竹島問題の歴史

7.10.07

Did the 1899 "Joseon Seaways Directory" Mention "Dokdo"?

Below is a screenshot from a Web site called "Cyber Dokdo History Hall," which is a product of Korea's famed "Northeast Asian History Foundation" (NAHF), the same group that said that 海長竹 meant "long bamboo along the coastline." (See HERE.) Anyway, if you look at the screenshot, you will notice that it says that the document comes from the "Joseon Sea Lanes Directory, Second Revised Edition (1899)" [조선수로지 제2 개판 (1899)]. Even though I do not read Japanese, the document does seem to say that Liancourt Rocks was written as "獨島" (Dokdo) by Koreans, but was the document in the screenshot from the 1899 edition of the "Joseon Sea Lanes Directory" or from the 1907 edition?



The "Cyber Dokdo History Hall" Web site claims the following about the above document:

"이를 통해 당시 정부가 독도를 우리 영토로 분명히 인지하고 있었음을 잘 알 수 있다. "

"Through this document we can know that the [Japanese] government at the time clearly recognized Dokdo as our land."

One of the problems with that claim is that the document does not say that "Dokdo was Korean land." It says that Koreans wrote it as "Dokdo." Another problem with the claim is that the document was not an 1899 document, as the site claims, but a 1907 document. You can get a hint of this by looking at the name the Japanese used to refer to Liancourt Rocks--"竹島"--which was not used by the Japanese to refer to Liancourt Rocks until 1905, the year they incorporated the rocks.

According to Hanmaumy's Web site, HERE, the following is what was really written in the 1899 edition of the "Joseon Sea Lanes Directory":
リアンコ-ルト列岩

此列岩ハ洋紀一八四九年佛國船‘リアンコ-ルト’初テ之ヲ發見シ稱呼ヲ其船名ニ取ル其後一八五四年露國‘フレガット’形艦‘パラス’ハ此列岩ヲメナライ及ヲリヴツァ列岩ト名ツケ一八五五年英艦‘ホル子ット’ハ此列岩ヲ探險シテ‘ホル子ット’列島ト名ツケリ該艦長フォルシィスノ言ニ據レハ此列岩ハ北緯三七度一四分東經一三一度五五分ノ處ニ位スル二座ノ不毛岩嶼ニシテ鳥糞常ニ嶼上ニ堆積シ嶼色爲メニ白シ而シテ北西?西至南東?東ノ長サ約一里二嶼ノ間距離約二?半ニシテ見タル所一礁脈アリテ之ヲ連結ス○西嶼ハ海面上高サ約四一◦ 呎ニシテ其形棒糖ノ如シ東嶼ハ較低クシテ平頂ナリ○此列岩附近ハ水頗深キカ如シト雖其位置ハ實ニ函館ニ向テ日本海ヲ航行スル船舶ノ直水道ニ當レルヲ以テ頗危險ナリトス
By the way, I believe the above Japanese was a direct translation from the 1873 edition of the British publication, "China Sea Directory," in which the following was written :

Liancourt Rocks

LIANCOURT ROCKS are named after the French ship Liancourt, which discovered them in 1849; they were also called Menalai and Olivutsa rocks by the Russian frigate Pallas in 1854, and Hornet islands by H.M.S. Hornet in 1855. Captain Forsyth, of the latter vessel, gives their position as lat. 37°14′N. long. 131°55′E., and describes them as being two barren rocky islets, covered with guano, which makes them appear white; they are about a mile in extent N.W. by W. and S.E. by E., a quarter of a mile apart, and apparently joined together by a reef. The western islet, elevated about 410 feet above the sea, has a sugar-loaf form; the easternmost is much lower and flat-topped. The water appeared deep close-to, but they are dangerous from their position, being directly in the track of vessels steering up the Sea of Japan for Hakodate.

[Korean Translation]

리앙코르드列岩

이 열암(列岩)은 서기 1849년 프랑스 함선 ‘리앙코르드’號가 처음으로 이를 발견하여 함선의 이름(船名)을 취해서 리앙꼬루도列岩이라고 이름 붙였다. 그 후 1854년 러시아 프레가트型 함선 ‘팔라스’號는 이 列岩을 마날라이 및 오리우사列岩이라고 칭하였다. 1855년 영국함선(英艦 )호르넷드호(號)는 이 열암(列岩)을 探險하여 호르넷드列岩이라고 이름 붙였으며, 함장 홀시스노의 말에 의거하면 이 列岩은 북위 37도 14분, 동경 131도 55분에 위치하는 두 개의 불모의 바위섬으로서 鳥糞이 항상 섬 위에 堆積하여 섬의 색이 이 때문에 하얗다. 北西微西로부터 南東微東에 이르는 길이는 약 1里이고 두 섬간의 거리는 0.25里로서 보이는 곳에 一礁脈이 있어 이를 연결한다. 西嶼는 해면으로부터 높이가 약 410?으로서 형상은 糖塔과 비슷하다. 東嶼는 이에 비교해 낮고 평평한 頂上으로 되어 있다. 이 列岩 부근의 수심은 상당히 깊을지라도 그 위치는 函館을 향하여 日本海(東海-인용자)를 항해하는 선박의 直水道에 當하므로 상당히 위험한 것이다.

Notice that the name "獨島" (Dokdo) was not mentioned in the 1899 directory, most likely because Koreans still did not know of Liancourt Rocks at the time. The page on the "Cyber Dokdo History Hall" Web site was not from the 1899 edition, as it claims, but was from the 1907 edition, which was two years after the Japanese incorporated Liancourt Rocks and changed the name to "Takeshima" (竹島). By that time, Japanese fishermen had introduced Koreans to Liancourt Rocks and had informed the Korean government, as well.

By the way, you may notice in the above translation that Matsushima was not mentioned as being a part of Liancourt Rocks history. I think that was because the Japanese just translated directly from the 1873 edition of the "China Sea Directory, Vol. 4," which was published by the British Admiralty Hydrographic Department. At that time, the Bristish believed Matsushima to be "Dagelet Island." Here is the full text of the relevant portion from Chapter 3 of the 1873 edition of the "China Sea Directory":

LIANCOURT ROCKS are named after the French ship Liancourt, which discovered them in 1849; they were also called Menalai and Olivutsa rocks by the Russian frigate Pallas in 1854, and Hornet islands by H.M.S. Hornet in 1855. Captain Forsyth, of the latter vessel, gives their position as lat. 37°14′N. long. 131°55′E., and describes them as being two barren rocky islets, covered with guano, which makes them appear white; they are about a mile in extent N.W. by W. and S.E. by E., a quarter of a mile apart, and apparently joined together by a reef. The western islet, elevated about 410 feet above the sea, has a sugar-loaf form; the easternmost is much lower and flat-topped. The water appeared deep close-to, but they are dangerous from their position, being directly in the track of vessels steering up the Sea of Japan for Hakodate.

MATU SIMA, or Dagelet island, is a collection of sharp conical hills, well clothed with wood, supporting an imposing peak in the centre, in lat. 37°30′N., long. 130°53′E. It is 18 miles in circumference, and in shape approximates a semicircle, the northern side, its diameter, running nearly E. by N. and W. by S. 6.25 miles. From each end the coast trends rather abruptly to the southward, curving gradually to the east and west, with several slight sinuosities until meeting at Seal Point, the south extreme of the island, off which is a small rock. There are several detached rocks along its shores, principally, however, on the north and east sides, some reaching an elevation of 400 to 500 feet. They are all, like the island, steep-to, and the lead affords no warning, but none of them are more than a quarter of a mile from the cliffs, except the Boussole rock, the largest, which is 7 cables from the east shore of the island. Hole rock on the north shore is remarkable, from having a large hole, or rather a natural archway through it, while nearly abreast it on the shore is a smooth but very steep sugar-loaf hill, apparently of bare granite, about 800 feet high. The sides of the island are so steep, that soundings could only be obtained by the Actaeon's boats, almost at the base of the cliffs, while in the ship at 4 miles to the southward no bottom could be found at 400 fathoms, and 2.25 miles north none at 366 fathoms. Landing may be effected in fine weather, with difficulty, on some small shingly beaches, which occur at intervals, but the greater part of the island is quite inaccessible. During the spring and summer months some Koreans reside on the island, and build junks which they take across to the mainland; they also collect and dry large quantities of shell-fish. Except a few iron clamps, their boats are all wood-fastened, and they do not appear to appreciate the value of seasoned timber, as they invariably use quite green wood.

According to THIS WEB PAGE, the above description of Liancourt Rocks was almost the same as that in the 1861 edition of "China Pilot," and says that the description of Ulleungdo was almost the same as that in the 1864 edition of the same publication. It also says that from "this point" (1873?), the name "Argonaut Island" completely disappeared.

I do not know if the "Cyber Dokdo History Hall" Web site made an innocent error or if it was intentional, but judging from past experience, I am leaning toward the latter.

By the way, for fun, you might want to visit the site's "Old Maps" section and try to find a map of Dokdo or even Ulleungdo. Am I the only one who thinks that the "Old Map" section of a "Dokdo History" Web site should have maps of Dokdo or even the island they claim to be Dokdo?

11 comments:

  1. Gerry,

    This text says that "Koreans wite this (Liancourt rocks) as Dokto" but the explanation is misleading. Because the explanation under the text says it was written in 1899, but at the beginning of the Japanese text it clearly reads "the 40th year of Meiji (明治四十年)" which means 1907.

    And Japanese had never called Liancourt rocks as Takeshima before the incorporation in 1905, but the text says "Takeshima (Liancourt rocks)".

    It is apparent that the text was written after the incorporation, but to add the false year 1899 may have made prudent Korean people believe that Koreans used the name Dokdo even in the 19th century but it's not true.

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  2. Correction:

    "Koreans wite this (Liancourt rocks) as Dokto"

    SHOULD BE:

    "Koreans write this (Liancourt rocks) as Dokdo"

    Sorry.

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  3. Pacifist,

    You are right. I did the research this morning and added to my post. Please check it out because I found something you might find interesting.

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  4. not anonymous7/10/07 16:38

    Gerry, the reference you included is yet another reference that shows the Koreans who voyaged to Ulleungdo were not landlocked farmers as Japanese Takeshima lobbyists have mislead the public to believe.

    As you've now read Koreans were sailing annually to and from Ulleungdo independent of Japanese influence for about 40 years before Liancourt was seized by expansionist Japan during the Russo~Japanese war.

    These Koreans came from Chollanamdo's Geomundo, Chodo, and Nagan regions which are about 550 kms away from Ulleungdo. I don't believe they sat around on Ulleungdo and drank cocktails. These people were mariners and would have lived as they did on their home islands which would have included subsistence fishing to supplement their diets. Their lifestyle involved also building boats again illustrating they were skilled mariners. These same activities by Koreans were also recorded by Lee Gyuwon when he surveyed Ulleungdo in 1882. The boats they build were described as "junks" which are a sailing vessel not "rafts" as others on this forum have stated.

    Here is a map showing how far Koreans sailed to Ulleungdo every year.

    Korean annual voyage

    So knowing the Koreans were building boats and sailing to, from and around the waters of Ulleungdo for at least 40 years before 1900 how logical are Japanese Takeshima lobbyists claims Koreans were not cognizant of Liancourt Rocks? Especially when you consider Dokdo is visible from Ulleungdo.

    You also left out anther important part of this document my version was from 1864. The rest of this report states.

    "Argonaut Island in June 1859 the ship Acteon passed over the position given to Argonaut as nearly as want from observations, it was impossible to judge, the weather was thick but a radius of five miles at least could be commanded and nothing was seen. This island has been searched for by both French and Russian ships fo war but not has been found. whalers also ignore its existence it may therefore be expunged from the charts. Its supposed discoverers, probably owing to currents were much out of their reckoning and sighting Dagelet (Ulleungdo) re-named it..."

    As I've mentioned before the Japanese Navy were religiously citing western (British) maps during this time and were well aware Argonaut didn't exist long before 1870. So it's not a fair assumption to say the Japanese were totally confused in documents that state Takeshima and Matsushima were Chosun territory. About a decade before, the Russians, Brits, French and civilian whalers declared Argonaut Island fictitious.

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  5. Gerry,

    The re-written text is right.

    I'm interested in the British publication - as you wrote, it seems that they translated it for the first version of the book, and updated it in 1907 adding what Koreans call Takeshima (Liancourt rocks).

    It is unfair to use the 1907 book to make people believe that "Japan clearly admitted Dokdo to be Korean territory" - this is almost a crime.

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  6. toadface,

    Stop lying aroud. The map you showed was made in 1911 (the 44th year of Meiji), Korea was already annexed and Japanese ships made voyages to and fro over Japan Sea.

    But before that, Korean people in Ulleungdo had no own ships.

    Please look at this:
    http://dokdo-or-takeshima.blogspot.com/2007/06/what-does-it-say-about.html

    The 1902 report says that
    "there is absolutely no (Korean) transportation between the island and the Korean mainland",
    It also says that there were no Korean fishermen in Ulleungdo and Korean people came "each year from Samdo (三島) in Cholla Province (全羅道) to collect the brown seaweed (wakame) which grows thickly on the seashore".

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  7. not anonymous7/10/07 18:17

    Pacifist are you calling me a liar??

    The map I posted was only for reference because it had Hanja-Kanji characters. I didn't use it as proof of Korean esatablished sea routes.

    The Japanese 1902 report on Ulleungdo you have already posted on this forum recorded that many people from Samdo (Geomundo) came to gather seaweed on Ulleungdo.

    The diary of Leegyuwon records Koreans on Ulleungdo building boats on Ulluengdo and this was in 1882. Leegyuwon recorded these people were from Samdo (Geumundo, Chodo and Nagan) Chollanamdo. He also recorded them sailing away from Dodong toward the South.

    Here is how far the Koreans journeyed to Ulleungdo at will every year. It's over 500 kms.

    Geomundo-Chodo

    The 1864 UK report on Ulleungdo also reports these Koreans were building junks (sailboats) not rafts on Ulleungdo Island about 40 years before Japan annexed Liancourt Rocks. How silly it is to state Koreans knew nothing of Liancourt when they sailed around Ulleungdo, built boats, fished and brushed elbows with the Japanese on a daily basis for decades before 1905.

    Even with the few documents of Korean activities on Ulleungdo that exist, we can disregard Japanese Takeshima lobbyists claims that Koreans were dull-witted landlubbers.


    Geomundo

    BTW Pacifist the report says: "There were only a few Koreans who engaged in fishing" It does not say there were no fishermen... So really what we have here is confirmation there were indeed Koreans fishing off of Ulleungdo in the late 19th Century. Again the translations on this forum more often than not support Koreas claim to Dokdo than Japan's.

    Translation
    Keep the translations coming guys they are a real help in support to Korea's claim to Dokdo and we really appreciate it!

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  8. Non-Anonymous (Steve Barber):

    Maybe you should read our translations little more carefully. The 1902 Japanese Document said the following:

    There are absolutely no Korean fishermen on the island, but many do come each year from Samdo (三島) in Cholla Province (全羅道) to collect the brown seaweed (wakame) which grows thickly on the seashore. [Samdo (三島) was present-day Keomundo (巨文島).

    The document also said the following:

    Since there is absolutely no (Korean) transportation between the island and the Korean mainland, Korean residents on the island hire Japanese ships to come to the island, but it is only two or three times a year. Even though about twenty (Korean) ships from Samdo (三島) in Cholla Province (全羅道) come to the island to collect the brown seaweed (wakame) in the winter, they all return to the mainland fully loaded (without passengers). Other than those ships (from mainland), there is no one who owns a ship adquate enough to make the voyage.

    Notice that it said there were "absolutely no Korean fishermen" on Ulleungdo in 1902, but that about twenty ships came from the Cholla region in the winter to collect seaweed. Notice also that it said Koreans had to hire Japanese ships to travel to the Korean mainland because there was no one who owned a ship that could make the voyage.

    There are no documents or maps--Korean, Japanese, or otherwise--that support your claim that Koreans traveled to Liancourt Rocks before 1905 on any ships other than Japanese.

    Steve, maybe you should start practicing what you preach and use historical documents to support your claims instead of just your imagination.

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  9. toadface,

    How the people from Samdo went to Ulleungdo is not known. They may have walked to the adequate place to hire a ship, or they may have used their own boat from the beginning.

    But if they used a boat or a ship, it was a coastal trip until the east coast of the peninsula which was quite different from the ocean navigation. The problem was to go on the ocean from the peninsula.

    They had to wait until the right time when the wind was right, but if the wind was too high they should have been blown to other places.

    It has been widely known that it was dangerous for Korean people to make a voyage to Ulleungdo, some met a disaster, some met a pirate ship, some lost their way and drifted.

    They could make a safer voyage in modern times with steam boats. But in the early 1900's, Korean people didn't have steam boats, so they had to hire a Japanese steam boat to go to Ulleungdo as the 1902 report shows.

    And toadface, the 1902 report clearly wrote that "There are absolutely no Korean fishermen on the island"(韓人漁夫ハ皆無ノ有様ナレトモ). toadface, "皆無" means "absolutely no".

    BTW, the 1902 report was uploaded by Kaneganese, not me.

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  10. not anonymous7/10/07 23:59

    Pacifist Geomundo is not a coastal island. It is far from the Korean mainland (40kms at least)., even if they hugged the Korean coast at the start of their journey the would still have to brave the 2 day 130 km journey across the East Sea to Ulleungdo. These people needed their boats to take what they harvested home from Ulleungdo. Again these people were experienced islanders and mariners not farmers.

    Unlike the Japanese, Koreans didn't need to wait for favourable winds to go to Ulleungdo. The winds generally blow from West to East on the East Sea. Going home would be a different story. That's probably why Ulleungdo's West shore had a place where the Koreans waited for the winds to blow.

    Gerry, I've given you two historical references that state Koreans travelled to Ulleungdo by boat. These people were islanders Gerry, use your head. Geomundo island is about 40kms from the nearest Korean landfall sailing to Ulleungdo for these people was no problem.

    Gerry, I've read your translation of the article but it seems you didn't quote the part that mentioned there were some Koreans fishing on Ulleungdo:

    "...Every year since then, many people immigrated from four provinces: Gangwon (江原), Gyeongsang (慶尚), Hamgyeong (咸鏡), and Cholla (全羅). Their homes were scattered, and they cultivated the land in earnest, engaging wholly in farming. There are only a few who engaged in fishing...."

    So you see there were some Koreans who did engage in fishing, just not many.

    There are also records of Koreans building boats in Takao Kenzo's 1899 report on Ulleungdo. But early European records really destroy Japanese Takeshima lobbyists assertions that Koreans were landlocked.

    In the year 1787 when French Explorer La Pérouse discovered Dagelet (Ulleungdo) on May 27th he cleary recorded Korean involvement on Ulleungdo. He said he saw Koreans constructing boats (Chinese style junks) on both the Northeast and West sides of Ulleungdo Island. Most of the Koreans ran and hid in the forest when they saw the French. He stated Korean carpenters came to the island from the Korean mainland in the summer with provisions and built Chinese boats. La theorized they were selling the boats but wasn't sure.

    So it seems Koreans were voyaging on Ulleungdo annually and building boats there for well over a century before the Japanese annexed Dokdo. The Japanese theory that Koreans needed to use Japanese boats to get to Ulleungdo is complete nonsense as I've clearly shown. Koreans had the ability to sail to, from and around Ulleungdo at will, and they did.

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  11. One of the problems with that claim is that the document does not say, "Dokdo was Korean land." It says that Koreans wrote it as "Dokdo."
    This is seriously wrong. What kind of people in "Northeast Asian History Foundation", by the way? Apparently, it is impossible to be a decent historian's remarks, anyway,

    By the way, if this directory was really from 1899 edition, then it may be a bad case for Korea since it kills the Korean theory that 石島 in Ordinance 41, 1900 was Liancourt Rocks. I don't understand what they actually want to do by posing only one part of the wrong edition of the directory. I think if you lie about one thing, it affects one another and you cannot entangle the chaos in the end. It only leaves people that the person is a liar and not trustworthy. Mentioning the name of the islands in the Seaways Directory doesn't mean Japanese recognized it is inside Korean territory in the first place.

    Toadface,
    Nobody denies Korean squatters came and went back by boats between mainland and Ulleundo even before the Lee dynasty allow them to live, but not Ulleundo and Takeshima/Liancourt Rocks. And the so-called fishermen from mainland were only collecting seaweeds and probably abalones or shellfishes around the coast of the island. Ulleundo was bigger and much more fertile in marine products than Takeshima/Liancourt Rocks. It is natural that Korean fishermen from mainland didn't even think of going further than Ulluendo risking their lives only to collect seaweeds. Even Oya and Murakawa clan ships were shipwrecked by strong winds in the Sea of Japan many times not to mention of Choson official ships. It was very dangerous to go to fish in the outer sea.

    Korean so-called fishermen from mainland also built the ships to load the seaweeds they collected on the island since there were not many timbers available on mainland of Korea anymore. They couldn't offer the transportation to the residents on Ulleundo because there was no space for them. That is why Korean residents who are heavily farming centered and had no proper boat to even go back to mainland needed to hire Japanese ships.

    1902 Trade Documents by MOFA
    "(Korean) people immigrated from four provinces: ...Their homes were scattered, and they cultivated the land in earnest, engaging wholly in farming."
    "There are absolutely no Korean fishermen on the island, but many do come each year from Samdo (三島) in Cholla Province (全羅道) to collect the brown seaweed (wakame) which grows thickly on the seashore. [Samdo (三島) was present-day Keomundo (巨文島).]"
    "Even though about twenty (Korean) ships from Samdo (三島) in Cholla Province (全羅道) come to the island to collect the brown seaweed (wakame) in the winter, they all return to the mainland fully loaded (without passengers). Other than those ships (from mainland), there is no one who owns a ship adquate enough to make the voyage. "

    ReplyDelete