Prior to this map, Koreans may have considered Gwaneumdo more of a cape than an island since it was so close to the shore of the main island.

Some Theories on the Names "Big Udo" & "Small Udo"
On the map, Jukdo and Gwaneumdo were labeled as "Big Udo" (大于島) and "Small Udo" (小于島), respectively, which suggests that the mapmaker was unsure of which of the two islands was the "Usando" that had appeared on earlier maps. Notice that the 山 character was dropped from the names. I think a possible reason for that was that Koreans may have preferred 3-character names for islands rather than 4-character, possibly for superstitious reasons, or maybe it was written just as a shorthand. Also, the following may be another reason for the names:
I think 于島 (Udo) was a misspelling of 干島 (Gando - Shield Island), which is another way of saying "Bangpaedo" (防牌島). Bangpaedo also means "Shield Island" in Korean. A 1786 Ulleungdo Inspection report said that Bangpaedo was "east of Hujukam (帿竹巖) and three ri (1.2 kilometers) offshore," which suggests that Bangpaedo was Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo (竹島). Then in a 1794 inspection report, Bangbaedo was reported to be north of Jukdo (竹島), which suggests that Bangbaedo was Gwaneumdo (觀音島). Therefore, Ulleungdo inspectors after 1794 may have seen both the 1786 and 1794 reports and been confused about which of the two islands was actually Bangpaedo, which prompted them to come up with the names "Big Shield Island" (大干島) and "Small Shield Island" (小干島). HERE is another Inspector's map of Ulleungdo, quite similar to the map above, that actually uses the labels 大干島 and 小干島."

The following is a list of the placenames on the map, their modern equivalents, and other placenames used in the past. Also. included is a list of the island products brought back by the inspectors and the titles and number of people in the inspection party.

Offshore Rocks & Islets

  • 大于島 (대우도 - Big Udo) --> Jukdo (竹島); Usando (于山島)
    Notice that caves or hollows seem to be drawn on the side of the island facing away from the main island.
    .
  • 小于島 (소우도 - Small Udo) --> Gwaneumdo (觀音島); Dohang (島項 - Island Neck)
    Notice that two caves or hollows seem to be drawn on one side of the island.
    .
  • 龍巖 (용암 - Dragon Rock) --> Samseon Rock (三仙巖); Brothers Rock (兄弟巖)
    Notice that Dragon Rock is actually two rocks..
  • 帿竹巖 (후죽암 - Hujuk Rock) --> Jukam (竹巖 - Bamboo Rock)
    In an 1886 survey of Ulleungdo, Hujuk Rock and Jukam were different rocks, but Jukam was said to look like Hujuk Rock.
    .
  • 孔巖 (공암) --> Elephant Rock (코끼리 바위)
    Looks like an elephant with its trunk in the water(Some of the rocks drawn offshore were actually places onshore, probably drawn offshore to give them shape.)
Island Coves & Landmarks

  • 長沙仇味 (장사구미 - Long Sand Cove) --> Sadong (沙洞 - Sand Village)
    A 1902 Japanese report on Ulleungdo described Sadong as being the only beach on Ulleungdo with a sandy bottom..
  • 倭船倉 (왜선창) - Japanese Boat House) --> Near Sadong (沙洞) or maybe Dodong (道洞)
    .
  • 苧田 (저전 - Ramie Field) --> Was possibly present-day Jeodong (苧洞)
    .
  • 天底仇味 (천저구미)
    .
  • 錐峯 (추봉 - Spike Peak) --> Jubong (錐峯)
    .
  • 玄石仇味 (현석구미 - Black Rock Cove)
    .
  • 待風仇味 (대풍구미 - Wind-waiting Cove)
    .
  • 朱土窟 (주토굴 - Red Earth Cave)
    .
  • 待風* (대풍* - Wind-waiting *)
    .
  • 沙汰仇味 (사태구미 - Landslide Cove)
    .
  • 萍草仇味 (평초구미 - Duckweed Cove)
    .
  • 都藏仇味 (도장구미 - Dojang Cove)
    .
  • 桶仇味 (통구미 - Barrel Cove)
Products Brought Back from Ulleungdo
封 *
名壇香元封ニ吐內2 Sticks of Myeongdanhyang (rosewood incense) Enclosed
  • 一吐 長六尺一寸五分 廣三寸七分 厚三寸七分
    1 stick: length 6 jeok, 5 bun; width 3 chon, 7 bun; thickness 3 chon, 7 bun
    .
  • 一吐 長二尺寸一*分 廣四寸五分 厚四寸五分
    1 stick: length 2 jeok, 1 * bun; width 4 chon, 5 bun; thickness 4 chon 5 bun
香板加封十立內10 Strips of Juniper Enclosed
  • 一立 長三尺九寸 廣一尺*分 厚二寸*分
    1 strip: length 3 cheok, 9 chon; width 1 cheok, * bun; thickness 2 chon, * bun
    .
  • 一立 長三尺九寸 廣一尺 厚二寸
    1 strip: length 3 cheok, 9 chon; width 1 cheok; thinkness 2 chon
    .
  • 一立 長三尺六寸 廣一尺 厚一寸九分
    1 strip: length 3 cheok, 6 chon; width 1 cheok; thinkness 1 chon, 9 bun
    .(立 長三尺九寸 廣一尺 厚一寸九分)
    strip: length 3 cheok, 9 chon; width 1 cheok; thickness 1 chon, 9 bun
    .
  • 一立 長三尺五寸 廣九寸六分 厚一寸九分
    1 strip: length 3 cheok, 5 chon; width 9 chon, 6 bun; thickness 1 chon, 9 bun
    .
  • 一立 長三尺四寸 廣八寸 厚二寸
    1 strip: length 3 cheok, 4 chon; width 8 chon; thickness 2 chon
    .
  • 一立 長三尺三寸 廣九寸七分 厚一寸八分
    1 strip: length 3 cheok, 3 chon; width 9 chon, 7 bun; thickness 1 chon, 8 bun
    .
  • 一立 長三尺二寸 廣九寸 厚二寸
    1 strip: length 3 cheok, 2 chon; width 6 chon; thickness 2 chon
    .
  • 一立 長二尺六寸 廣一尺五寸 厚二寸
    1 strip: length 2 cheok, 6 chon; width 1 cheok, 5 chon; thickness 2 chon
    .
  • 一立 長二尺六寸 廣六寸 厚一寸六分
    1 strip: length 2 cheok, 6 chon; width 6 chon; thickness 1 chon, 6 bun
    .
  • 一立 長二尺四寸 廣八寸 厚二寸
    1 strip: length 2 cheok, 4 chon; width 8 chon; thickness 2 chon
---------------------------
  • 靑竹三箇...
    3 stocks of green bamboo
    .
  • 朱土六升
    6 seung of red ocher
    .
  • 可支魚皮ニ令
    2 sea lion skins
巡営細紫壇香三吐内
  • 一吐 長二尺一寸 廣五寸五分 厚五寸
    1 stick: length 2 cheok, 1 chon; width 5 chon, 5 bun; thickness 5 chon, 5 bun
    .
  • 一吐 長六*一尺 廣四寸 厚四寸
    1 stick: length 6 *, 1 cheok; width 4 chon; thickness 4 chon
    .
  • 香板一立 長三尺八寸 廣一尺一寸 厚二寸
    1 strip of juniper: length 3 cheok, 8 chon; width 1 cheok, 1 chon; thickness 2 chon
    .
  • 靑竹三箇
    3 stocks of green bamboo
    .
  • 朱土五升
    5 seung of red ocher
    .
  • 可支魚皮ニ令
    2 sea lion skins
京***ニ部**造*具*金*
鬱陵島圖形周回僅可百餘里
"Ulleungdo-Dohyeong" -- circumference estimated to be about 100 ri
Members of the Inspection Party
  • 營將一* (1 camp commander)
    .
  • 倭學一名 (1 Japanese Interpreter)
    .
  • 軍官二名 (2 Military Officers)
    .
  • 營吏一名 (1 petty official)
    .
  • 吏*一名
    .
  • 庫子一名 (1 supply clerk)
    .
  • 軍牢二名 (2 military police)
    .
  • 都*一名

5 comments:

  1. Gerry,

    "Small Shield Island" (少干島). HERE is another Inspector's map of Ulleungdo, quite similar to the map above, that actually uses the labels the 大干島 and 少干島."

    Two “少” in above sentence should be “小”.

    And your two theory of why 大于島 and 小干島 were labelled as it was is very interesting, though I think we need more resources to decide the true reason of the names.

    Anyway, good job and thank you for posting. Those lists of the place names, products which inspector brought back, and members of the inspection group are very important to understand the history of Ulleundo. I hope Korean academics (hopefully Seoul Uni's researche Mr.Lee) will pay more attention to this map.

    ReplyDelete
  2. Thank you, Kaneganese. I have made the corrections.

    Yes, you are right. My explanations for 大于島 and 小干島 are only theories. I presented them only to allow people to consider them.

    There are still a few blanks on the map that I would like to see filled in, but maybe we will be able to figure them out over time.

    By the way, when the Samcheok Museum was asked if a date or anything was written on the back of the map, the museum said HERE that they could not view the back because they had received the map already framed.

    I have a feeling that something is written on the back of the map since it appears to have been folded in half with the map and product list facing each other, as can be seen by the smears from the map half onto the product page half. However, we may never know since the museum would probably not want to risk damaging the map just to see the back.

    ReplyDelete
  3. Anyone,do you know how to read original 江原道關草?or need to go seoul?

    江原道關草 / 1-3 議政府 記錄局(朝鮮) 編 1886
    江原道關草 / 奎 18074-v.1-3 議政府 記錄局(朝鮮) 編 [19世紀 末(高宗23-32年:1886-1895)]
    江原道關草 議政府 記錄局(朝鮮) 編

    There hits "江原道關草" on Korea hitory on Line
    (Imput:鬱陵島/捜討)

    1892.07.10 Ulluengdo report failed.
    越松萬戶가 이르기를‚ 鬱陵島搜討使가 馳報하였는데‚ 島內의 新舊戶와 남녀인구 및 墾田의 斗落 成冊이 모두 漂失되어 修上할 수 없어 惶悚하오며‚ 進上物種도 올해는 封進할 수 없다는 報告.

    1893.03.10 Ulluengdo inspection prepare again.
    鬱陵島를 搜討할 때 船隻과 格軍은 慶尙道 남해안의 각읍에 卜定하고 都會는 寧海府에서 專管하여 거행해왔으므로‚ 선척과 격군을 며칠 안으로 갖추어 보내라고 寧海府에 관칙하여 國役을 奉行하게 해달라는 報告.

    1893.03.12 They ordered Ulluengdo inspection to 趙鐘成.
    上諭를 받들어 平海郡守 趙鐘成으로 하여금 鬱陵島로 가서 情形을 檢察하게 하였으니 越松萬戶가 섬에 들어가서 搜討하는 일은 그만두는 것이 사리에 합당하므로‚ 關飭이 도착하는 즉시 越松萬戶에게 飛飭하여 疊派하지 않게 하라는 關文.

    1893.09.20 They reported the result of Ulluengdo inspection and bring local products and maps.
    平海에서 鬱陵島를 搜討한 후 바친 圖形 1本과 紫檀香 元封 2吐‚ 加封 10吐‚ 靑竹 3介‚ 石間朱 6升‚ 可支魚皮 2領을 監封하여 內務府에 上送하였고‚ 民戶 및 墾田의 成冊도 수정하여 올려보낸다는 報告.

    I hope there discovered new map on 1893.09.20

    ReplyDelete
  4. "주요 내용 및 비고 閱覽不可" ?

    Mmmm... interesting. Could be the copy of one of the official maps by inspectors?

    ReplyDelete